Extensively revised and expanded in this fourth edition,Exploring Philosophy: An Introductory Anthologyis a uniquely accessible and engaging introduction to philosophy. Steven M. Cahn brings together exceptionally clear recent essays by noted philosophers and supplements them with influential historical sources. Most importantly, the articles have been carefully edited to make them understandable to every reader. The topics are drawn from across the major fields of philosophy and include knowledge and skepticism, mind and body, freedom and determinism, the existence of God, identity and immortality, ethical reasoning, abortion, euthanasia, world hunger, democracy, social justice, art, and life and death. The readings are enhanced by concise introductions, study questions, explanatory notes, and suggestions for further reading. NEW TO THE FOURTH EDITION: * More than fifty new readingsgreatly expand the book's coverage and its flexibility for course use * More than half of the new readings are "Historical Sources,"which introduce students to philosophical classics and help them understand the contemporary selections * Four new sections--Identity and Immortality, Social Justice, Art, and Life and Death--extend the anthology's range into areas that today's students find especially compelling * Study Questionsafter each reading help students test their comprehension and encourage class discussion SUPPORT PACKAGE OFFERED FOR THE FIRST TIME WITH THIS EDITION: * An Instructor's Manualfeatures PowerPoint-based lecture outlines, reading summaries, a glossary, and a Test Bank of objective and essay questions * A Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/cahncontains all the material from the Instructor's Manual along with student resources including self-test questions, suggested readings, and helpful links
Steven M. Cahn is Professor of Philosophy at The City University of New York Graduate Center.
Table of Contents
*=New to this edition Preface 1. INTRODUCTION What is Philosophy?, Monroe C. Beardsley and Elizabeth Lane Beardsley Historical Source Defence of Socrates, Plato 2. REASONING The Scope of Logic, Wesley C. Salmon Improving Your Thinking, Stephen F. Barker Fixing Belief, Morris R. Cohen and Ernest Nagel Scientific Inquiry, Carl G. Hempel 3. KNOWLEDGE What Is Knowledge?, A. J. Ayer Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?, Edmund L. Gettier * Conditions for Knowledge, Robert Nozick Appearance and Reality, Bertrand Russell What Can I Know?, D. Z. Phillips The Problem of Induction, Bertrand Russell * Induction Without a Problem, P. F. Strawson Historical Sources Meditations on First Philosophy, René Descartes * An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, John Locke * A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, George Berkeley An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, David Hume * Critique of Pure Reason, Immanuel Kant 4. MIND The Ghost in the Machine, Gilbert Ryle The Mind as a Function of the Body, Richard Taylor What Is It Like to Be a Bat?, Thomas Nagel * Knowing What It's Like, David Lewis Computing Machinery and Intelligence, Alan Turing Do Computers Think?, John Searle Historical Source Meditations on First Philosophy, René Descartes 5. FREE WILL Free Will, Thomas Nagel * Free Will and Determinism, W. T. Stace Free Will or Determinism?, Steven M. Cahn The Principle of Alternative Possibilities, Harry Frankfurt * The Capacities of Agents, Neil Levy Historical Sources An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, David Hume * The Dilemma of Determinism, William James 6. GOD * Does God Exist?, Ernest Nagel Why God Allows Evil, Richard Swinburne Theology and Falsification, Antony Flew and Basil Mitchell Pascal's Wager, Simon Blackburn * Faith and Reason, Michael Scriven The Hiddenness of God, Robert McKim Historical Sources * Euthyphro, Plato * The Ontological Argument, Anselm and Gaunilo * Meditations on First Philosophy, René Descartes * Critique of Pure Reason, Immanuel Kant Summa Theologiae, Thomas Aquinas * Natural Theology, William Paley * Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, David Hume * The Wager, Blaise Pascal * The Ethics of Belief, W. K. Clifford * The Will to Believe, William James * Religion Without God, Steven M. Cahn * 7. IDENTITY AND IMMORTALITY * A Case of Identity, Brian Smart * The Problem of Personal Identity, John Perry * Resurrection, John H. Hick * Heaven and Hell, Steven M. Cahn * Life After Death, Terence Penelhum * Do We Need Immortality?, Grace M. Jantzen Historical Sources * An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, John Locke * A Treatise of Human Nature, David Hume * Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man, Thomas Reid 8. MORAL THEORY The Challenge of Cultural Relativism, James Rachels How Not to Answer Moral Questions, Tom Regan * Kant's Ethics, Onora O'Neill * Assessing Utilitarianism, Louis P. Pojman A Supreme Moral Principle?, Steven M. Cahn Virtue Ethics, Bernard Mayo The Ethics of Care, Virginia Held Happiness and Morality, Christine Vitrano Historical Sources Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, Immanuel Kant Utilitarianism, John Stuart Mill * Beyond Good and Evil, Friedrich Nietzsche * Existentialism, Jean-Paul Sartre 9. MORAL PROBLEMS A Defense of Abortion, Judith Jarvis Thomson Why Abortion Is Immoral, Don Marquis Active and Passive Euthanasia, James Rachels Active and Passive Euthanasia: A Reply to Rachels, Thomas D. Sullivan Famine, Affluence, and Morality, Peter Singer World Hunger and Moral Obligation: The Case Against Singer, John Arthur 10. SOCIETY Democracy, John Dewey What Is a Liberal Education?, Sidney Hook Letter from a Birmingham Jail, Martin Luther King, Jr. Political Action: The Problem of Dirty Hands, Michael Walzer Historical Sources Crito, Plato On Liberty, John Stuart Mill * 11. SOCIAL JUSTICE * A Theory of Justice, John Rawls * Distributive Justice, Robert Nozick * The Idea of Justice, Amartya Sen * Non-Contractual Society: A Feminist View, Virginia Held Historical Sources * The Republic, Plato * Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes * Second Treatise of Government, John Locke * Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, Karl Marx * 12. ART * The Role of Theory in Aesthetics, Morris Weitz * Interpreting Poetry, Charles L. Stevenson * Fearing Fictions, Kendall Walton Historical Sources * The Republic, Plato * Poetics, Aristotle * 13. LIFE AND DEATH The Meaning of Life, Richard Taylor * Meaning in Life, Susan Wolf * Meaningless Lives?, Steven M. Cahn * Death, Thomas Nagel Historical Sources Phaedo, Plato * Writings, Epicurus * The Handbook, Epictetus 14. THE VALUE OF PHILOSOPHY The Value of Philosophy, Bertrand Russell * The Republic, Plato Suggestions for Further Reading Index