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Exploring Psychology,9780716715443

Exploring Psychology

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780716715443

ISBN10:
0716715449
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
4/2/2004
Publisher(s):
Worth Pub
List Price: $105.80

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Summary

Through five editions of this bestselling brief text, David Myers has introduced psychology to millions of students. As always, the author's exceptionally communicative writing style and integrated use of the SQ3R learning system (Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review) make the text supremely engaging and understandable. The new edition of "Exploring Psychology offers a wealth of cutting-edge research and content from the most dynamic and burgeoning areas of the field--cognition, gender and diversity studies, neuroscience, industrial/organizational psychology, and more. In addition, a spectacular media-powered supplements package makes the "Sixth Edition the most compelling, effective, concise psychology textbook available.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
chapter 1 Thinking Critically With Psychological Science 1(36)
What Is Psychology?
1(10)
Psychology's Roots
1(6)
Contemporary Psychology
7(4)
Why Do Psychology?
11(4)
What About Intuition and Common Sense?
11(2)
The Scientific Attitude
13(1)
Critical Thinking
14(1)
How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions?
15(12)
The Scientific Method
15(1)
Description
16(3)
Correlation
19(4)
Thinking Critically About: Hot and Cold Streaks in Basketball and the Stock Market
23(1)
Experimentation
24(3)
Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology
27(4)
Tips for Studying Psychology
31(6)
chapter 2 Neuroscience and Behavior 37(32)
Neural Communication
38(5)
Neurons
38(1)
How Neurons Communicate
39(1)
How Neurotransmitters Influence Us
40(3)
The Nervous System
43(3)
The Peripheral Nervous System
44(1)
The Central Nervous System
45(1)
The Brain
46(12)
Lower-Level Brain Structures
46(2)
Close-Up: The Tools of Discovery
48(4)
The Cerebral Cortex
52(6)
Brain Reorganization
58(5)
Our Ever-Changing Brain
58(1)
Our Divided Brain
59(4)
The Endocrine System
63(6)
chapter 3 The Nature and Nurture of Behavior 69(30)
Genes: Our Biological Blueprint
69(1)
Evolutionary Psychology: Maximizing Fitness
70(5)
Natural Selection
71(1)
Sexuality
72(3)
Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences
75(7)
Twin Studies
76(2)
Adoption Studies
78(1)
Temperament Studies
79(1)
Group Differences
80(1)
Nature Enables Nurture
80(1)
Gene-Environment Interaction
80(2)
Environmental Influence
82(8)
How Much Credit (or Blame) Do Parents Deserve?
82(1)
Prenatal Environment
83(1)
Experience and Brain Development
83(2)
Peer Influence
85(1)
Culture
86(4)
The Nature and Nurture of Gender
90(3)
The Nature of Gender
90(1)
The Nurture of Gender
90(3)
Postscript: Reflections on Nature and Nurture
93(6)
chapter 4 The Developing Person 99(42)
Prenatal Development and the Newborn
99(4)
Conception
99(1)
Prenatal Development
100(1)
The Competent Newborn
101(1)
Close-Up: How Do We Know What Infants See and Remember?
102(1)
Infancy and Childhood
103(12)
Physical Development
103(1)
Cognitive Development
104(6)
Social Development
110(5)
Adolescence
115(9)
Physical Development
115(2)
Cognitive Development
117(2)
Social Development
119(5)
Adulthood
124(10)
Physical Development
124(2)
Cognitive Development
126(3)
Social Development
129(5)
Reflections on Two Major Developmental Issues
134(7)
Continuity and Stages
134(1)
Stability and Change
135(6)
chapter 5 Sensation and Perception 141(46)
Sensing the World: Some Basic Principles
142(4)
Thresholds
142(3)
Sensory Adaptation
145(1)
Vision
146(10)
The Stimulus Input: Light Energy
146(1)
The Eye
147(3)
Visual Information Processing
150(3)
Color Vision
153(3)
The Other Senses
156(9)
Hearing
156(3)
Touch
159(1)
Pain
159(3)
Taste
162(1)
Smell
162(2)
Body Position and Movement
164(1)
Perceptual Organization
165(10)
Form Perception
166(1)
Depth Perception
167(5)
Perceptual Constancy
172(3)
Perceptual Interpretation
175(12)
Sensory Deprivation and Restored Vision
175(1)
Perceptual Adaptation
176(1)
Perceptual Set
177(1)
Thinking Critically About: Extrasensory Perception
178(9)
chapter 6 States of Consciousness 187(38)
Waking Consciousness
187(2)
Selective Attention
188(1)
Levels of Information Processing
189(1)
Steep and Dreams
189(14)
Biological Rhythms and Sleep
190(4)
Why Do We Sleep?
194(4)
Sleep Disorders
198(2)
Dreams
200(3)
Hypnosis
203(5)
Facts and Falsehoods
204(2)
Explaining the Hypnotized State
206(2)
Drugs and Consciousness
208(17)
Dependence and Addiction
208(2)
Psychoactive Drugs
210(7)
Influences on Drug Use
217(8)
chapter 7 Learning 225(32)
Classical Conditioning
228(9)
Pavlov's Experiments
228(5)
Updating Pavlov's Understanding
233(2)
Pavlov's Legacy
235(2)
Operant Conditioning
237(11)
Skinner's Experiments
237(6)
Updating Skinner's Understanding
243(2)
Skinner's Legacy
245(2)
Contrasting Conditioning Techniques
247(1)
Learning by Observation
248(9)
Bandura's Experiments
249
Applications of Observational Learning
240(17)
chapter 8 Memory 257(36)
The Phenomenon of Memory
257(3)
Information Processing
258(2)
Encoding: Getting Information In
260(5)
How We Encode
260(2)
What We Encode
262(3)
Storage: Retaining Information
265(7)
Sensory Memory
265(1)
Short-Term Memory
266(1)
Long-Term Memory
267(1)
Storing Memories in the Brain
267(5)
Retrieval: Getting Information Out
272(3)
Retrieval Cues
273(2)
Forgetting
275(6)
Encoding Failure
276(1)
Storage Decay
277(1)
Retrieval Failure
278(3)
Memory Construction
281(6)
Misinformation and Imagination Effects
281(2)
Source Amnesia
283(1)
Children's Eyewitness Recall
284(1)
Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse?
285(2)
Improving Memory
287(6)
chapter 9 Thinking, Language, and Intelligence 293(48)
Thinking
293(9)
Concepts
293(1)
Solving Problems
294(2)
Making Decisions and Forming Judgments
296(2)
Thinking Critically About: Risks-Do We Fear the Right Things?
298(4)
Language
302(13)
Language Development
302(6)
Thinking and Language
308(3)
Animal Thinking and Language
311(4)
Intelligence
315(26)
The Origins of Intelligence Testing
315(2)
What Is Intelligence?
317(5)
Assessing Intelligence
322(2)
Close-Up: Extremes of Intelligence
324(2)
Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence
326(5)
Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores
331(10)
chapter 10 Motivation 341(38)
Motivational Concepts
341(4)
Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology
341(1)
Drives and Incentives
342(1)
Optimum Arousal
343(1)
A Hierarchy of Motives
343(2)
Hunger
345(12)
The Physiology of Hunger
345(3)
The Psychology of Hunger
348(1)
Obesity and Weight Control
349(1)
Close-Up: Eating Disorders
350(6)
Close-Up: Helpful Hints for Losing Weight
356(1)
Sexual Motivation
357(13)
Describing Sexual Behavior
357(1)
The Physiology of Sex
358(2)
The Psychology of Sex
360(1)
Adolescent Sexuality
361(3)
Sexual Orientation
364(5)
Sex and Human Values
369(1)
The Need to Belong
370(3)
Aiding Survival
371(1)
Wanting to Belong
371(1)
Acting to Increase Social Acceptance
371(1)
Maintaining Relationships
371(1)
Fortifying Health
372(1)
Achievement Motivation
373(6)
Identifying Achievement Motivation
373(1)
Sources of Achievement Motivation
374(5)
chapter 11 Emotions, Stress, and Health 379(50)
Theories of Emotion
379(4)
The James-Lange and Cannon-Bard Theories
379(2)
Cognition and Emotion
381(2)
Embodied Emotion
383(4)
Emotion and Physiology
383(2)
The Physiology of Specific Emotions
385(1)
Thinking Critically About: Lie Detection
386(1)
Expressed Emotion
387(6)
Nonverbal Communication
387(3)
Culture and Emotional Expression
390(2)
The Effects of Facial Expressions
392(1)
Experienced Emotion
393(9)
Anger
394(1)
Happiness
395(6)
Close-Up: How to Be Happier
401(1)
Stress and Health
402(12)
Stress and Stressors
402(6)
Stress and the Heart
408(1)
Stress and Susceptibility to Disease
409(5)
Promoting Health
414(15)
Coping With Stress
414(6)
Thinking Critically About: Alternative Medicine-New Ways to Health, or Old Snake Oil?
420(9)
chapter 12 Personality 429(40)
Historic Perspectives on Personality
429(13)
The Psychoanalytic Perspective
429(10)
The Humanistic Perspective
439(3)
Contemporary Research on Personality
442(27)
The Trait Perspective
442(4)
Thinking Critically About: How to Be a "Successful" Astrologer or Palm Reader
446(4)
The Social-Cognitive Perspective
450(4)
Close-Up: Toward a More Positive Psychology
454(2)
Exploring the Self
456(7)
The Modern Unconscious Mind
463(6)
chapter 13 Psychological Disorders 469(38)
Perspectives on Psychological Disorders
470(6)
Defining Psychological Disorders
470(1)
Understanding Psychological Disorders
470(2)
Classifying Psychological Disorders
472(1)
Close-Up: The "unDSM"-A Diagnostic Manual of Human Strengths
473(1)
Labeling Psychological Disorders
473(1)
Thinking Critically About: Insanity and Responsibility
474(2)
Anxiety Disorders
476(6)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder
476(1)
Phobias
477(1)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
478(1)
Explaining Anxiety Disorders
479(1)
Close-Up: The Wounds of War-Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
480(2)
Dissociative and Personality Disorders
482(4)
Dissociative Disorders
482(2)
Personality Disorders
484(2)
Mood Disorders
486(10)
Major Depressive Disorder
486(1)
Bipolar Disorder
487(1)
Explaining Mood Disorders
488(2)
Close-Up: Suicide
490(4)
Close-Up: Loneliness
494(2)
Schizophrenia
496(5)
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
496(1)
Subtypes of Schizophrenia
497(1)
Understanding Schizophrenia
498(3)
Rates of Psychological Disorders
501(6)
chapter 14 Therapy 507(32)
The Psychological Therapies
507(11)
Psychoanalysis
508(2)
Humanistic Therapies
510(2)
Behavior Therapies
512(4)
Cognitive Therapies
516(2)
Group and Family Therapies
518(1)
Evaluating Psychotherapies
519(10)
Is Psychotherapy Effective?
520(3)
The Relative Effectiveness of Different Therapies
523(1)
Evaluating Alternative Therapies
523(3)
Commonalities Among Psychotherapies
526(2)
Close-Up: A Consumer's Guide to Psychotherapists
528(1)
Culture and Values in Psychotherapy
528(1)
The Biomedical Therapies
529(5)
Drug Therapies
529(4)
Electroconvulsive Therapy
533(1)
Psychosurgery
534(1)
Preventing Psychological Disorders
534(5)
chapter 15 Social Psychology 539
Social Thinking
539(6)
Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations
539(2)
Attitudes and Actions
541(4)
Social Influence
545(10)
Conformity and Obedience
545(5)
Group Influence
550(5)
Social Relations
555
Prejudice
555(4)
Aggression
559(6)
Thinking Critically About: Do Video Games Teach or Release Violence?
565(1)
Conflict
566(2)
Attraction
568(5)
Altruism
573(3)
Peacemaking
576
appendix A Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life A-1
Describing Data
A-1
Measures of Central Tendencies
A-1
Measures of Variation
A-3
Correlation: A Measure of Relationships
A-3
Making Inferences
A-6
When Is a Difference Reliable?
A-6
When Is a Difference Significant?
A-7
appendix B Psychology at Work B-1
Personnel Psychology
B-2
Close-Up: I/O Psychology at Work
B-3
Harnessing Strengths
B-3
Close-Up: Discovering Your Strengths
B-4
Do Interviews Predict Performance?
B-5
Appraising Performance
B-7
Organizational Psychology
B-7
Satisfaction and Engagement
B-7
Managing Well
B-9
Human Factors Psychology
B-11
appendix C Answers to Rehearse It and Critical Thinking Questions C-1
Glossary G-1
References R-1
Name Index NI-1
Subject Index SI-1


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