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FieldWorkingis a fun and practical guide to research and writing. This acclaimed text incorporates examples by professional writers such as Peter Elbow, Joan Didion, Oliver Sacks, and Jamaica Kincaid, as well as student research projects on communities as diverse a truck stop, sports bar, homeless shelter, and horse sales barn, to help students identify and define their own subcultures and communities. In unique activities and comprehensive instruction, FieldWorkingpresents an ethnographic approach that empowers students to observe, listen, interpret, analyze, and write about the people and artifacts around them, while learning the essentials of college writing and research. FieldWorkingis suitable for courses in English, anthropology, cultural studies, journalism or in any discipline where research is required.
BONNIE STONE SUNSTEIN is professor of English and education at the University of Iowa, where she teaches nonfiction writing, research methods, the teaching of writing, and folklore. She directs the undergraduate nonfiction writing program in the English department and coordinates English education in the College of Education.
ELIZABETH CHISERI-STRATER is a professor of English at the University of North Carolina – Greensboro, where she teaches courses in rhetoric and composition, nonfiction writing, research methods, and English education. She has directed the Composition Program and served as director of graduate studies in the Women's and Gender Studies program.
Table of Contents
*new to this edition
Chapter I: Stepping In and Stepping Out: Understanding Cultures
Defining Culture: Fieldwork and Ethnography Stepping In: Revealing Our Subcultures BOX 1: Looking at Subcultures Investigating Perspectives: Insider and Outsider Stepping Out: Making the Familiar Strange and the Strange Familiar Horace Miner, “Body Ritual of the Nacirema” BOX 2: Making the Ordinary Extraordinary Posing Questions: Ethnographic vs Journalistic * Lorraine Ahearn, “Folk ‘Cure’ Sold Locally High on Lead” BOX 3: Engaging the Ethnographic Perspective * Julie O’Donoghue, “Fairfax Residents Become U.S. Citizens” Fieldworking with This Book An Ethnographic Study: “Friday Night at Iowa 80” Rick Zollo, “Friday Night at Iowa 80” (Student Project) * Doing Research Online FieldWriting: Establishing a Voice A Community Action Study Ivana Nikolic, “House for the Homeless: A Place to Hang Your Hat” (Student Project) Reflection as Critique The Research Portfolio: Definitions and Purpose * Do This: Select a Fieldsite
Exploratory Writing BOX 4: Freewriting FieldWriting: Point of View and Rhetoric Keeping a Notebook Joan Didion, “On Keeping a Notebook” BOX 5: Exploratory Notetaking with a Group Getting at the Details Samuel H. Scudder, “Look at Your Fish” BOX 6: Double-Entry Notes Fieldnotes: The Key to Your Project BOX 7: Sharing Your Initial Fieldnotes Analyzing Your Fieldnotes BOX 8: Questioning Your Fieldnotes Amy Lambert, “Feng-Shui: Reflections on a Sociology Class” (Student Project) Double Voiced FieldNotes * H. L. “Bud” Goodall, “Representing Ethnographic Experiences” The Research Portfolio: Reflecting on Your Fieldnotes * Do This: Question Your Notes
Reading Cultures as Text and Texts as Culture Gloria Naylor, “Mama Day” BOX 9: Responding to Text Positioning: Reading and Writing About Yourself BOX 10: Positioning Yourself Understanding Positioning: Checking in on Yourself BOX 11: Unlearning Our Privilege (Mimi Harvey) Getting Permission BOX 12: From Ethos to Ethics (Julie Cheville) Reading an Object: The Cultural Artifact * BOX 13: Reading an Artifact (Beth Campbell) The Uses of Cultural Artifacts Alice Walker, “Everyday Use” Responding to Reading BOX 14: FieldWorking Book Clubs (Kathleen Ryan) FieldWriting: Published and Unpublished Written Sources Reading Electronic Communities * Fieldworking in a Changing Field * Elise Wu, “Out Patient” (Student Project) * Working with Online Communities * BOX 15: Locating Online Cultures The Research Portfolio: An Option for Rereading * Do This: Read Your Fieldsite
Chapter IV: Researching Place: The Spatial Gaze
Personal Geography Jamaica Kincaid, “On Seeing Jamaica for the First Time” BOX 16: Recalling a Sense of Place Selective Perception FieldWriting: The Grammar of Observation BOX 17: Writing a Verbal Snapshot Deepening Description Through Research * Jeannie B. Thomas, “The Cemetery as marketplace in Salem, Massachusetts” Learning How to Look: Mapping Space BOX 18: Mapping Space Learning How to Look: Finding a Focal Point BOX 19: Finding a Focal Point Learning How to Look: Identifying Unity and Tension Karen Downing, “Strike a Pose” (Student Project) Learning How to Look: Colonized Spaces Jennifer Hemmingsen, “The Happy Canyon” (Student Project) The Research Portfolio: Learning from Your Data Karen Downing, “A Pose on ‘Strike a Pose’” (Portfolio Reflection) * Do This: Map Your Space
Chapter V: Researching People: The Collaborative Listener
The Interview: Learning How to Ask BOX 20: Using a Cultural Artifact: An Interview Learning How to Listen * Etiquette for Conducting an Interview BOX 21: Establishing Rapport Recording and Transcribing Cindie Marshall, “Ralph’s Sports Bar” (Student Project) BOX 22: Analyzing Your Interviewing Skills The Informant’s Perspective: An Anthropologist on Mars Oliver Sacks, “An Anthropologist on Mars” Gathering Family Stories BOX 23: Writing a Family Story One Family Story: The Core and its Variants Gathering Oral Histories * Nancy Hauserman, “Taking Care” * Dave Isay, “Listening is an Act of Love” Jennette Edwards, “I Can Read and I Can Write” (online only) BOX 24: Starting an Oral History FieldWriting: Using Character, Setting, and Theme to Create a Portrait BOX 25: Writing a Verbal Portrait The Research Portfolio: Reflective Documentation * Do This: Reflect on Researching People
Chapter VI: Researching Language: The Cultural Translator
Linking Body Language and Culture * BOX 26: Observing Body Language: (Amie Ohlmann) Linking Words and Culture Lafcadio Hearn, “Cheek” BOX 27: Listening for Words: Creating a Glossary Using Insider Language in Your Writing Words as Cultural Artifacts Researching Occupation: Recording Insider Language BOX 28: Describing Occupational Terms Verbal Performance: Curses BOX 29: Gathering Verbal Performances: Proverbs, Jokes, and Saying Researching Urban Legends * Ofelia Zapeda, “A Language Journey” FieldWriting: Dialogue on the Page The Research Portfolio: Synthesis * Do This: Translate Your Work
Chapter VII: Searching Archives: Locating Culture
* A. Kendra Greene, “Everything Perfectly, Forever” (Student Project) Family Archives Edward Ball, “Slaves in the Family” BOX 30: A Box about Boxes Historical Archives * University Archives Museum Archives BOX 31: Sorting Through Public Archives Naomi Shihab Nye, “The Attic and its Nails” Organizing Archival Material Alternative Archives Lars Eighner, “On Dumpster Diving” BOX 32: Alternative Archives Electronic Archives: Using the Internet FieldWriting: Annotated Bibliographies The Research Portfolio: Representing the Unflat Stuff * Do This: Search the Fieldworking Archives
Chapter VIII: FieldWriting: From Down Draft to Up Draft
Drafting Drafts Anne LaMott, “Shitty First Drafts” Questioning Your Draft Thickening Your Draft BOX 33: Listening to the Voices in Your Draft (David Seitz) Representing Culture in Your FieldWriting Crafting a Text * William Harvey Purcell, “Disability is Beautiful” FieldWriting: Analytic Section Headings Revising for a Reader Donald M. Murray, “Some Notes on Revision” BOX 34: Sharing Data: Partners in Revision The Research Portfolio: One-Page Analysis and Annotated Table of Contents A Final Comment: Paying Attention to Writing * Do This: Smooth Your Final Draft
Appendix A: MLA Documentation Guidelines Appendix B: APA Documentation Guidelines Appendix C: Works Cited and Recommended Readings