9780123738653

Fiber Optic Measurement Techniques

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780123738653

  • ISBN10:

    0123738652

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-12-12
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
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Summary

Fiber Optic Measurement Techniques is an indispensable collection of key optical measurement techniques essential for developing and characterizing today's photonic devices and fiber optic systems. The book gives comprehensive and systematic descriptions of various fiber optic measurement methods with the emphasis on the understanding of optoelectronic signal processing methodologies, helping the reader to weigh up the pros and cons of each technique and establish their suitability for the task at hand. Carefully balancing descriptions of principle, operations and optoelectronic circuit implementation, this indispensable resource will enable the engineer to: . Understand the implications of various measurement results and system performance qualifications . Characterize modern optical systems and devices . Select optical devices and subsystems in optical network design and implementation . Design innovative instrumentations for fiber optic systems This book brings together in one volume the fundamental principles with the latest techniques, making it a complete resource for the optical and communications engineer developing future optical devices and fiber optic systems. "Optical fiber communication systems and networks constitute the core of the telecom infrastructure of the information society worldwide. Accurate knowledge of the properties of the contituent components, and of the performance of the subsystems and systems must be obtained in order to ensure reliable transmission, distribution, and delivery of information. This book is an authoritative and comprehensive treatment of fiber-optic measurement techniques, including not only fundamental principles and methodologies but also various instrumentations and practical implementations. It is an excellent up-to-date resource and reference for the academic and industrial researcher as well as the field engineer in manufacturing and network operations." - Dr. Tingye Li, AT&T Labs (retired) Rongqing Hui received his PhD in Electrical Engineering from Politecnico di Torino, Italy in 1993. He is currently a tenured professor in the department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Kansas. He has published more than 90 refereed technical papers in the area of fiber-optic communications and holds 13 patents. Dr. Hui currently serves as an Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Communications. Maurice O'Sullivan has worked for Nortel for a score of years, at first in the optical cable business, developing factory-tailored metrology for optical fiber, but, in the main, in the optical transmission business developing, modeling and verifying physical layer designs & performance of Nortel's line and highest rate transmission product including OC-192, MOR, MOR+, LH1600G, eDCO and eDC40G. He holds a Ph.D. in physics (high resolution spectroscopy) from the University of Toronto, is a Nortel Fellow and has been granted more than 30 patents. * The only book to combine explanations of the basic principles with latest techniques to enable the engineer to develop photonic systems of the future * Careful and systematic presentation of measurement methods to help engineers to choose the most appropriate for their application * The latest methods covered, such as real-time optical monitoring and phase coded systems and subsystems, making this the most up-to-date guide to fiber optic measurement on the market

Author Biography

Rongqing Hui is currently a tenured professor in the department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Kansas

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
About the Authorp. xv
Constantsp. xvii
Fundamentals of Optical Devicesp. 1
Introductionp. 2
Laser Diodes and LEDsp. 4
Pn Junction and Energy Diagramp. 5
Direct and Indirect Semiconductorsp. 6
Carrier Confinementp. 7
Spontaneous Emission and Stimulated Emissionp. 8
Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)p. 9
Laser Diodes (LDs)p. 13
Single-Frequency Semiconductor Lasersp. 26
Photodetectorsp. 32
Pn-Junction Photodiodesp. 32
Responsivity and Bandwidthp. 34
Electrical Characteristics of a Photodiodep. 36
Photodetector Noise and SNRp. 37
Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs)p. 41
Optical Fibersp. 44
Reflection and Refractionp. 44
Propagation Modes in Optical Fibersp. 49
Optical Fiber Attenuationp. 62
Group Velocity and Dispersionp. 67
Nonlinear Effects in an Optical Fiberp. 77
Optical Amplifiersp. 85
Optical Gain, Gain Bandwidth, and Saturationp. 86
Semiconductor Optical Amplifiersp. 89
Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs)p. 100
External Electro-Optic Modulatorp. 115
Basic Operation Principle of Electro-Optic Modulatorsp. 116
Frequency Doubling and Duo-Binary Modulationp. 121
Optical Single-Side Modulationp. 123
Optical Modulators Using Electro-Absorption Effectp. 125
Basic Instrumentation for Optical Measurementp. 129
Introductionp. 130
Grating-Based Optical Spectrum Analyzersp. 131
General Specificationsp. 131
Fundamentals of Diffraction Gratingsp. 134
Basic OSA Configurationsp. 138
Scanning FP Interferometerp. 146
Basic FPI Configuration and Transfer Functionp. 146
Scanning FPI Spectrum Analyzerp. 153
Scanning FPI Basic Optical Configurationsp. 157
Optical Spectrum Analyzer Using the Combination of Grating and FPIp. 159
Mach-Zehnder Interferometersp. 160
Transfer Matrix of a 2 x 2 Optical Couplerp. 161
Transfer Function of an MZIp. 162
MZI Used as an Optical Filterp. 164
Michelson Interferometersp. 168
Operating Principle of a Michelson Interferometerp. 169
Measurement and Characterization of Michelson Interferometersp. 172
Techniques to Increase Frequency Selectivityp. 174
Optical Wavelength Meterp. 179
Operating Principle of a Wavelength Meter Based on Michelson Interferometerp. 180
Wavelength Coverage and Spectral Resolutionp. 183
Wavelength Calibrationp. 185
Wavelength Meter Based on Fizeau Wedge Interferometerp. 186
Optical Polarimeterp. 188
General Description of Lightwave Polarizationp. 188
The Stokes Parameters and the Poincare Spherep. 190
Optical Polarimetersp. 193
Measurement Based on Coherent Optical Detectionp. 196
Operating Principlep. 196
Receiver SNR Calculation of Coherent Detectionp. 199
Balanced Coherent Detection and Polarization Diversityp. 202
Phase Diversity in Coherent Homodyne Detectionp. 204
Coherent OSA Based on Swept Frequency Laserp. 207
Waveform Measurementp. 211
Oscilloscope Operating Principlep. 212
Digital Sampling Oscilloscopesp. 216
High-Speed Sampling of Optical Signalp. 219
High-Speed Electric ADC Using Optical Techniquesp. 223
Short Optical Pulse Measurement Using an Autocorrelatorp. 224
Optical Low-Coherent Interferometryp. 232
Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometryp. 232
Fourier-Domain Reflectometryp. 240
Optical Network Analyzerp. 246
S-Parameters and RF Network Analyzerp. 246
Optical Network Analyzersp. 249
Characterization of Optical Devicesp. 259
Introductionp. 260
Characterization of RIN and Linewidth of Semiconductor Lasersp. 260
Measurement of Relative Intensity Noise (RIN)p. 261
Measurement of Laser Phase Noise and Linewidthp. 266
Measurement of Electro-Optic Modulation Responsep. 276
Characterization of Intensity Modulation Responsep. 277
Measurement of Frequency Chirpp. 282
Time-Domain Measurement of Modulation-Induced Chirpp. 292
Wideband Characterization of an Optical Receiverp. 296
Characterization of Photodetector Responsivity and Linearityp. 297
Frequency Domain Characterization of Photodetector Responsep. 299
Photodetector Bandwidth Characterization Using Source Spontaneous-Spontaneous Beat Noisep. 301
Photodetector Characterization Using Short Optical Pulsesp. 304
Characterization of Optical Amplifiersp. 306
Measurement of Amplifier Optical Gainp. 306
Measurement of Static and Dynamic Gain Tiltp. 311
Optical Amplifier Noisep. 314
Optical Domain Characterization of ASE Noisep. 316
Impact of ASE Noise in Electrical Domainp. 318
Noise Figure Definition and Its Measurementp. 323
Time-Domain Characteristics of EDFAp. 327
Characterization of Passive Optical Componentsp. 329
Fiber-Optic Couplersp. 330
Fiber Bragg Grating Filtersp. 335
WDM Multiplexers and Demultiplexersp. 340
Characterization of Optical Filter Transfer Functionsp. 345
Optical Isolators and Circulatorsp. 353
Optical Fiber Measurementp. 365
Introductionp. 366
Classification of Fiber Typesp. 367
Standard Optical Fibers for Transmissionp. 367
Specialty Optical Fibersp. 370
Measurement of Fiber Mode-Field Distributionp. 374
Near-Field, Far-Field, and Mode-Field Diameterp. 375
Far-Field Measurement Techniquesp. 378
Near-Field Measurement Techniquesp. 380
Fiber Attenuation Measurement and OTDRp. 382
Cutback Techniquep. 382
Optical Time-Domain Reflectometersp. 384
Improvement Considerations of OTDRp. 391
Fiber Dispersion Measurementsp. 394
Intermodal Dispersion and Its Measurementp. 395
Chromatic Dispersion and Its Measurementp. 400
Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) Measurementp. 409
Representation of Fiber Birefringence and PMD Parameterp. 409
Pulse Delay Methodp. 413
The Interferometric Methodp. 415
Poincare Arc Methodp. 418
Fixed Analyzer Methodp. 420
The Jones Matrix Methodp. 424
The Mueller Matrix Methodp. 431
Determination of Polarization-Dependent Lossp. 438
PMD Sources and Emulatorsp. 442
Measurement of Fiber Nonlinearityp. 446
Measurement of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Coefficientp. 447
Measurement of the Stimulated Raman Scattering Coefficientp. 453
Measurement of Kerr effect nonlinearityp. 459
Optical System Performance Measurementsp. 481
Introductionp. 482
Overview of Fiber-Optic Transmission Systemsp. 483
Optical System Performance Considerationsp. 484
Receiver BER and Qp. 486
System Q Estimation Based on Eye Diagram Parameterizationp. 494
Bit Error Rate Testingp. 499
Receiver Sensitivity Measurement and OSNR Tolerancep. 508
Receiver Sensitivity and Power Marginp. 509
OSNR Margin and Required OSNR (R-OSNR)p. 514
BER vs. Decision Threshold Measurementp. 521
Waveform Distortion Measurementsp. 524
Jitter Measurementp. 527
Basic Jitter Parameters and Definitionsp. 527
Jitter Detection Techniquesp. 532
In-situ Monitoring of Linear Propagation Impairmentsp. 537
In Situ Monitoring of Chromatic Dispersionp. 537
In Situ PMD Monitoringp. 541
In Situ PDL Monitoringp. 551
Measurement of Nonlinear Crosstalk in Multi-Span WDM systemsp. 556
XPM-Induced Intensity Modulation in IMDD Optical Systemsp. 556
XPM-induced Phase Modulationp. 572
FWM-Induced Crosstalk in IMDD Optical Systemsp. 575
Characterization of Raman Crosstalk with Wide Channel Separationp. 581
Modulation Instability and Its Impact in WDM Optical Systemsp. 590
Modulation-instability and Transfer Matrix Formulationp. 590
Impact of Modulation Instability in Amplified Multispan Fiber Systemsp. 600
Characterization of Modulation Instability in Fiber-Optic Systemsp. 601
Optical System Performance Evaluation Based On Required OSNRp. 606
Measurement of R-SNR Due to Chromatic Dispersionp. 607
Measurement of R-SNR Due to Fiber Nonlinearityp. 610
Measurement of R-OSNR Due to Optical Filter Misalignmentp. 615
Fiber-Optic Recirculating Loopp. 616
Operation Principle of a Recirculating Loopp. 617
Measurement Procedure and Time Controlp. 618
Optical Gain Adjustment in the Loopp. 622
Indexp. 631
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