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Exploring Writing: Paragraphs and Essays

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780073371856

ISBN10:
0073371858
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
10/5/2009
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
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This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 10/5/2009.
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Summary

Exploring Writing: Paragraphs and Essaysserves as a guidebook for every step of the writing process. Emphasizing both process and practice, with a focus on revision, the new second edition helps to apply and advance writing skills using John Langan's proven techniques. Mastering essential sentence skills, learning to write effective paragraphs and essays, and becoming a critical reader are turning points for every writer, and they will prepare the students for writing situations in college and beyond.

Table of Contents

EXPLORING WRITING: PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS, 2/e

By John Langan

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE

PART ONE: WRITING: SKILLS AND PROCESS

An Introduction to Writing

Point and Support

An Important Difference between Writing and Talking
Point and Support in a Paragraph

Knowing Your Purpose and Audience

Benefits of Paragraph Writing

Writing as a Skill

Writing as a Process of Discovery

Keeping a Journal

Tips on Using a Computer

Ways to Use a Computer at Each Stage of the Writing Process

Review Activities

The Writing Process

Prewriting

Technique 1: Freewriting
Technique 2: Questioning
Technique 3: Making a List
Technique 4: Clustering
Technique 5: Preparing a Scratch Outline

Writing a First Draft

Writing a First Draft: A Student Model

Revising

Revising Content
Revising Sentences

Editing

An Illustration of the Revising and Editing Processes

Using Peer Review

Identification
Scratch Outline
Comments

Review Activities

Taking a Writing Inventory
Prewriting
Outlining
Revising

PART ONE: A Writer’s Template: Across Disciplines

PART TWO: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE WRITING

The First and Second Steps in Writing

Step 1: Begin with a Point

Identifying Common Errors in Topic Sentences
Understanding the Two Parts of a Topic Sentence
Selecting a Topic Sentence
Writing a Topic Sentence I
Writing a Topic Sentence II

Step 2: Support the Point with Specific Evidence

The Point as an “Umbrella” Idea

Reinforcing Point and Support

The Importance of Specific Details

Recognizing Specific Details I
Recognizing Specific Details II
Providing Supporting Evidence

The Importance of Adequate Details

Identifying Adequate Supporting Evidence
Adding Details to Complete a Paragraph
Writing a Simple Paragraph

The Third Step and Fourth Steps in Writing

Step 3: Organize and Connect the Specific Evidence

Common Methods of Organization: Time Order and Emphatic Order
Transitions
Other Connecting Words

Step 4: Write Clear, Error-Free Sentences

Revising Sentences
Use Parallelism
Use a Consistent Point of View
Use Specific Words
Use Concise Wording
Vary Your Sentences

Editing Sentences

Hints for Editing
A Note on Proofreading

Four Bases for Revising Writing

Base 1: Unity

Understanding Unity
Checking for Unity

Base 2: Support

Understanding Support
Checking for Support

Base 3: Coherence

Understanding Coherence
Checking for Coherence

Base 4: Sentence Skills

Understanding Sentence Skills
Checking for Sentence Skills

Evaluating Paragraphs for All Four Bases: Unity, Support, Coherence, and Sentence

Skills

PART TWO: A Writer’s Template: Across Disciplines

PART THREE: PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT

Exemplification

Paragraphs to Consider

Questions

Developing an Exemplification Paragraph

Development through Prewriting
Development through Revising

Writing an Exemplification Paragraph

Narration

Paragraphs to Consider

Questions

Developing a Narrative Paragraph

Development through Prewriting
Development through Revising

Writing a Narrative Paragraph

Description

Paragraphs to Consider

Questions

Developing a Descriptive Paragraph

Development through Prewriting
Development through Revising

Writing a Descriptive Paragraph

Process

Paragraphs to Consider

Questions

Developing a Process Paragraph

Development through Prewriting
Development through Revising

Writing a Process Paragraph

Cause and Effect

Paragraphs to Consider

Questions

Developing a Cause-and-Effect Paragraph

Development through Prewriting
Development through Revising

Writing a Cause-and-Effect Paragraph

Comparison or Contrast

Paragraphs to Consider

Methods of Development

One Side at a Time
Point by Point

Additional Paragraph to Consider

Questions

Developing a Comparison or Contrast Paragraph

Development through Prewriting
Development through Revising

Writing a Comparison or Contrast Paragraph

Definition

Paragraphs to Consider

Questions

Developing a Definition Paragraph

Development through Prewriting
Development through Revising

Writing a Definition Paragraph

Division-Classification

Paragraphs to Consider

Questions

Developing a Division-Classification Paragraph

Development through Prewriting
Development through Revising

Writing a Division-Classification Paragraph

Argument

Strategies for Arguments

Paragraphs to Consider

Questions

Developing an Argument Paragraph

Development through Prewriting
Development through Revising

Writing an Argument Paragraph

PART THREE: A Writer’s Template: Across Disciplines

PART FOUR: ESSAY DEVELOPMENT

Introduction to Essay Development

What Is an Essay?

Differences Between an Essay and Paragraph

Structure of the Traditional Essay

A Model Essay
Parts of an Essay
Diagram of an Essay

Identifying the Parts of an Essay

Important Considerations in Essay Development

Determining Your Point of View
Doing a Personal Review

Writing the Essay

Step 1: Begin with a Point, or Thesis

Understanding Thesis Statements
Writing a Good Thesis I
Writing a Good Thesis II

Step 2: Support the Thesis with Specific Evidence

The Importance of Specific Details
The Importance of Adequate Details
Adding Details to Complete an Essay

Step 3: Organize and Connect the Specific Evidence

Common Methods of Organization
Transitions
Other Connecting Words
Identifying Transitions and Other Connecting Words

Step 4: Write Clear, Error-Free Sentences

Use Active Verbs
Practice in Revising Sentences

Revising Essays for All Four Bases: Unity, Support, Coherence, and Sentence Skills

Introductions, Conclusions, and Titles

Introductory Paragraph

Functions of the Introduction
Common Methods of Introduction

Concluding Paragraph

Common Methods of Conclusion

Identifying Introductions and Conclusions

Titles

Essay Writing Assignments

Patterns of Essay Development

Developing an Exemplification Essay

Developing a Process Essay

Developing a Cause-and-Effect Essay

Developing a Comparison or Contrast Essay

Developing a Definition Essay

Developing a Division-Classification Essay

Developing a Descriptive Essay

Developing a Narrative Essay

Developing an Argument Essay

Special College Skills

Taking Essay Exams

Step 1: Anticipate Ten Probable Questions
Step 2: Prepare and Memorize an Informal Outline Answer for Each Question
Step 3: Look at the Exam Carefully and Do Several Things
Step 4: Prepare a Brief, Informal Outline before Writing Your Essay Answer
Step 5: Write a Clear, Well-Organized Essay

Writing a Summary

How to Summarize an Article
How to Summarize a Book

Writing a Report

Part 1 of a Report: A Summary of the Work
Part 2 of a Report: Your Reaction to the Work
Points to Keep in Mind When Writing a Report
A Model Report

Writing a Research Paper

Step 1: Select a Topic That You Can Readily Research

Researching at a Local Library
Researching on the Internet

Step 2: Limit Your Topic and Make the Purpose of Your Paper Clear

Step 3: Gather Information on Your Limited Topic

Step 4: Plan Your Paper and Take Notes on Your Limited Topic

Preparing a Scratch Outline
Note-Taking
A Caution about Plagiarism

Step 5: Write the Paper

Step 6: Use an Acceptable Format and Method of Documentation

Model Paper

PART FOUR: A Writer’s Template: Across Disciplines

PART FIVE: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS

GRAMMAR

21.Subjects and Verbs

22.Sentence Sense

23.Fragments

24.Run-Ons

25..Regular and Irregular Verbs

26.Subject-Verb Agreement

27..Additional Information about Verbs

28.Pronoun Agreement and Reference

29.Pronoun Types

30.Adjectives and Adverbs

31.Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers

GRAMMAR EDITING TESTS

MECHANICS

32.Manuscript Form

33.Capital Letters

34.Numbers and Abbreviations

MECHANICS EDITING TESTS

PUNCTUATION

35.Apostrophe

36.Quotation Marks

37.Comma

38.Other Punctuation Marks

PUNCTUATION EDITING TESTS

WORD USE

39.Spelling Improvement

40.Commonly Confused Words

41.Effective Word Choice

42.Combined Editing Tests

43.ESL Pointers

PART FIVE: READINGS FOR WRITING

Introduction to the Readings

Looking Inward

Thank You, Alex Haley
Shame, Dick Gregory
The Professor is a Dropout, Beth Johnson
I Became Her Target, Roger Wilkins
Prison Studies, Malcom X (personal essay) *NEW*
When Broken Glass Floats: Growing Up Under the Khmer Rouge, Chanrithy Him (personal essay) *NEW*
Address by Cesar Chavez, President United Farm Workers of America, AFL-CIO Before Building Industry
*NEW*
Association of Northern California, 11/21/91, San Jose (historical doc) *NEW*

Observing Others

Propaganda Techniques in Today’s Advertising Ann McClintock
This is How We Live, Ellen DeGeneres (book excerpt) *NEW*
Kanye West World, Lola Ogunnaike (magazine article) *NEW*
Start By Sitting Together, Randy Pausch (book excerpt) *NEW*
Inaugural Address of John F. Kennedy (historical doc) *NEW*
Neat People vs. Sloppy People, Suzanne Brit (book excerpt) *NEW*
Petophila, Jon Katz (Web article) *NEW*

Confronting Problems

How to Make It in College, Now That You’re Here, Brian O’Keeney
In Praise of the F Word, Mary Sherry
Is Sex All That Matters?, Joyce Garity
Cyberbullying, Thomas J. Billitteri (information/reports) *NEW*
Why Profiling Won’t Work, William Raspberry (newspaper article) *NEW*
9/11 Commission Report, “Heroism and Horror: Preparedness as of September 11” (information/reports)
*NEW*

APPENDIX: Writing a Resume and Cover Letter

INDEX



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