Finite Mathematics

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  • Edition: 10th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 7/5/2011
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Finite Mathematics, Tenth Edition, by Lial, Greenwell, and Ritchey, is our most applied text to date, making the math relevant and accessible for students of business, life science, and social sciences. Current applications, many using real data, are incorporated in numerous forms throughout the book, preparing students for success in their professional careers. With this edition, students will find new ways to get involved with the material, such as ;Your Turn ; exercises and ;Apply It ; vignettes that encourage active participation.

Author Biography

Marge Lial was always interested in math; it was her favorite subject in the first grade! Marge's intense desire to educate both her students and herself has inspired the writing of numerous best-selling textbooks. Marge, who received Bachelor's and Master's degrees from California State University at Sacramento, is now affiliated with American River College.


Marge is an avid reader and traveler. Her travel experiences often find their way into her books as applications, exercise sets, and feature sets. She is particularly interested in archeology. Trips to various digs and ruin sites have produced some fascinating problems for her textbooks involving such topics as the building of Mayan pyramids and the acoustics of ancient ball courts in the Yucatan.


Raymond N. Greenwell earned a B.A. in Mathematics and Physics from the University of San Diego, and an M.S. in Statistics, an M.S. in Applied Mathematics, and a Ph.D. in Applied Mathematics from Michigan State University, where he earned the graduate student teaching award in 1979. After teaching at Albion College in Michigan for four years, he moved to Hofstra University in1983, where he currently is Professor of Mathematics.


Raymond has published articles on fluid mechanics, mathematical biology, genetic algorithms, combinatorics, statistics, and undergraduate mathematics education. He is a member of MAA, AMS, SIAM, NCTM, and AMATYC. He is currently (2002-2005) governor of the Metropolitan New York Section of the MAA, as well as webmaster and liaison coordinator, and he received a distinguished service award from the Section in 2003. He is an outdoor enthusiast and leads trips in the Sierra Club’s Inner City Outings program.


Nathan P. Ritchey earned a B.A. in Mathematics with a minor in Music from Mansfield University of Pennsylvania. He earned a M.S. in Applied Mathematics and a Ph.D. in Mathematics from Carnegie Mellon University. He is currently a Professor of Mathematics and Chair of the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at Youngstown State University. He has published articles in economics, honors education, medicine, mathematics, operations research, and student recruitment. Nate is a Consultant/Evaluator for the North Central Association's Higher Learning Commission and regularly participates in program evaluations.

In recognition of his numerous activities, Nate has received the Distinguished Professor Award for University Service, the Youngstown Vindicator's "People Who Make a Difference Award," the Watson Merit Award for Department Chairs, the Spirit in Education Award from the SunTex corporation, and the Provost's Merit Award for significant contributions to the Honors Program.

A father of four children, Nate enthusiastically coaches soccer and softball. He also loves music, playing several instruments, and is a tenor in the Shenango Valley Chorale. More information about Nate Ritchey can be found at: http://www.as.ysu.edu/~nate/

Table of Contents

R. Algebra Reference

R.1 Polynomials

R.2 Factoring

R.3 Rational Expressions

R.4 Equations

R.5 Inequalities

R.6 Exponents

R.7 Radicals


1. Linear Functions

1.1 Slopes and Equations of Lines

1.2 Linear Functions and Applications

1.3 The Least Squares Line

Chapter 1 Review

Extended Application: Using Extrapolation to Predict Life Expectancy


2. Systems of Linear Equations and Matrices

2.1 Solution of Linear Systems by the Echelon Method

2.2 Solution of Linear Systems by the Gauss-Jordan Method

2.3 Addition and Subtraction of Matrices

2.4 Multiplication of Matrices

2.5 Matrix Inverses

2.6 Input-Output Models

Chapter 2 Review

Extended Application: Contagion


3. Linear Programming: The Graphical Method

3.1 Graphing Linear Inequalities

3.2 Solving Linear Programming Problems Graphically

3.3 Applications of Linear Programming

Chapter 3 Review

Extended Application: Sensitivity Analysis


4. Linear Programming: The Simplex Method

4.1 Slack Variables and the Pivot

4.2 Maximization Problems

4.3 Minimization Problems; Duality

4.4 Nonstandard Problems

Chapter 4 Review

Extended Application: Using Integer Programming in the Stock-Cutting Problem


5. Mathematics of Finance

5.1 Simple and Compound Interest

5.2 Future Value of an Annuity

5.3 Present Value of an Annuity; Amortization

Chapter 5 Review

Extended Application: Time, Money, and Polynomials


6. Logic

6.1 Statements

6.2 Truth Tables and Equivalent Statements

6.3 The Conditional and Circuits

6.4 More on the Conditional

6.5 Analyzing Arguments and Proofs

6.6 Analyzing Arguments with Quantifiers

Chapter 6 Review

Extended Application: Logic Puzzles


7. Sets and Probability

7.1 Sets

7.2 Applications of Venn Diagrams

7.3 Introduction to Probability

7.4 Basic Concepts of Probability

7.5 Conditional Probability; Independent Events

7.6 Bayes’ Theorem

Chapter 7 Review

Extended Application: Medical Diagnosis


8. Counting Principles; Further Probability Topics

8.1 The Multiplication Principle; Permutations

8.2 Combinations

8.3 Probability Applications of Counting Principles

8.4 Binomial Probability

8.5 Probability Distributions; Expected Value

Chapter 8 Review

Extended Application: Optimal Inventory for a Service Truck


9. Statistics

9.1 Frequency Distributions; Measures of Central Tendency

9.2 Measures of Variation

9.3 The Normal Distribution

9.4 Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution

Chapter 9 Review

Extended Application: Statistics in the Law—The Castaneda Decision


10. Markov Chains

10.1 Basic Properties of Markov Chains

10.2 Regular Markov Chains

10.3 Absorbing Markov Chains

Chapter 10 Review

Extended Application: A Markov Chain Model for Teacher Retention


11. Game Theory

11.1 Strictly Determined Games

11.2 Mixed Strategies

11.3 Game Theory and Linear Programming

Chapter 11 Review

Extended Application: The Prisoner’s Dilemma—Non-Zero-Sum Games in Economics

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