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Feigenbaum's Echocardiography,9780781731980
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Feigenbaum's Echocardiography

by ; ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780781731980

ISBN10:
0781731984
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
12/16/2004
Publisher(s):
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS
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    Feigenbaum's Echocardiography




Summary

The thoroughly revised Sixth Edition of Feigenbaum's Echocardiography reflects recent changes in the technology and clinical use of echocardiography. Included are detailed discussions of tissue Doppler imaging, harmonic imaging and its impact on tissue and contrast visualization, new applications of myocardial perfusion and three-dimensional echocardiography. Emphasizing the clinical importance of various echocardiography applications, this edition has chapters on systolic and diastolic left ventricular function, infective endocarditis, prosthetic valves, contrast echocardiography, stress echocardiography, systemic diseases, and operative and perioperative echocardiography. More than 1,200 illustrations complement the text. An accompanying DVD-ROM contains more than 900 moving cine loops with corresponding still images from the book.

Table of Contents

History of Echocardiography
1(10)
Harvey Feigenbaum
Development of Various Echocardiographic Technologies
3(3)
Recording Echocardiograms
6(1)
Cardiac Sonographers
7(2)
Echocardiographic Education and Organizations
9(1)
References
9(2)
Physics and Instrumentation
11(35)
Physical Principles
11(2)
Interaction Between Ultrasound and Tissue
13(2)
The Transducer
15(2)
Manipulating the Ultrasound Beam
17(2)
Resolution
19(2)
Creating the Image
21(2)
Transmitting Ultrasound Energy
23(1)
Display Options
24(2)
Tradeoffs in Image Creation
26(1)
Signal Processing
27(1)
Tissue Harmonic Imaging
28(1)
Artifacts
29(3)
Doppler Echocardiography
32(10)
Principles of Doppler Ultrasound
32(2)
Doppler Formats
34(4)
Color Flow Imaging
38(1)
Technical Limitations of Color Doppler Imaging
39(2)
Doppler Artifacts
41(1)
Tissue Doppler Imaging
42(1)
Biologic Effects of Ultrasound
42(2)
Suggested Readings
44(2)
Specialized Echocardiographic Techniques and Methods
46(30)
Imaging Devices and Methods
46(1)
M-Mode Echocardiography
46(1)
Two-Dimensional Echocardiography
47(1)
Color B-mode Scanning
47(1)
Doppler Interrogation
47(5)
Color Flow Doppler Imaging
51(1)
Color Doppler M-Mode Imaging
51(1)
Doppler Tissue Imaging
52(3)
Tissue Characterization
55(1)
Acquisition of Cardiac Ultrasound Information
56(14)
Transthoracic Echocardiography
57(1)
Hand-Carried Ultrasound
58(1)
Dedicated Single-Line Interrogation Transducers
58(1)
Transesophageal Echocardiography
59(2)
Three-Dimensional Echocardiography
61(3)
Epicardial Imaging
64(3)
Intracardiac Echocardiography
67(1)
Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS)
67(3)
The Digital Echo Laboratory
70(4)
Suggested Readings
74(2)
Contrast Echocardiography
76(29)
Source of Ultrasound Contrast
76(1)
Contrast Agents
76(2)
Clinical Use
78(1)
Ultrasound Interaction with Contrast Agents
79(1)
Detection Methods
80(4)
Intermittent Imaging
80(1)
Low Mechanical Index Imaging
81(1)
Other Mechanical Factors Affecting Contrast Detection
82(1)
Doppler Imaging
82(2)
Contrast Artifacts
84(2)
Detection and Utilization of Intracavitary Contrast
86(8)
Spectral Doppler Enhancement
90(1)
Shunt Detection
91(3)
Detection of Miscellaneous Conditions
94(1)
Myocardial Perfusion Contrast
95(8)
Suggested Readings
103(2)
The Echocardiographic Examination
105(33)
Selecting the Transducers
106(1)
Patient Position
107(1)
Placement of the Transducer
108(2)
An Approach to the Transthoracic Examination
110(1)
Parasternal Long-Axis Views
110(3)
Parasternal Short-Axis Views
113(2)
Apical Views
115(5)
The Subcostal Examination
120(2)
Suprasternal Views
122(3)
Orientation of Two-Dimensional Images
125(1)
Two-Dimensional Echocardiographic Measurements
126(1)
Left Ventricular Wall Segments
126(1)
M-Mode Examination
127(2)
Transesophageal Echocardiography
129(2)
Transesophageal Echocardiographic Views
131(3)
Echocardiography as a Screening Test
134(2)
Training in Echocardiography
136(1)
Suggested Readings
137(1)
Evaluation of Systolic and Diastolic Function of the Left Ventricle
138(43)
General Principles
138(1)
Linear Measurements
138(3)
Indirect M-Mode Markers of Left Ventricular Function
140(1)
Two-Dimensional Measurements
141(8)
Determination of Left Ventricular Mass
146(2)
Physiologic Versus Pathologic Hypertrophy
148(1)
Regional Left Ventricular Function
149(10)
Nonischemic Wall Motion Abnormalities
154(2)
Paced Rhythms
156(1)
Ventricular Preexcitation
157(1)
Postoperative Cardiac Motion
157(1)
Pericardial Constriction
158(1)
Premature Ventricular Contractions
159(1)
Doppler Evaluation of Global Left Ventricular Function
159(10)
Other Techniques for Determination of Left Ventricular Systolic Function
161(2)
Determination of Left Ventricular dP/dt
163(1)
Doppler Tissue Velocity
164(2)
Strain Rate Imaging and Other Derived Doppler Tissue Parameters
166(3)
Evaluation of Diastolic Function
169(10)
Methods for Evaluating Diastolic Function
170(1)
M-Mode Echocardiography
170(1)
Two-Dimensional Echocardiography
171(1)
Doppler Evaluation of Diastolic Function
171(1)
Evaluation of Mitral Inflow
171(3)
Determination of Isovolumic Relaxation Time
174(1)
Evaluation of Pulmonary Vein Flow
175(1)
Doppler Tissue Imaging
176(1)
Color Doppler M-Mode Imaging
177(1)
Mitral Flow Dispersion
178(1)
Left Atrial Volume/Size
178(1)
Overall Evaluation of Diastolic Function
179(1)
Suggested Readings
179(2)
Left Atrium, Right Atrium, and Right Ventricle
181(33)
Left Atrium
181(13)
Left Atrial Dimensions and Volume
181(4)
Left Atrial Function
185(6)
Pulmonary Veins
191(3)
Right Atrium
194(8)
Right Atrial Thrombi
197(2)
Right Atrial Blood Flow
199(3)
Right Ventricle
202(10)
Right Ventricular Dimensions and Volumes
203(3)
Right Ventricular Overload
206(4)
Right Ventricular Dysplasia
210(2)
Suggested Readings
212(2)
Hemodynamics
214(33)
Use of M-Mode and Two-Dimensional Echocardiography
214(2)
Quantifying Blood Flow
216(2)
Clinical Application of Blood Flow Measurement
218(5)
Measuring Pressure Gradients
223(5)
Applications of the Bernoulli Equation
228(6)
Determining Pressure Half-Time
234(1)
The Continuity Equation
235(2)
Proximal Isovelocity Surface Area
237(2)
Myocardial Performance Index
239(1)
Estimation of Left Ventricular Filling Pressure
239(6)
Suggested Readings
245(2)
Pericardial Diseases
247(24)
Echocardiographic Evaluation of the Pericardium
248(7)
Detection and Quantitation of Pericardial Fluid
249(3)
Direct Visualization of the Pericardium
252(2)
Differentiation of Pericardial from Pleural Effusion
254(1)
Cardiac Tamponade
255(5)
Echocardiographic Findings in Cardiac Tamponade
256(1)
Doppler Findings in Tamponade
257(3)
Pericardial Constriction
260(6)
Echocardiographic Diagnosis
261(1)
Doppler Echocardiographic Findings in Constriction
262(1)
Effusive Constrictive Pericarditis
263(2)
Constrictive Pericarditis Versus Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
265(1)
Miscellaneous Pericardial Disorders and Observations
266(3)
Postoperative Effusions
266(1)
Echocardiography-Guided Pericardiocentesis
267(1)
Pericardial Cysts
268(1)
Suggested Readings
269(2)
Aortic Valve Disease
271(35)
Aortic Stenosis
271(17)
Doppler Assessment of Aortic Stenosis
274(10)
Other Approaches to Quantifying Stenosis
284(1)
Dobutamine Echocardiography in the Evaluation of Aortic Stenosis
285(1)
Natural History of Aortic Stenosis
285(2)
Clinical Decision Making
287(1)
Aortic Regurgitation
288(15)
M-Mode and Two-Dimensional Imaging
289(2)
Establishing a Diagnosis
291(5)
Evaluating the Severity of Aortic Regurgitation
296(5)
Acute Versus Chronic Aortic Regurgitation
301(1)
Assessing the Left Ventricle
302(1)
Miscellaneous Abnormalities of the Aortic Valve
303(1)
Suggested Readings
304(2)
Mitral Valve Disease
306(46)
Anatomy of the Mitral Valve
306(3)
Physiology of Mitral Valve Disease
309(3)
Mitral Stenosis
312(11)
Two-Dimensional Echocardiography in Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis
312(1)
Congenital Mitral Stenosis
313(1)
M-Mode Echocardiographic Appearance
314(1)
Transesophageal Echocardiography
314(1)
Three-Dimensional Echocardiography
315(1)
Anatomic Determination of Severity
316(1)
Doppler Echocardiographic Determination of Severity
317(3)
Exercise Gradients
320(1)
Secondary Features of Mitral Stenosis
320(2)
Atrial Fibrillation
322(1)
Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension
323(1)
Decision Making Regarding Intervention
323(1)
Mitral Regurgitation
323(14)
Doppler Evaluation of Mitral Regurgitation
324(5)
Determination of Mitral Regurgitation Severity
329(6)
Other Considerations in Assessing Mitral Regurgitation
335(2)
Mitral Valve Prolapse
337(5)
Flail Leaflets
342(4)
Miscellaneous Mitral Valve Abnormalities
346(4)
Calcification of the Mitral Anulus
346(1)
Tumors of the Mitral Valve
347(1)
Aneurysms of the Mitral Valve
347(1)
Mitral Valve Perforation
348(1)
Anular Abscess
349(1)
Anular Dehiscence
349(1)
Radiation Damage
349(1)
Carcinoid and Diet Drug Valvulopathy
349(1)
Suggested Readings
350(2)
Tricuspid and Pulmonary Valves
352(23)
Clinical Overview
352(1)
Pulmonary Valve
352(9)
Pulmonary Valve Stenosis
356(1)
Pulmonary Valve Regurgitation
357(3)
Evaluation of the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract
360(1)
Miscellaneous Abnormalities of the Pulmonary Valve
360(1)
Tricuspid Valve
361(9)
Doppler Evaluation of the Tricuspid Valve
362(2)
Tricuspid Stenosis
364(1)
Tricuspid Regurgitation
364(3)
Determination of Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure
367(3)
Miscellaneous Conditions
370(3)
Carcinoid Heart Disease
370(1)
Endocardial Fibroelastosis
370(1)
Ebstein Anomaly
371(1)
Pacemakers and Catheters
372(1)
Tricuspid Valve Resection
372(1)
Cardiac Biopsy
372(1)
Tumors and Other Masses
373(1)
Ischemic Heart Disease
373(1)
Suggested Readings
373(2)
Infective Endocarditis
375(24)
Clinical Perspective
375(1)
Echocardiographic Characteristics of a Vegetation
375(6)
Diagnostic Accuracy of Echocardiography
381(1)
Evolution of the Diagnostic Criteria
382(1)
Complications of Endocarditis
383(5)
Prognosis and Predicting Risk
388(1)
Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis
389(1)
Infected Intracardiac Devices
390(2)
Right-Sided Endocarditis
392(1)
Approach to the Patient with Endocarditis
393(4)
Suggested Readings
397(2)
Prosthetic Valves
399(38)
Types of Prosthetic Valves
399(1)
Normal Prosthetic Valve Function
400(7)
General Approach to Imaging
407(3)
Prosthetic Aortic Valves
410(4)
Prosthetic Mitral Valves
414(3)
Specific Causes of Dysfunction
417(11)
Obstruction
417(8)
Infective Endocarditis
425(3)
Mechanical Failure
428(1)
Right-Sided Prosthetic Valves
428(3)
Valved Conduits
431(1)
Mitral Valve Repair
431(4)
Suggested Readings
435(2)
Coronary Artery Disease
437(51)
Clinical Overview
437(1)
Pathophysiology of Coronary Syndromes
438(4)
Detection and Quantitation of Wall Motion Abnormalities
442(8)
Myocardial Strain and Strain Rate Imaging
449(1)
Other Methods for Evaluating Ischemic Myocardium
449(1)
Echocardiographic Evaluation of Clinical Syndromes
450(11)
Angina Pectoris
450(1)
Acute Myocardial Infarction
450(7)
Natural History of Wall Motion Abnormalities
457(3)
Prognostic Implications
460(1)
Doppler Evaluation of Systolic and Diastolic Function in Acute Myocardial Infarction
460(1)
Complications of Acute Myocardial Infarction
461(8)
Pericardial Effusion
462(1)
Infarct Expansion
463(1)
Free-Wall Rupture
463(1)
Ventricular Thrombus
463(2)
Right Ventricular Infarction
465(1)
Acute Mitral Regurgitation
466(1)
Ventricular Septal Rupture
467(2)
Chronic Coronary Artery Disease
469(11)
Left Ventricular Aneurysm
469(4)
Pseudoaneurysm
473(2)
Chronic Remodeling
475(1)
Mural Thrombus
476(2)
Mitral Regurgitation
478(1)
Ischemic Cardiomyopathy
479(1)
Direct Coronary Visualization
480(6)
Kawasaki Disease
483(1)
Direct Visualization of Atherosclerosis
484(2)
Suggested Readings
486(2)
Stress Echocardiography
488(35)
Physiologic Basis
488(2)
Methodology
490(5)
Treadmill
490(2)
Bicycle Ergometry
492(1)
Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography
493(1)
Dipyridamole and Adenosine
494(1)
Choosing Among the Different Stress Modalities
495(1)
Interpretation of Stress Echocardiography
496(6)
Categorization of Wall Motion
499(1)
Wall Motion Response to Stress
500(1)
Localization of Coronary Artery Lesions
500(1)
Correlation with Symptoms and Electrocardiographic Changes
501(1)
Detection of Coronary Artery Disease
502(4)
Comparison with Nuclear Techniques
505(1)
Applications of Stress Echocardiography
506(9)
Prognostic Value of Stress Echocardiography
507(1)
Stress Echocardiography After Myocardial Infarction
507(4)
Stress Echocardiography After Revascularization
511(1)
Preoperative Risk Assessment
512(1)
Stress Echocardiography in Women
513(1)
Assessment of Myocardial Viability
513(2)
Use of Myocardial Contrast Techniques in Stress Echocardiography
515(2)
Stress Echocardiography in Valvular Heart Disease
517(3)
Suggested Readings
520(3)
Cardiomyopathies
523(36)
Clinical and Echocardiographic Overview
523(1)
Dilated Cardiomyopathy
523(4)
Doppler Evaluation of Systolic and Diastolic Function
527(4)
Assessment of Diastolic Function
528(3)
Myocardial Performance Index
531(1)
Secondary Findings in Dilated Cardiomyopathy
531(2)
Etiology of Dilated Cardiomyopathy
533(3)
Determination of Prognosis in Dilated Cardiomyopathy
536(1)
Therapeutic Decisions
537(4)
Biventricular Pacing for Congestive Heart Failure
538(1)
Cardiac Transplantation
538(2)
Ventricular Assist Devices
540(1)
Infiltrative and Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
541(4)
Echocardiographic Evaluation of Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
542(2)
Constrictive Versus Restrictive Heart Disease
544(1)
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
545(10)
Echocardiographic Evaluation of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
545(4)
Assessment of the Left Ventricular Outflow Tract in Obstructive Cardiomyopathy
549(2)
Mitral Regurgitation in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
551(1)
Other Variants of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
552(1)
Mid-Cavitary Obstruction
552(1)
Conditions Mimicking Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
553(2)
End-Stage Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
555(1)
Therapeutic Decision Making and Monitoring in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
555(1)
Myocarditis
555(2)
Postpartum Cardiomyopathy
557(1)
Chagas Myocarditis
557(1)
Endocardial Fibroelastosis and Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
557(1)
Suggested Readings
558(1)
Congenital Heart Diseases
559(78)
The Echocardiographic Examination: A Segmental Approach to Anatomy
559(4)
Cardiac Situs
560(1)
Ventricular Morphology
561(2)
Great Artery Connections
563(1)
Abnormalities of Right Ventricular Inflow
563(2)
Abnormalities of Left Ventricular Inflow
565(6)
Pulmonary Veins
565(2)
Left Atrium
567(4)
Mitral Valve
571(1)
Abnormalities of Right Ventricular Outflow
571(5)
Right Ventricle
571(3)
Pulmonary Valve
574(2)
Pulmonary Artery
576(1)
Abnormalities of Left Ventricular Outflow
576(5)
Subvalvular Obstruction
577(1)
Valvular Aortic Stenosis
578(2)
Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis
580(1)
Coarctation of the Aorta
581(2)
Abnormalities of Cardiac Septation
583(23)
Atrial Septal Defect
584(9)
Ventricular Septal Defect
593(11)
Endocardial Cushion Defect
604(2)
Abnormal Vascular Connections and Structures
606(8)
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
606(2)
Abnormal Systemic Venous Connections
608(2)
Abnormal Pulmonary Venous Connections
610(2)
Abnormalities of the Coronary Circulation
612(2)
Conotruncal Abnormalities
614(10)
Tetralogy of Fallot
614(1)
Transposition of the Great Arteries
615(7)
Double-Outlet Right Ventricle
622(1)
Persistent Truncus Arteriosus and Aortopulmonary Window
623(1)
Abnormalities of Ventricular Development
624(5)
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
624(3)
Single Ventricle
627(1)
Tricuspid Atresia
628(1)
Echocardiographic Evaluation During and After Surgery
629(3)
Systemic Artery to Pulmonary Artery Shunts
629(1)
Pulmonary Artery Bands
630(1)
The Fontan Procedure
630(2)
Right Ventricle to Pulmonary Artery Conduits
632(1)
Fetal Echocardiography
632(2)
Suggested Readings
634(3)
ICU and Operative/Perioperative Applications
637(35)
Evaluation of Patients in an Intensive Care Unit
637(5)
Hypotension and Shock
637(3)
Evaluation of Hypoxia
640(2)
Echocardiography in the Emergency Department
642(1)
Pre-, Intra-, and Perioperative Echocardiography
642(21)
Role of Echocardiography in Mitral Valve Surgery
644(7)
Aortic Valve Procedures
651(5)
Miscellaneous Applications
656(1)
Intraoperative Complications of Cardiac Surgery
657(3)
Operative Monitoring for Noncardiac Procedures
660(1)
Delayed Cardiac Surgery Complications
661(2)
Monitoring of Nonoperative and Other Interventional Procedures
663(5)
Cardiac Interventional Procedures
664(4)
Other Applications in the Catheterization Laboratory
668(1)
Evaluation of Patients After Cardiac Transplantation
668(2)
Suggested Readings
670(2)
Diseases of the Aorta
672(29)
Normal Aortic Anatomy
672(1)
Echocardiographic Evaluation
673(4)
Aortic Dilation and Aneurysm
677(1)
Marfan Syndrome
678(1)
Valsalva Sinus Aneurysm
679(4)
Aortic Dissection
683(11)
Echocardiographic Diagnosis
685(9)
Aortic Atheroma
694(1)
Miscellaneous Conditions
695(4)
Aortic Pseudoaneurysm
695(1)
Aortic Trauma
695(3)
Infections of the Aorta
698(1)
Aortic Thrombus
698(1)
Takayasu Arteritis
699(1)
Suggested Readings
699(2)
Masses, Tumors, and Source of Embolus
701(34)
Normal Variants and Artifacts: Sources of False-Positive Findings
701(1)
Cardiac Tumors
702(8)
Primary Tumors
702(6)
Metastatic Tumors to the Heart
708(2)
Intracardiac Thrombi
710(15)
Left Ventricular Thrombi
710(8)
Left Atrial Thrombi
718(3)
Right Atrial Thrombi
721(1)
Spontaneous Echo Contrast
721(4)
Role of Echocardiography in Atrial Fibrillation and Cardioversion
725(1)
Role of Echocardiography in Systemic Embolus
726(3)
Pseudotumors and Other Cardiac Masses
729(4)
Suggested Readings
733(2)
Echocardiography in Systemic Disease and Clinical Problem Solving
735(40)
Echocardiography and Systemic Disease
735(4)
Hypertension
735(2)
Diabetes Mellitus
737(1)
Thyroid Disease
737(1)
Chronic Renal Insufficiency
738(1)
Connective Tissue/Autoimmune Disease
739(4)
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
739(1)
Scleroderma/Raynaud Phenomena
740(1)
Marfan Syndrome
740(3)
Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis
743(3)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
746(1)
Pulmonary Hypertension
746(4)
Miscellaneous Diseases
750(4)
Sarcoidosis
750(1)
Hemochromatosis
751(1)
Muscular Dystrophy
752(1)
Hypereosinophilia
752(1)
Carcinoid Syndrome
752(1)
Sickle Cell Anemia
752(1)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
752(1)
Diet Drug Valvulopathy
753(1)
Obesity
754(1)
Clinical Presentations and Problems
754(5)
Peripheral Vascular Disease
754(1)
Congestive Heart Failure
754(2)
Evaluation of Dyspnea
756(1)
Acute Pulmonary Embolus
757(1)
Echocardiographic Findings
757(2)
Atrial Fibrillation and Cardioversion
759(2)
Neurologic Events and Cardiac Source of Embolus
761(4)
Neurogenic Myocardial Stunning
765(1)
Syncope
765(1)
Evaluation of Cardiac Arrhythmias
766(1)
Evaluation of Patients Before and During Chemotherapy
766(1)
Radiation-Induced Cardiac Disease
766(1)
Screening for Athletic Competition and the Athlete's Heart
767(1)
The Heart in Pregnancy
768(2)
Effects of Advanced Age
770(2)
Suggested Readings
772(3)
Index 775


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