Preface 

vii  

Statistics, Data, and Statistical Thinking 


1  (18) 

The Science of Statistics 


2  (1) 

Types of Statistical Applications 


2  (2) 

Fundamental Elements of Statistics 


4  (5) 


9  (1) 


10  (3) 

The Role of Statistics in Critical Thinking 


13  (6) 


14  (1) 

Statistics In Action A ``20/20'' View of Survey Results: Fact or Fiction? 


15  (4) 

Methods for Describing Sets of Data 


19  (88) 

Describing Qualitative Data 


20  (9) 

Graphical Methods for Describing Quantitative Data 


29  (13) 


42  (2) 

Numerical Measures of Central Tendency 


44  (11) 

Numerical Measures of Variability 


55  (6) 

Interpreting the Standard Deviation 


61  (9) 

Numerical Measures of Relative Standing 


70  (5) 

Methods for Detecting Outliers (Optional) 


75  (11) 

Graphing Bivariate Relationships (Optional) 


86  (5) 

Distorting the Truth with Descriptive Techniques 


91  (16) 

Statistics in Action The ``Eye Cue'' Test: Does Experience Improve Performance? 


95  (1) 


96  (11) 


107  (56) 

Events, Sample Spaces, and Probability 


108  (12) 


120  (3) 


123  (3) 

The Additive Rule and Mutually Exclusive Events 


126  (5) 


131  (8) 

The Multiplicative Rule and Independent Events 


139  (24) 


149  (5) 

Statistics in Action Game Show Strategy: To Switch or Not to Switch? 


154  (1) 


155  (8) 

Random Variables and Probability Distributions 


163  (74) 

Two Types of Random Variables 


164  (3) 

Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables 


167  (10) 

The Binomial Distribution 


177  (13) 

Probability Distributions for Continuous Random Variables 


190  (1) 


190  (13) 

Descriptive Methods for Assessing Normality 


203  (7) 

Approximating a Binomial Distribution with a Normal Distribution (Optional) 


210  (6) 


216  (6) 

The Central Limit Theorem 


222  (15) 


230  (1) 

Statistics in Action The Insomnia Pill 


231  (6) 

Inferences Based on a Single Sample: Estimation with Confidence Intervals 


237  (40) 

LargeSample Confidence Interval for a Population Mean 


238  (9) 

SmallSample Confidence Interval for a Population Mean 


247  (11) 

LargeSample Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion 


258  (7) 

Determining the Sample Size 


265  (12) 

Statistics in Action Scallops, Sampling, and the Law 


269  (2) 


271  (6) 

Inferences Based on a Single Sample: Tests of Hypothesis 


277  (44) 

The Elements of a Test of Hypothesis 


278  (6) 

LargeSample Test of Hypothesis About a Population Mean 


284  (6) 

Observed Significance Levels: pValues 


290  (7) 

SmallSample Test of Hypothesis About a Population Mean 


297  (6) 

LargeSample Test of Hypothesis About a Population Proportion 


303  (6) 

A Nonparametric Test About a Population Median (Optional) 


309  (12) 


315  (1) 

Statistics in Action March Madness: Handicapping the NCAA Basketball Tourney 


315  (6) 

Comparing Population Means 


321  (76) 

Comparing Two Population Means: Independent Sampling 


322  (17) 

Comparing Two Population Means: Paired Difference Experiments 


339  (13) 

Determining the Sample Size 


352  (3) 

A Nonparametric Test for Comparing Two Populations: Independent Sampling (Optional) 


355  (8) 

A Nonparametric Test for Comparing Two Populations: Paired Difference Experiments (Optional) 


363  (8) 

Comparing Three or More Population Means: Analysis of Variance (Optional) 


371  (26) 

Statistics in Action On the Trail of the Cockroach 


386  (2) 


388  (9) 

Comparing Population Proportions 


397  (42) 

Comparing Two Population Proportions: Independent Sampling 


398  (7) 

Determining the Sample Size 


405  (2) 

Comparing Population Proportions: Multinomial Experiment 


407  (8) 

Contingency Table Analysis 


415  (24) 

Statistics in Action The Level of Agreement Among Movie Reviewers: Thumbs Up or Thumbs Down? 


431  (1) 


431  (8) 


439  (74) 


440  (4) 

Fitting the Model: The Least Squares Approach 


444  (15) 


459  (1) 


460  (3) 

Assessing the Utility of the Model: Making Inferences About the Slope β1 


463  (8) 

The Coefficient of Correlation 


471  (3) 

The Coefficient of Determination 


474  (7) 

Using the Model for Estimation and Prediction 


481  (9) 


490  (4) 

A Nonparametric Test for Correlation (Optional) 


494  (19) 

Statistics in Action Can ``Dowsers'' Really Detect Water? 


502  (3) 


505  (8) 
Appendix A: Tables 

513  (24) 


515  (3) 

Table II Binomial Probabilities 


518  (4) 

Table III Normal Curve Areas 


522  (1) 

Table IV Critical Values of t 


523  (1) 

Table V Critical Values of TL and TU for the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test: Independent Samples 


524  (1) 

Table VI Critical Values of T0 in the Wilcoxon Paired Difference Signed Ranks Test 


525  (1) 

Table VII Percentage Points of the FDistribution, α = .10 


526  (2) 

Table VIII Percentage Points of the FDistribution, α = .05 


528  (2) 

Table IX Percentage Points of the FDistribution, α = .025 


530  (2) 

Table X Percentage Points of the FDistribution, α = .01 


532  (2) 

Table XI Critical Values of χ2 


534  (2) 

Table XII Critical Values of Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient 


536  (1) 
Appendix B: Data Sets on CDROM That Accompanies This Text 

537  (4) 
Appendix C: Calculation Formulas for Analysis of Variance (Independent Sampling) 

541  (2) 
Answers to Selected Exercises 

543  (8) 
Index 

551  