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For the overwhelming majority of people outside the French-speaking world the Hundred Years War consisted of a sequence of major English victories, above all Crécy, Poitiers and Agincourt. The only significant victor or 'hero' on the French side was Joan of Arc, and she ended up being burned at the stake. Yet somehow the war ended in a French victory and with England's martial energies being turned against itself in the Wars of the Roses. This book is intended to provide some balance. It will describe the campaign that brought the Hundred Years War to a close, with English possessions being confined to Calais and the Channel Islands. It will also explain how the somewhat unprepossessing and unmartial King Charles VII of France succeeded where his predecessors had failed. The campaign consisted of more than battles, of course, but it was marked by two major victories - at Formigny in 1450 and at Castillon in 1453. Formigny is of special interest because it saw French cavalry defeat English archers, in effect a reversal of Crécy, Poitiers and Agincourt, and could be interpreted as one of the last 'medieval' battles. Castillon is of interest because it was a victory of gunpowder artillery in fixed positions over a traditional medieval assault by mixed infantry and cavalry, and thus could be interpreted as one of the first 'modern' battles.
Table of Contents
|Origins of the Campaign||p. 5|
|Opposing Forces||p. 10|
|The reformed French army of Charles VII|
|English armies in the mid-15th century Morale and the rise of nationalism|
|Opposing Commanders||p. 17|
|The Fall of Normandy||p. 22|
|The English invasion|
|From the Grand-Vey to Formigny|
|The battle of Formigny|
|The final collapse in Normandy|
|The Fall of Gascony||p. 42|
|The battle of Castillon|
|The end of English Gascony|
|The impact on France|
|The impact on England|
|Postscript in Calais|
|The Battlefields Today||p. 92|
|Further Reading||p. 93|
|Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.|