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Mr. Goldstein was born in Chicago, Illinois, in 1927 and began his study of art in 1941 when he attended evening and Saturday classes at the Art Institute of Chicago. In 1945 he enlisted in the U.S. navy and was honorably discharged in 1947. Upon returning to civilian life, Mr. Goldstein continued his studies at the Art Institute of Chicago on the G.I. Bill and received his MFA in painting and drawing in 1953. He briefly served as art director of the Federal Civil Defense Administration Headquarters but soon moved on to pursue a career as a painter and illustrator.
In 1956 Mr. Goldstein moved to Boston, Massachusetts, where he began teaching at the New England School of Art. Subsequently he taught at Northeastern University and Boston University. From 1971 to the present, he has been a professor of painting and drawing at The Art Institute of Boston at Lesley University. He was chairman of the Foundation Program of Study from 1971 until 1999. Mr. Goldstein has lectured and presented workshops at universities, colleges, and art schools in 38 states from Hawaii to Rhode Island.
Nathan is a prolific author and has written seven books on painting, drawing, and design. His much acclaimed texts, “The Art of Responsive Drawing,” and “Figure Drawing: The Structural Anatomy and Expressive Design of Human Form” are both in their sixth edition.
Mr. Goldstein was inducted into the National Academy of Design in 1996 and appears in Marquis Who’s Who in American Art, and Who’s Who in the East.
Table of Contents
1 The Evolution of Intent
Major Factors and Concepts in Figure Drawing 1
Some Common Denominators 1
The Emergence of Interpretive Figure Drawing 9
2 The Structural Factor
The Figure As a Structure 35
Some General Observations 35
A Planar Approach to Human Form 42
The Interjoining of Planes and Masses 45
Structure and Value 49
Structural Supports and Suspensions in the Figure 52
Structural Aspects of Foreshortening 55
Seeing Shape, Direction, and Edge 60
Structural Aspects of the Draped Figure and Its Environment 65
Suggested Exercises 75
3 The Anatomical Factor
Part One: The Skeleton 79
Some General Observations 79
Bones of the Skull 80
Bones of the Spinal Column 83
Bones of the Rib Cage 85
Bones of the Shoulder Girdle 86
Bones of the Pelvis 89
Bones of the Arm 91
Bones of the Leg 98
Skeletal Proportions 101
The Skeleton in Figure Drawing 105
Suggested Exercises 113
4 The Anatomical Factor
Part Two: The Muscles 121
Some General Observations 121
Muscles of the Head 122
Surface Forms of the Head 124
Muscles of the Neck 129
Muscles of the Torso 132
Muscles of the Arm 141
Muscles of the Leg 151
Skin and Fat 169
Further Observations on Surface Forms 169
Suggested Exercises 190
5 The Design Factor
The Relational Content of Figure Drawing 195
Some General Observations 195
The Visual Elements 201
The Elements in Action 228
Handling or Character 231
Location and Proximity 232
Visual Weight 232
Figurative Influences 234
Examples of Relational Activities in Figure Drawing 235
Anatomy as an Agent of Design 242
The Figure and the Environment 243
Suggested Exercises 252
6 The Expressive Factor
The Emotive Content of Figure Drawing 257
Some General Observations 257
The Expression Inherent in the Elements 262
The Expressive Role of the Medium 270
Examples of Expression in Figure Drawing 273
Suggested Exercises 284
7 The Factors Interacting
Some Examples 287
Differing Formulas 287
The Pathologies of Figure Drawing 310
Perceptual Defects 310
Organizational Defects 313
Expressive Defects 314
The Role of Media in Expression 315
In Conclusion 317