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Family Therapy: History, Theory, and Practice

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780130167200

ISBN10:
0130167207
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
PRENTICE HALL
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Summary

This best selling book has been thoroughly updated to reflect a current and in-depth look at the field of family therapy. It retains its unique approach of leading the reader developmentally from understanding how families function to using therapeutic techniques that will help them change. Extremely organized and well written, this edition offers comprehensive coverage of all major theories of family therapy as well as the latest information about associations dedicated to promoting family therapy and means by which therapists can best assist families in entering and being successful in treatment. A popular four-part format organizes content in a logical, developmental format: 1) Understanding Families, 2) Therapeutic Approaches to Working with Families, 3) Special Populations in Family Therapy, and 4) Professional Issues and Research in Family Therapy. For individuals with either a personal or professional interest in marriage and family counseling.

Author Biography

Samuel T. Gladding is professor of counselor education, director of the counselor education program, and the associate provost at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

Table of Contents

PART ONE Understanding Families 1(56)
Individual and Family Life Cycles
3(28)
What Is a Family?
5(1)
Types of Families
6(2)
Individual and Family Development
8(10)
Individual Life Cycle Development
9(1)
Family Life Development
10(8)
Unifying Individual and Family Life Cycles
18(2)
Implications of Life Cycles for Family Therapy
20(4)
Match of Life Cycles Between Family and Therapist
21(1)
Ethnicity and Life Cycles
21(1)
Illness and Life Cycles
22(1)
Poverty, Professionalism, and Life Cycles
22(2)
Summary and Conclusion
24(2)
References
26(5)
Healthy and Dysfunctional Characteristics of Families
31(26)
The Family System and Health
32(2)
Qualities of Healthy Families
34(4)
Commitment
35(1)
Appreciation
35(1)
Willingness to Spend Time Together
35(1)
Effective Communication Patterns
35(1)
Religious/Spiritual Orientation
36(1)
Ability to Deal with Crisis in a Positive Manner
36(1)
Encouragement of Individuals
37(1)
Clear Roles
37(1)
Growth-Producing Structure and Development Patterns
37(1)
Family Life Stressors
38(3)
Expected Life Stressors
39(1)
Unexpected Life Stressors
39(2)
Family Structure and Functionality
41(5)
Symmetrical/Complementary Families
42(1)
Centripetal/Centrifugal Families
42(1)
Cohesion/Adaptability
43(3)
Coping Strategies of Families
46(2)
Implications of Health in Working with Families
48(2)
Strengthening Families Through Enrichment
50(1)
Summary and Conclusion
51(2)
References
53(4)
PART TWO Therapeutic Approaches to Working with Families 57(206)
Rationale and History of Family Therapy
59(26)
The Rationale for Family Therapy
60(1)
Reasons for Working with Families as Opposed to Working with Individuals
61(1)
Family Therapy Through the Decades
62(15)
Family Therapy: Before 1940
62(2)
Family Therapy: 1940 to 1949
64(1)
Family Therapy: 1950 to 1959
64(2)
Family Therapy: 1960 to 1969
66(3)
Family Therapy: 1970 to 1979
69(4)
Family Therapy: 1980 to 1989
73(2)
Family Therapy: 1990 to the Present
75(2)
Summary and Conclusion
77(4)
References
81(4)
The Process of Family Therapy
85(30)
The Personhood of Family Therapists
86(1)
Common Problems of Beginning Family Therapists
87(5)
Overemphasis
87(2)
Underemphasis
89(3)
Appropriate Process
92(11)
Pre-Session Planning and Tasks
92(2)
Initial Session(s)
94(4)
Middle Phase of Treatment
98(4)
Termination
102(1)
Adlerian Family Therapy: An Example of Appropriate Process
103(3)
Background of Adlerian Theory
104(1)
Initial Session(s)
104(1)
Middle Phase of Treatment
105(1)
Termination
105(1)
Managed Health Care and the Process of Therapy
106(1)
Summary and Conclusion
107(3)
References
110(5)
Psychodynamic and Bowenian Family Therapies
115(30)
Psychodynamic Family Therapy
117(1)
Major Theorists
117(1)
Nathan Ackerman
117(1)
Premises of the Theory
118(2)
Treatment Techniques
120(2)
Transference
120(1)
Dream and Daydream Analysis
120(1)
Confrontation
121(1)
Focusing on Strengths
121(1)
Life History
121(1)
Complementarity
122(1)
Role of the Therapist
122(1)
Process and Outcome
122(1)
Unique Aspects of Psychodynamic Family Therapy
123(3)
Emphases
123(1)
Comparison with Other Theories
124(2)
Bowenian Family Therapy
126(1)
Major Theorists
126(1)
Murray Bowen
127(1)
Premises of the Theory
127(3)
Treatment Techniques
130(3)
Genograms
130(2)
Going Home Again
132(1)
Detriangulation
132(1)
Person-to-Person Relationships
132(1)
Differentiation of Self
133(1)
Asking Questions
133(1)
Role of the Therapist
133(1)
Process and Outcome
134(1)
Unique Aspects of the Bowenian Family Therapy Approach
134(3)
Emphases
134(1)
Comparison with Other Theories
135(2)
Summary and Conclusion
137(3)
References
140(5)
Experimential Family Therapy
145(26)
Major Theorists
146(3)
Virginia Satir
146(1)
Carl Whitaker
147(2)
Premises of the Theory
149(1)
Treatment Techniques
149(10)
Modeling of Effective Communication Using ``I'' Messages
150(2)
Sculpting
152(1)
Choreography
152(1)
Play Therapy
153(1)
Filial Therapy
153(1)
Humor
153(1)
Touch
154(1)
Props
154(1)
Family Reconstruction
154(3)
Family Drawings
157(1)
Puppet Interviews
158(1)
Role of the Therapist
159(1)
Process and Outcome
160(1)
Unique Aspects of Experiential Family Therapy
161(4)
Emphases
161(1)
Comparison with Other Theories
162(3)
Summary and Conclusion
165(2)
References
167(4)
Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Family Therapies
171(28)
Major Theorists
173(1)
Gerald Patterson
173(1)
Neil Jacobson
173(1)
Premises of the Theory
174(2)
Types of Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Family Therapies
176(5)
Behavioral Parent Training
176(1)
Marriage/Couples Therapies and Education
176(3)
Treatment of Sexual Dysfunctioning
179(1)
Functional Family Therapy
180(1)
Treatment Techniques
181(6)
Education
181(1)
Communication and Problem-Solving Strategies
182(1)
Operant Conditioning
182(1)
Contracting
182(1)
Classical Conditioning
182(1)
Coaching
183(1)
Contingency Contracting
183(1)
Extinction
183(1)
Positive Reinforcement
184(1)
Quid pro Quo
184(1)
Reciprocity
184(1)
Shaping
184(1)
Systematic Desensitization
184(1)
Time-Out
185(1)
Charting
185(1)
Premack Principle
185(1)
Disputing Irrational Thoughts
186(1)
Thought Stopping
186(1)
Self-Instructional Training
186(1)
Modeling and Role Playing
186(1)
Role of the Therapist
187(1)
Process and Outcome
187(1)
Unique Aspects of Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches
188(3)
Emphases
188(1)
Comparison with Other Theories
189(2)
Summary and Conclusion
191(3)
References
194(5)
Structural Family Therapy
199(20)
Major Theorists
200(1)
Salvador Minuchin
200(1)
Premises of the Theory
201(4)
Treatment Techniques
205(4)
Joining
205(1)
Disequilibrium Techniques
206(1)
Enactment
207(1)
Working with Spontaneous Interaction
207(1)
Boundary Making
207(1)
Intensity
208(1)
Restructuring
208(1)
Shaping Competence
208(1)
Diagnosing
209(1)
Adding Cognitive Constructions
209(1)
Role of the Therapist
209(1)
Process and Outcome
210(1)
Unique Aspects of Structural Family Therapy
210(3)
Emphases
210(1)
Comparison with Other Theories
211(2)
Summary and Conclusion
213(2)
References
215(4)
Strategic and Systemic Family Therapies
219(22)
Strategic Family Therapy
221(1)
Major Theorists
221(1)
Jay Haley
221(1)
Premises of the Theory
222(1)
Treatment Techniques
223(2)
Reframing
223(1)
Directive
223(1)
Paradox
224(1)
Ordeals
224(1)
Pretend
225(1)
Positioning
225(1)
Role of the Therapist
225(1)
Process and Outcome
226(1)
Unique Aspects of Strategic Family Therapy
226(3)
Emphases
226(1)
Comparison with Other Theories
227(2)
Systemic (Milan) Family Therapy
229(1)
Major Theorists
229(1)
Mara Selvini Palazzoli
229(1)
Premises of the Theory
229(1)
Treatment Techniques
230(1)
Hypothesizing
230(1)
Positive Connotation
230(1)
Circular Questioning
230(1)
Invariant/Variant Prescriptions
231(1)
Rituals
231(1)
Role of the Therapist
231(1)
Process and Outcome
232(1)
Unique Aspects of Systemic Therapy
232(3)
Emphases
232(1)
Comparison with Other Theories
233(2)
Summary and Conclusion
235(3)
References
238(3)
Solution-Focused and Narrative Family Therapies
241(22)
Solution-Focused Family Therapy
242(1)
Major Theorists
242(2)
Steve deShazer
243(1)
Bill O'Hanlon
243(1)
Premises of the Theory
244(1)
Treatment Techniques
245(2)
Role of the Therapist
247(1)
Process and Outcome
248(1)
Unique Aspects of Solution-Focused Family Therapy
248(3)
Emphases
248(1)
Comparison with Other Theories
249(2)
Narrative Family Therapy
251(1)
Major Theorists
251(1)
Michael White
251(1)
Premises of the Theory
252(1)
Treatment Techniques
252(2)
Externalization of the Problem
252(1)
Influence (Effect) of the Problem on the Person
253(1)
Influence (Effect) of the Person on the Problem
253(1)
Raising Dilemmas
253(1)
Predicting Setbacks
253(1)
Using Questions
253(1)
Letters
254(1)
Celebrations and Certificates
254(1)
Role of the Therapist
254(1)
Process and Outcome
255(1)
Unique Aspects of Narrative Family Therapy
255(3)
Emphases
255(1)
Comparison with Other Theories
256(2)
Summary and Conclusion
258(3)
References
261(2)
PART THREE Special Populations in Family Therapy 263(102)
Working with Single-Parent Families
265(24)
Types of Single-Parent Families
266(3)
Single Parenthood as a Result of Divorce
267(1)
Single Parenthood as a Result of Death
267(1)
Single Parenthood by Intent
267(2)
Dynamics Associated with the Formation of Single-Parent Families
269(3)
Dynamics of Single-Parent Families Formed Through Divorce
270(1)
Dynamics of Single-Parent Families Formed Through Death
270(1)
Dynamics of Single-Parent Families Formed Through Choice
271(1)
Single-Parent Mothers and Fathers
272(2)
Families of Single-Parent Mothers
272(1)
Families of Single-Parent Fathers
273(1)
Effects of Divorce and Death on Children
274(1)
Children of Divorce
274(1)
Children Who Lose a Parent by Death
275(1)
Strengths and Challenges Connected with Single-Parent Families
275(2)
Strengths of Single-Parent Families
276(1)
Challenges of Single-Parent Families
276(1)
Approaches for Treating Single-Parent Families
277(3)
Family Theory Approaches
278(1)
Other Approaches for Treating Single-Parent Families
279(1)
Role of the Therapist
280(1)
Process and Outcome
281(1)
Summary and Conclusion
282(3)
References
285(4)
Working with Remarried Families
289(26)
Forming Remarried Families
291(3)
Common Concerns of Remarried Families
291(1)
Dealing with the Death of a Parent
291(1)
Dealing with the Divorce of a Couple
292(2)
Making Healthy Adjustments in Remarried Families
294(1)
Transitions for Children in Remarried Families
294(1)
Transitions for Parents and Stepparents in Remarried Families
294(1)
Dynamics Associated with Remarried Families
295(1)
Issues Within Remarried Families
296(1)
Strengths and Challenges of Remarried Families
297(5)
Strengths of Remarried Families
297(3)
Challenges of Remarried Families
300(2)
Approaches for Treating Remarried Families
302(2)
Guidance in Retaining Old Loyalties
302(1)
Focus on Parental Involvement
302(1)
Provide Education
302(1)
Assist in the Creation of Family Traditions and Rituals
303(1)
Apply Structural Family Therapy
303(1)
Apply Experimential Family Therapy
304(1)
Do Transgenerational Work
304(1)
Role of the Therapist
304(2)
Process and Outcome
306(1)
Summary and Conclusion
307(3)
References
310(5)
Working with Culturally Diverse Families
315(28)
What Is a Culture?
317(1)
Dynamics Associated with Culturally Diverse Families
318(1)
Issues Within Culturally Diverse Families
319(3)
Sensitivity
319(1)
Experience
320(1)
Acceptance
320(1)
Ingenuity
320(1)
Specificity
320(2)
Intervention
322(1)
Approaches for Treating Culturally Diverse Families
322(9)
Gay and Lesbian Families
322(2)
African-American Families
324(2)
Asian-American Families
326(2)
Hispanic/Latino-American Families
328(2)
Native-American Families
330(1)
Guidelines for Selecting Treatment Approaches in Working with Culturally Diverse Families
331(1)
Role of the Therapist
332(1)
Process and Outcome
333(1)
Initial Phase of Working with Culturally Diverse Families
333(1)
Middle Phase of Working with Culturally Diverse Families
334(1)
Final Phase of Working with Culturally Diverse Families
334(1)
Summary and Conclusion
334(4)
References
338(5)
Working with Substance-Related Disorders, Domestic Violence, and Child Abuse in Families
343(22)
Substance-Related Disorders and Families
344(1)
Manifestation of Substance-Related Disorders
345(1)
Family Manifestations
345(1)
Individual Manifestations
346(1)
Engaging Substance-Related Disorder Families in Treatment
346(2)
Approaches for Treating Substance-Related Disorder Families After Engagement
348(4)
Structural-Strategic Family Therapy
349(1)
Bowenian Family Therapy
349(1)
Behavioral Family Therapy
350(1)
Adlerian Therapy
350(1)
Multifamily Therapy
350(1)
Use of Community Resources and Prevention
351(1)
Domestic Violence and Families
352(1)
Assessment of Domestic Violence
352(3)
Approaches for Treating Domestic Violence
355(3)
Conjoint or Couples Therapy
356(1)
Intimate Justice
356(2)
Educational Treatment
358(1)
Child Abuse and Neglect in Families
358(1)
Approaches for Treating Child Abuse and Neglect
359(1)
Summary and Conclusion
360(3)
References
363(2)
PART FOUR Professional Issues and Research in Family Therapy 365(60)
Ethical, Legal, and Professional Issues in Family Therapy
367(28)
Overview of Ethics in Families and Family Therapy
368(1)
Ethics and Values
369(1)
How Do Values Influence Ethical Practice?
370(1)
Guidelines for Making Ethical Decisions
370(3)
Codes of Ethics
370(1)
Educational Resources
371(1)
Professional Consultation
372(1)
Interaction with Colleagues and Supervisors
372(1)
Common Ethical Concerns
373(4)
Confidentiality
373(1)
Gender Issues
374(1)
Sex Between a Therapist and a Family Member
375(1)
Theoretical Techniques
375(1)
Multicultural Therapy Issues
376(1)
Use of the Internet for On-Line Therapy
376(1)
Addressing Unethical Behavior
377(1)
Legal Issues in Family Therapy
377(1)
The Legal System
378(1)
Types of Law
379(1)
Common Law
379(1)
Statutory Law
379(1)
Administrative (Regulatory) Law
379(1)
Case Law (Court Decisions)
379(1)
Civil Law Versus Criminal Law
379(1)
Legal Situations That Involve Family Therapists
380(1)
Expert Witness
380(1)
Child Custody Evaluator
380(1)
Reporter of Abuse
380(1)
Court-Ordered Witness
381(1)
Issues of Law in Family Therapy
381(1)
Family/Divorce Mediation
382(1)
Professional Identification as a Family Therapist
383(4)
Organizations Associated with Family Therapy
383(3)
Education of Family Therapists
386(1)
Issues in Professional Identification
387(1)
Summary and Conclusion
387(4)
References
391(4)
Research and Assessment in Family Therapy
395(30)
Importance of Research in Family Therapy
397(1)
Research Findings in Family Therapy
397(1)
Two Types of Family Therapy Research
398(2)
Difficulties in Family Therapy Research
400(4)
Design
400(1)
Sampling
401(1)
Instrumentation
402(1)
Procedure
402(1)
Theory
403(1)
Statistics
403(1)
Validity/Reliability
404(1)
The Importance of Assessing Families
404(1)
Dimensions of Assessing Families
405(1)
Methods Used in Assessing Families
406(12)
Informal Methods of Assessing Families
406(1)
Formal Methods of Assessing Families
406(3)
Family Therapy Scales
409(5)
Marital Therapy Scales
414(4)
Summary and Conclusion
418(3)
References
421(4)
Appendix A AAMFT Code of Ethics 425(7)
Appendix B Ethical Code for the International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors 432(6)
Glossary 438(14)
Author Index 452(8)
Subject Index 460

Excerpts

Philosophy Therapeutic work with families is a recent scientific phenomenon but an ancient art. Throughout human history, designated persons in all cultures have helped couples and families cope, adjust, and grow. In the United States, the interest in assisting families within a healing context is both a twentieth and twenty-first century movement. Family life has always been of interest, but because of economic, social, political, and spiritual values, outsiders made little direct intervention, outside of social work, into ways of helping family functioning until the 1920s. Now, there are literally thousands of professionals who focus their attention and skills on improving family dynamics and relationships. In examining how professionals work to assist families, the reader should keep in mind that there are as many ways of offering help as there are families. However, the most widely recognized methods are counseling, therapy, educational enrichment, and prevention. The general umbrella term for remediation work with families isfamily therapy.This concept includes the type of work done by family professionals who identify themselves by different titles including counselors, psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, nurses, and clergy. Family therapyis not a perfect term; politically it gets bandied about by a number of professional associations such as the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT), the American Counseling Association, the American Psychological Association (APA), and the National Association of Social Workers. Physicians who treat families also debate this term, as well as whether as doctors they are "family therapists" or engaged in the practice of medicine and therefore "family medical specialists." For purposes of this book, the generic termfamily therapyis used because of its wide acceptance among the public and professionals who engage in the practice of helping families. Within this term, some aspects of educational enrichment and prevention are included. Organization As a comprehensive text, this book focuses on multiple aspects of family therapy. Part One introduces the reader to the various ways in which families develop and the characteristics of healthy and dysfunctional families. Part Two examines the rationale and history of family therapy, its general processes, and the main theoretical approaches to working therapeutically with families: Adlerian/psychodynamic, Bowenian, experiential, behavioral and cognitive-behavioral, structural, strategic, systemic (Milan), solution focused, and narrative. Each theoretical chapter emphasizes the major theorists of the approach, premises, techniques, process/outcome, and unique aspects of the theory. A case illustration is provided also. Part Three examines issues and dynamics in working with special family forms--singleparent families, remarried families, culturally diverse families, and addictive/abusive families--as well as the different therapeutic approaches used, according to family type and background. Finally, Part Four discusses ethical, legal, and professional issues in being a family therapist. It also explores research and assessment in family therapy. New to This Edition The third edition ofFamily Therapyhas been thoroughly updated with new and relevant sources. It has been strengthened to include a greater emphasis on family health, a more complete integration of issues related to diversity and gender, and an expanded discussion of professional identity and ethics. Another added feature is a new chapter on working with families who suffer from substance-related disorders, domestic violence, and child abuse. A student workbook,Exercises in Family Therapyby Mark E. Young, Monserrat Casado, and Scott Rasmus, now accompanies the text. It includes case studies, structured exercises, and questions to help the student ref


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