9780813819525

Finfish and Shellfish Bacteriology Manual : Techniques and Procedures

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  • ISBN13:

    9780813819525

  • ISBN10:

    0813819520

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Spiral Bound
  • Copyright: 2003-10-20
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.

Summary

Significant advances in the field of microflora of aquatic animals, including fish and invertebrates, demands a practical laboratory text with the current methods for the bacteriological analysis of health and disease in fish and shellfish. Practical rather than theoretical, this manual is useful for individuals working in aquatic, environmental, and veterinary science, and in aquaculture, public health, and aquatic research. Methods are presented for the isolation and identification of bacterial pathogens in fish and shellfish and zoonotic pathogens in shellfish. The step-by-step presentation of procedures guides students in aquatic health and newcomers to the diagnostic laboratory, while providing a refresher course for the more experienced laboratory employee. Numerous tables and illustrations further assist readers. Thorough coverage of basic bacteriological techniques ensures that even the inexperienced aquatic health diagnostician will need no additional resources. The effective, easy-to-follow organization of the Finfish and Shellfish Bacteriology Manual make it the primary sourcebook for any laboratory. Whether it's used as an occasional quick reference by the experienced fish diagnostician, or as a tool to build diagnostic capabilities from the ground up, this book rises to the challenge.

Author Biography

Kimberley A. Whitman BSc., specializes in microbiology, and has 20 years experience working as a fish health bacteriologist/biologist with government agencies, academic institutions, and industry. Currently, Ms. Whitman is working with Malaspina University – College, Nanaimo, British Columbia as a fish health instructor. She also is employed with the private sector implementing a quality assurance program for a marine extraction plant, and is the owner of OHB Enterprises as a consultant for international aquatic facilities.

Table of Contents

Preface, xiii
Introduction, xv
1. Finfish Bacteriology, 3(4)
2. Sample Collection to Detect Bacterial Infection in Finfish, 7(4)
3. Packaging Fish for Transport, 11(4)
Packaging Dead Fish for Transport,
11(1)
Packaging Live Fish for Transport,
12(3)
4. Aseptic Bacterial Examination of Finfish, 15(14)
Equipment Required,
15(1)
Specimen Preparation,
16(1)
Gross Examination,
17(1)
Bacterial Isolation from Blood,
17(16)
Small Fish,
17(1)
Large Fish,
18(3)
Caudal Venous Puncture,
18(1)
Heart Puncture,
18(1)
Dorsal Aorta Puncture,
18(3)
Bacterial Isolation from External Lesion,
21(1)
Bacterial Isolation from the Gill,
21(1)
Bacterial Isolation from the Intestine,
22(1)
Bacterial Isolation from the Kidney,
22(4)
Sterile Dissection Made from the Abdominal Area,
23(2)
Access to the Kidney by Making One Dorsolateral Incision,
25(1)
Packaging Transport Swabs for Transport,
26(1)
Packaging Culture Plates for Transport,
27(1)
Packaging Slides for Transport,
28(1)
5. Shellfish Bacteriology, 29(2)
6. Sample Collection to Detect Bacterial Infection in Shellfish, 31(2)
7. Sampling and Packaging Bivalves and Crustaceans for Transport, 33(4)
Sampling and Packaging Bivalves for Transport,
33(1)
Sampling and Packaging Crustaceans for Transport,
34(3)
8. Aseptic Bacterial Examination of Bivalves, 37(10)
Equipment Required,
37(1)
Specimen Preparation,
37(1)
Gross Examination,
38(1)
Bacterial Isolation from Hemolymph,
38(1)
Bacterial Examination of Internal Organs,
38(1)
Opening Oysters Aseptically,
39(2)
Opening Mussels Aseptically,
41(1)
Opening Clams Aseptically,
42(2)
Opening Scallops Aseptically,
44(3)
9. Aseptic Bacterial Examination of Lobsters, 47(6)
Equipment Required,
47(1)
Specimen Preparation,
48(1)
Gross Examination,
48(1)
Bacterial Isolation from an External Lesion,
48(1)
Adult Lobsters,
48(1)
Juvenile Lobsters,
48(1)
Bacterial Isolation from Hemolymph,
49(1)
Bacterial Isolation from the Internal Organs,
50(3)
Adult lobsters,
50(1)
Juvenile Lobsters,
51(2)
10. Diagnostic Methodology in Finfish and Shellfish Bacteriology, 53(16)
Visual Examination,
53(1)
Microscopic and Histological Examination,
54(1)
Bacterial Isolation,
55(1)
Phenotypic Tests,
55(1)
Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibodies,
55(1)
Latex Agglutination Test,
56(1)
Coaggultination Test (Antibody-Sensitized Staphylococci),
57(1)
Fluorescent Antibody Technique,
58(1)
Enzyme Immunoassay,
59(2)
Immunoperoxidase Test,
60(1)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay,
60(1)
Immunohistochemical Technique,
61(1)
Immunomagnetic Separation of Antigens,
62(1)
Immunodiffusion,
62(1)
Immunoelectrophoresis,
63(1)
Western Blot Analysis,
63(1)
Polymerase Chain Reaction,
64(1)
References,
65(4)
11. Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests, 69(12)
The Difference between True and Apparent Prevalence,
70(1)
The Sensitivity of a Test,
71(1)
The Specificity of a Test,
71(1)
Altering Test Sensitivity and Specificity,
72(1)
The Predictive Values of Tests,
73(1)
Measuring Agreement between Tests,
74(1)
Testing a Diagnostic or Screening Test,
74(1)
Selecting the Benchmark,
75(2)
Screening Tests versus Diagnostic Tests,
77(1)
Observer Bias,
78(1)
Sample Size Required for Test Evaluation,
78(1)
The Accuracy and Precision of a Test,
78(1)
The Critical Reading of Published Scientific Literature,
79(1)
References,
80(1)
12. Bacteriology Culture Media, 81(26)
Artificial Culture Media for Finfish,
81(23)
Blood Agar,
81(2)
Brain Heart Infusion Agar,
83(1)
Coomassie Brilliant Blue Agar,
83(1)
Cytophaga Agar,
84(1)
Dilute Mueller-Hinton Agar,
85(1)
Edwardsiella ictaluri Agar,
85(1)
Kidney Disease Medium 2,
86(1)
Kidney Disease Medium with Charcoal,
86(1)
Lowenstein-Jensen Medium,
87(1)
Marine Agar,
88(1)
McFarland Turbidity Standards,
89(1)
Modified Shieh Medium,
90(1)
Mueller-Hinton Agar,
91(1)
Ogawa's Egg Medium,
92(1)
Photobacterium Beta-Hydroxybutarate Granule Production Agar,
92(1)
Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida Medium,
93(1)
Pseudomonas F Agar,
93(1)
Rimler-Shotts Medium,
94(1)
Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar,
95(1)
Selective Kidney Disease Medium,
95(1)
Thiosulphate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose Agar,
96(1)
Trypticase Soy Agar,
97(1)
Tyes Agar,
97(1)
Yersinia Agar base,
98(6)
Artificial Culture Media for Shellfish,
104(1)
Chitin Agar,
104(1)
Preparation of Colloidal Paste,
104(1)
Preparation of Culture Plate,
104(1)
Phenyl Ethanol Broth,
105(1)
References,
105(2)
13. Pure-Culture Techniques, 107(12)
The Streak Plate Method for Isolation of Pure Cultures,
107(2)
Colony Morphology,
109(10)
14. Staining Methods, 119(10)
Acid-Fast Stain,
120(1)
Gram Stain,
121(4)
Fluorescent Antibody Technique,
125(4)
Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique,
125(1)
Direct Fluorescent Antibody Technique,
126(3)
15. Colony Identification, 129(6)
Motility,
129(2)
Hanging Drop Preparation,
129(1)
Alternative Wet Preparation,
130(1)
O/129 Disk,
131(1)
Cytochrome Oxidase Test,
132(1)
Catalase Test,
132(1)
Three Percent Potassium Hydroxide Test,
133(2)
16. Biochemical Activities of Bacteria, 135(22)
Oxidation/Fermentation,
135(3)
Oxidative/Fermentative Test,
136(2)
Simmon's Citrate Media,
138(1)
Gelatinase,
139(1)
Sulfide, Indole, Motility Medium,
140(2)
Hydrogen Sulfide,
141(1)
Indole,
141(1)
Motility,
141(1)
Triple Sugar Iron,
142(2)
Urea Medium,
144(1)
Carbohydrates,
145(2)
Esculin Hydrolysis Test,
147(1)
Decarboxylase Test,
148(2)
Decarboxylase Base Moeller Medium,
148(2)
Nitrate Test,
150(2)
Indole-Nitrite Medium (Trypticase Nitrate Broth),
150(2)
Commercial Phenotypic Diagnostic Tests,
152(5)
API 20E System,
152(1)
API 20NE Kit,
153(1)
API ZYM Kit,
153(1)
API 20Strep Kit,
154(1)
Biolog-GN MicroStation,
154(1)
MicroScan,
155(1)
Abbott Quantum II,
155(2)
17. Serology, 157
Agglutination Tests,
157
Bacterial Slide Agglutination Test,
157
18. Antibiotic Testing, 61(118)
Methods for Antibiotic-Sensitivity Testing,
162(15)
Interpretation,
163(1)
Diffusion Methods,
163(5)
Disk-Diffusion Method,
163(4)
E-Test,
167(1)
Dilution Methods,
168(11)
Agar-Dilution Method,
168(11)
Media Standards,
169(1)
Preparation of Antimicrobial Dilutions,
169(1)
Preparation of Plates,
170(1)
Inoculum Preparation and Application,
171(5)
Rejection Criteria,
176(1)
References,
177(2)
19. Specific Techniques Used for Finish Bacteriology, 179(8)
The Detection of Asymptomatic Carriers of Furunculosis,
179(3)
The SIF Test,
179(3)
Fish Greater Than 5 g (Injection),
180(2)
Fish Less Than 5 g (Immersion),
182(1)
Detection of Bacterial Kidney Disease in the Reproductive Fluids of Brood Fish,
182(2)
Milt Samples,
182(1)
Ovarian Fluid,
183(1)
Nurse Culture for the Acceleration of Renebacterium salmoniarum,
184(1)
Preparation of R. salmoniarum Nurse Culture,
184(1)
Preparation of Tissue Samples,
185(1)
Incubation,
185(1)
Modified Nurse Culture for the Acceleration of Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida,
185(1)
References,
186(1)
20. Specific Techniques Used for Shellfish Bacteriology, 187(6)
Vibriosis of Larval Bivalves,
187(2)
Sampling Procedure,
187(1)
Qualitative,
187(1)
Quantitative-Tanks,
187(1)
Quantitative-Larvae,
188(1)
Laboratory Examination,
188(1)
Detection of Aerococcus viridans var. Homari (Gaffkemia) in Lobsters,
189(1)
Sampling Procedure,
189(1)
Laboratory Examination,
189(1)
Detection of Shell Disease in Lobsters,
190(2)
Sampling Procedure,
190(1)
Adult Lobsters,
190(1)
Juvenile Lobsters,
191(1)
Laboratory Examination,
191(1)
Vibriosis of Lobsters,
192(1)
Sampling Procedure,
192(1)
Laboratory Examination,
192(1)
21. Enumeration of Bacteria by the Plate Count Technique, 193(4)
Dilution of Specimen for Pour Plate and Spread Plate Methods,
193(1)
Pour Plate Method,
194(1)
Spread Plate Method,
194(3)
Counting Colonies for Pour Plate and Spread Plate Methods,
195(1)
Calculation of Plate Count for Pour Plate and Spread Plate Methods,
195(2)
22. Public Health Indicator Organisms in Bivalves, 197(20)
Media,
200(3)
Brilliant Green Bile 2% Bile Broth,
200(1)
Lauryl Tryptose Broth,
200(1)
EC Medium,
201(1)
Dilution Water,
202(1)
Plate Count Agar (Standard Methods Agar),
202(1)
A-1 Medium,
203(1)
Sampling Procedures for Shellfish and Water,
203(3)
Shellfish,
204(1)
Water,
204(1)
Processing Procedure for Shellfish,
205(1)
Coliform/Fecal Coliform Bacterial Testing,
206(6)
Coliform Bacterial Testing,
206(3)
Shellfish,
206(1)
Laboratory Procedure,
206(1)
Water,
207(2)
Laboratory Procedure,
207(2)
Fecal Coliform Bacterial Testing,
209(2)
Shellfish,
209(1)
Laboratory Procedure,
209(1)
Water,
210(3)
Laboratory Procedure,
210(1)
Rapid Fecal Coliform MPN Test (Modified A-1 Method),
211(1)
Standard Plate Count Method (SPC),
212(5)
Shellfish,
213(1)
Laboratory Procedure,
213(1)
Water,
214(3)
Laboratory Procedure,
214(3)
Appendix, 217(1)
Biochemistry Profiles of Disease-Causing Aquatic Organisms, 217(1)
Table A.1. Biochemistry profile Aerococcus viridans var. homari, 218(1)
Table A.2. Biochemistry profile Aeromonas hydrophila, 219(1)
Table A.3. Biochemistry profile Aeromonas salmonicida, subsp. salmonicida, 220(1)
Table A.4. Biochemistry profile atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, 221(1)
Table A.5. Biochemistry profile Aeromonas salmonicida, subsp. masoucida, 222(1)
Table A.6. Biochemistry profile Aeromonas salmonicida, subsp. achromogenes, 223(1)
Table A.7. Biochemistry profile Aeromonas salmonicida, subsp. smithia, 224(1)
Table A.8. Biochemistry profile Aeromonas sobria, 225(1)
Table A.9. Biochemistry profile Carnobacterium piscicola, 226(1)
Table A.10. Biochemistry profile Edwardsiella ictaluri, 227(1)
Table A.11. Biochemistry profile Edwardsiella tarda, 228(1)
Table A.12. Biochemistry profile Escherichia coli, 229(1)
Table A.13. Biochemistry profile Flavobacterium branchiophilum, 230(1)
Table A.14. Biochemistry profile Flavobacterium columnare, 231(1)
Table A.15. Biochemistry profile Flavobacterium hydatis, 232(1)
Table A.16. Biochemistry profile Flavobacterium psychrophilum, 233(1)
Table A.17. Biochemistry profile Hafnia alvei, 234(1)
Table A.18. Biochemistry profile Moritella viscosus, 235(1)
Table A.19. Biochemistry profile Photobacterium angustum, 236(1)
Table A.20. Biochemistry profile Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, 237(1)
Table A.21. Biochemistry profile Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida, 238(1)
Table A.22. Biochemistry profile Plesiomonas shigelloides, 239(1)
Table A.23. Biochemistry profile Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 240(1)
Table A.24. Biochemistry profile Pseudomonas fluorescens (Biovar I, II, III, IV, V), 241(1)
Table A.25. Biochemistry profile Renibacterium salmoninarum, 242(1)
Table A.26. Biochemistry profile Streptococcus iniae, 243(1)
Table A.27. Biochemistry profile Vibrio alginolyticus, 244(1)
Table A.28. Biochemistry profile Vibrio anguillarum (Serotype 01), 245(1)
Table A.29. Biochemistry profile Vibrio anguillarum (Serotype 02), 246(1)
Table A.30. Biochemistry profile Vibrio cholera, 247(1)
Table A.31. Biochemistry profile Vibrio fluvialis (Biovar I), 248(1)
Table A.32. Biochemistry profile Vibrio fluvialis (Biovar II), 249(1)
Table A.33. Biochemistry profile Vibrio ordalii, 250(1)
Table A.34. Biochemistry profile Vibrio parahemolyticus, 251(1)
Table A.35. Biochemistry profile Vibrio salmonicida, 252(1)
Table A.36. Biochemistry profile Vibrio vulnificus (Biotype II), 253(1)
Table A.37. Biochemistry profile Vibrio wodanis, 254(1)
Table A.38. Biochemistry profile Yersinia ruckeri (Type I), 255(1)
Table A.39. Biochemistry profile Yersinia ruckeri (Type II), 256(1)
Bibliography, 257

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