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First Look at Communication Theory,9780072291537
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First Look at Communication Theory

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780072291537

ISBN10:
0072291532
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/1/1999
Publisher(s):
MCG
List Price: $69.67
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Table of Contents

Preface for Instructors vii
PART ONE OVERVIEW 1(48)
Introduction
2(4)
Talk About Theory
6(14)
Science or Interpretation: Two Views of a Swimming Elephant
6(4)
Glenn: An Objective Perspective
7(1)
Marty: An Interpretive Perspective
8(2)
Ways of Knowing: Discovering the Truth versus Creating Multiple Realities
10(1)
Human Nature: Determinism versus Free Will
10(2)
What Do We Value Most? Objectivity versus Emancipation
12(1)
The Purpose of Theory: Universal Laws versus Rules for Interpretation
13(1)
Research Methods: Experiments, Surveys, Textual Analysis, Ethnography
14(3)
Experiments
14(1)
Surveys
14(2)
Textual Analysis
16(1)
Ethnography
17(1)
Looking Back, Looking Ahead
17(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
18(1)
A Second Look
18(2)
Weighing the Words
20(14)
Ernest Bormann's
A Test Case: Ernest Bormann's Symbolic Convergence Theory
21(1)
What Makes an Objective Theory Good?
22(5)
Scientific Standard 1: Explanation of the Data
22(1)
Scientific Standard 2: Prediction of Future Events
23(1)
Scientific Standard 3: Relative Simplicity
24(1)
Scientific Standard 4: Hypotheses That Can Be Tested
25(1)
Scientific Standard 5: Practical Utility
26(1)
What Makes an Interpretive Theory Good?
27(4)
Interpretive Standard 1: New Understanding of People
27(1)
Interpretive Standard 2: Clarification of Values
28(1)
Interpretive Standard 3: Aesthetic Appeal
29(1)
Interpretive Standard 4: A Community of Agreement
29(1)
Interpretive Standard 5: Reform of Society
30(1)
Balancing the Scale: Similar Weights and Measures
31(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
32(1)
A Second Look
32(2)
Mapping the Territory
34(15)
(Seven Traditions in the Field of Communication Theory)
The Socio-Psychological Tradition (Communication as Interpersonal Influence)
35(1)
The Cybernetic Tradition (Communication as Information Processing)
36(2)
The Rhetorical Tradition (Communication as Artful Public Address)
38(1)
The Semiotic Tradition (Communication as the Process of Sharing Meaning Through Signs)
39(2)
The Socio-Cultural Tradition (Communication as the Creation and Enactment of Social Reality)
41(2)
The Critical Tradition (Communication as a Reflective Challenge of Unjust Discourse)
43(2)
The Phenomenological Tradition (Communication as the Experience of Self and Others Through Dialogue)
45(1)
Fencing the Field of Communication Theory
46(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
47(1)
A Second Look
48(1)
PART TWO INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 49(1)
Interpersonal Messages 50(53)
Symbolic Interactionism
53(11)
George Herbert Mead
Meaning: The Construction of Social Reality
54(1)
Language: The Source of Meaning
55(1)
Thought: Taking the Role of the Other
56(1)
The Self: Reflections in a Looking Glass
57(1)
Community: The Socializing Effect of Others' Expectations
58(2)
A Symbolic Sampler of Applied Interactionism
60(1)
Critique: A Theory Too Grand?
61(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
62(1)
A Second Look
63(1)
Coordinated Management of Meaning
64(14)
W. Barnett Pearce
Vernon Cronen
The Social Constructionist Ideal: Cosmopolitan Communicators Who Are Curious Participants in a Pluralistic World
64(2)
Persons-in-Conversation---Creating Bonds of Union
66(2)
Stories Told, Stories Lived, Stories Not Yet Told
68(6)
Coherence---A Unified Context for Stories Told
69(2)
Coordination---The Meshing of Stories Lived
71(1)
Mystery---A Sense of Wonder for Stories Not Yet Told
72(2)
The Practice of Cosmopolitan Communication: Coordination Without Coherence
74(1)
Critique: What Do They Think They Are Doing?
75(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
76(1)
A Second Look
76(2)
Expectancy Violations Theory
78(12)
Judee Burgoon
Personal Space Expectations: Conform or Deviate?
79(3)
An Applied Test of the Original Model
81(1)
A Convoluted Model Becomes an Elegant Theory
82(1)
Core Concepts of EVT
83(4)
Expectancy
84(1)
Violation Valence
85(1)
Communicator Reward Valence
86(1)
Critique: Work in Progress
87(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
88(1)
A Second Look
89(1)
Interpersonal Deception Theory
90(13)
David Buller
Judee Burgoon
An Emergent Theory of Thoughtful Interaction
92(2)
Strategic Information Management: The Language and Look of Liars
94(2)
Leakage---The Truth Will Come Out (Maybe)
96(1)
Respondents' Dilemma: Truth Bias or Suspicion?
97(1)
Putting Doubts to Rest: Deceiver Adjustment to Respondent Suspicion
98(1)
Critique: Why Is a Scientific Theory of Deceptive Communication So Complicated?
99(2)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
101(1)
A Second Look
101(2)
Ethical Reflections 103(4)
Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative
103(1)
Augustine's Divine Will
104(1)
Sissela Bok's Principle of Veracity
105(2)
Cognitive Processing 107(15)
Constructivism
110(12)
Jesse Delia
Role Category Questionnaire
110(1)
Personal Constructs as Evidence of Cognitive Complexity
111(1)
The Three Faces of Cognitive Complexity: Differentiation, Abstraction, and Integration
111(1)
Sophisticated Communication: Person-Centered Messages...and More
112(2)
Message Design Logic---The Missing Link Between Complexity and Sophisticated Communication
114(2)
Expressive Design Logic
114(1)
Conventional Design Logic
115(1)
Rhetorical Design Logic
115(1)
Beneficial Effects of Sophisticated Communication
116(2)
Socializing a New Generation of Sophisticated Speakers
118(1)
Critique: Second Thoughts About Cognitive Complexity
119(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
120(1)
A Second Look
120(2)
Relationship Development 122(25)
Social Penetration Theory
126(10)
Irwin Altman
Dalmas Taylor
Personality Structure: A Multilayered Onion
127(1)
Closeness Through Self-Disclosure
127(1)
The Depth and Breadth of Self-Disclosure
128(2)
Regulating Closeness on the Basis of Rewards and Costs
130(3)
Outcome: Rewards Minus Costs
131(1)
Satisfaction---Comparison Level (CL)
132(1)
Stability---Comparison Level of Alternatives (CLalt)
132(1)
Critique: Pulling Back from Social Penetration
133(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
134(1)
A Second Look
135(1)
Uncertainty Reduction Theory
136(11)
Charles Berger
Uncertainty Reduction: To Predict and Explain
137(1)
An Axiomatic Theory: Certainty about Uncertainty
137(3)
Theorems: The Logical Force of Uncertainty Axioms
140(1)
Strategies to Cope with Certain Uncertainty
141(3)
Critique: Nagging Doubts about Uncertainty
144(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
145(1)
A Second Look
146(1)
Relationship Maintenance 147(29)
The Interactional View
151(12)
Paul Watzlawick
The Family as a System
152(1)
Axioms of Interpersonal Communications
153(4)
One Cannot Not Communicate
153(1)
Communication = Content + Relationship
154(1)
The Nature of a Relationship Depends on How Both Parties Punctuate the Communication Sequence
155(1)
All Communication Is Either Symmetrical or Complementary
156(1)
Trapped in a System with No Place to Go
157(1)
Reframing: Changing the Game by Changing the Rules
158(2)
Critique: Adjustments Needed within the System
160(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
161(1)
A Second Look
162(1)
Relational Dialectics
163(13)
Leslie Baxter
Barbara Montgomery
The Push-Me-Pull-You Dialectics of Close Relationships
164(1)
Three Relational Dialectics: Connectedness-Separateness, Certainty-Uncertainty, Openness-Closedness
165(4)
Connectedness and Separateness
166(2)
Certainty and Uncertainty
168(1)
Openness and Closedness
168(1)
Parallel Dialectics between Couple and Community: Inclusion-Seclusion, Conventionality-Uniqueness, Revelation-Concealment
169(2)
Inclusion and Seclusion
169(1)
Conventionality and Uniqueness
170(1)
Revelation and Concealment
170(1)
Dealing with Dialectical Tension: Competence in the Face of Contradiction
171(2)
Critique: What Do We Do With a Relational Mess?
173(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
174(1)
A Second Look
174(2)
Influence 176(26)
Social Judgment Theory
179(11)
Muzafer Sherif
Attitudes as Latitudes: Acceptance, Rejection, and Noncommitment
180(1)
Ego-Involvement---The Certainty of Those Who Care
181(2)
Judging the Message: Contrast and Assimilation Errors
183(1)
Discrepancy and Attitude Change
184(1)
Practical Advice for the Persuader
185(1)
Evidence That Argues for Acceptance
186(1)
Critique: How Wide Is Your Theoretical Latitude of Acceptance?
187(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
188(1)
A Second Look
188(2)
Elaboration Likelihood Model
190(12)
Richard Petty
John Cacioppo
The Central Route vs. the Peripheral Route: Alternative Paths to Persuasion
190(2)
Motivation for Elaboration: Is It Worth the Effort?
192(1)
Ability for Elaboration: Can They Do It?
193(1)
Type of Elaboration: Objective vs. Biased Thinking
194(1)
Elaborated Arguments: Strong, Weak, and Neutral
194(1)
Peripheral Cues: An Alternative Route of Influence
195(2)
Pushing the Limits of Peripheral Power
197(1)
Choosing a Route: Practical Advice for the Persuader
198(1)
Critique: Elaborating the Model
199(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
200(1)
A Second Look
200(2)
Ethical Reflections 202(5)
Martin Buber's Dialogic Ethics
202(1)
Thomas Nilsen's Significant Choice
203(4)
PART THREE GROUP AND PUBLIC COMMUNICATION 207(1)
Group Decision Making 208(27)
Functional Perspective on Group Decision Making
211(12)
Randy Hirokawa
Dennis Gouran
Four Functions for Effective Decision Making
212(4)
Analysis of the Problem
212(1)
Goal Setting
213(1)
Identification of Alternatives
213(2)
Evaluation of Positive and Negative Characteristics
215(1)
Prioritizing the Functions
216(1)
The Role of Communication in Fulfilling the Functions
217(1)
Test Tube Groups in the Laboratory
218(1)
Practical Advice for Amateurs and Professionals
219(1)
Critique: Is Rationality Overrated?
220(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
221(1)
A Second Look
222(1)
Adaptive Structuration Theory
223(12)
Marshall Scott Poole
Phasing Out the Phase Model
223(1)
Structuration: Production and Reproduction Through Use of Rules and Resources
224(2)
Opportunity for Participant Observation
226(1)
Critical Interactions: Decisions with an Eye Toward Morality, Communication, and Power
226(2)
The Use and Abuse of Rules and Resources
228(1)
Production and Reproduction---The Reason for Group Change and/or Stability
229(2)
How Should We Then Live...in a Group?
231(1)
Critique: Tied to Giddens---For Better or Worse
232(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
233(1)
A Second Look
233(2)
Organizational Communication 235(37)
Information Systems Approach to Organizations
237(11)
Karl Weick
The Goal of Organizing: Making Sense Out of Equivocal Information
238(1)
The University as a Loosely Coupled System
239(2)
The University as a System Open to the Environment
241(1)
The Three-Stage Process of Social-Cultural Evolution
242(4)
Enactment: Don't Just Sit There; Do Something
242(1)
Selection: Retrospective Sensemaking
243(2)
Retention: Treat Memory as a Pest
245(1)
Critique: The Pluses and Minuses of Metaphor
246(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
247(1)
A Second Look
247(1)
Cultural Approach to Organizations
248(11)
Clifford Geertz
Michael Pacanowsky
Culture as a Metaphor of Organizational Life
248(1)
What Culture Is; What Culture Is Not
249(1)
Thick Description---What Ethnographers Do
250(1)
Metaphors: Taking Language Seriously
251(1)
The Symbolic Interpretation of Story
252(1)
Stories at Dixie
252(1)
Fiction as a Form of Scholarly Discourse
253(1)
Ritual: This Is the Way It's Always Been, and Always Will Be
254(2)
The Manager as Change Agent
256(1)
Critique: Is the Cultural Approach Useful?
257(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
257(1)
A Second Look
258(1)
Critical Theory of Communication Approach to Organizations
259(13)
Stanley Deetz
Corporate Colonization of Everyday Life
260(1)
Information versus Communication: A Difference That Makes A Difference
261(2)
Strategy---Overt Managerial Moves to Extend Control
263(1)
Consent---Covert Control without Objection
264(2)
Involvement---Free Expression of Ideas
266(1)
Participation---Stakeholder Democracy in Action
266(2)
Saturn Corporation---A Model of Stakeholder Participation
268(1)
Critique: Is Workplace Democracy Just a Dream?
269(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
270(1)
A Second Look
270(2)
Public Rhetoric 272(33)
The Rhetoric
275(10)
Aristotle
Rhetoric: Making Persuasion Probable
276(1)
Rhetorical Proof: Logos, Ethos, Pathos
276(5)
Case Study: ``I Have a Dream''
277(1)
Logical Proof: Lines of Argument That Make Sense
277(2)
Ethical Proof: Perceived Source Credibility
279(1)
Emotional Proof: Striking a Responsive Chord
280(1)
The Five Canons of Rhetoric
281(2)
Critique: Standing the Test of Time
283(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
283(1)
A Second Look
284(1)
Dramatism
285(10)
Kenneth Burke
Identification: Without It, There Is No Persuasion
286(1)
The Dramatistic Pentad
287(1)
Guilt-Redemption Cycle: The Root of All Rhetoric
288(3)
Redemption Through Victimage
289(2)
A Rhetorical Critique Using Dramatistic Insight
291(1)
Malcolm X, ``The Ballot or the Bullet''
291(1)
Critique: Evaluating the Critic's Analysis
292(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
293(1)
A Second Look
294(1)
Narrative Paradigm
295(10)
Walter Fisher
Telling a Compelling Story
296(1)
Narration and Paradigm: Defining the Terms
297(1)
Paradigm Shift: From Rational-World Paradigm to Narrative Paradigm
298(1)
Narrative Rationality: Coherence and Fidelity
299(3)
Narrative Coherence: Does the Story Hang Together?
300(1)
Narrative Fidelity: Does the Story Ring True?
300(2)
Critique: Does Fisher's Story Have Coherence and Fidelity?
302(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
303(1)
A Second Look
303(2)
Ethical Reflections 305(4)
Aristotle's Golden Mean
305(1)
Cornel West's Prophetic Pragmatism
306(3)
PART FOUR MASS COMMUNICATION 309(1)
Media and Culture 310(38)
Technological Determinism
313(13)
Marshall McLuhan
Communication Inventions: The Balance Points of History
314(1)
We Shape Our Tools and They in Turn Shape Us
315(1)
The Medium Is the Message
316(1)
Parsing the Past: A Media Analysis of History
317(2)
The Tribal Age: An Acoustic Place in History
317(1)
The Age of Literacy: A Visual Point of View
317(1)
The Print Age: Prototype of the Industrial Revolution
318(1)
The Electronic Age: The Rise of the Global Village
318(1)
Television Is a Cool Medium
319(1)
Living on the Edge of an Era: Some Examples
320(1)
Politics
320(1)
Education
320(1)
Sex and Drugs
321(1)
The Dawn of a New Era?
321(1)
Critique: How Could He Be Right? But What if He Is?
322(2)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
324(1)
A Second Look
324(2)
Semiotics
326(11)
Roland Barthes
Wrestling with Signs
327(2)
A Sign Is the Combination of Its Signifier and Signified
327(1)
A Sign Does Not Stand on Its Own: It Is Part of a System
328(1)
The Yellow Ribbon Transformation: From Forgiveness of Stigma to Pride in Victory
329(1)
The Making of Myth: Stripping the Sign of History
330(2)
Unmasking the Myth of a Homogeneous Society
332(1)
The Semiotics of Mass Communication: ``I'd Like to Be Like Mike''
333(1)
Critique: Do Mythic Signs Always Reaffirm the Status Quo?
334(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
335(1)
A Second Look
336(1)
Cultural Studies
337(11)
Stuart Hall
The Media Are Ideological
338(1)
Early Cultural Critics
339(2)
Making Meaning
341(1)
Corporate Control of Mass Communication
341(1)
The Media Role in the Gulf War
342(2)
The Obstinate Audience
344(1)
Critique: How Do We Know He's Right?
345(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
346(1)
A Second Look
346(2)
Media Effects 348(38)
Cultivation Theory
350(10)
George Gerbner
An Index of Violence
351(1)
Equal Violence, Unequal Risk
352(1)
Establishing a Viewer Profile
353(1)
Plowing the Mind: Deep Furrows vs. Once Over Lightly
354(1)
Mainstreaming
354(1)
Resonance
355(1)
Critique: The Link between TV Exposure and Worldview---Significant, Small, Crucial
356(2)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
358(1)
A Second Look
358(2)
Agenda-Setting Theory
360(13)
Maxwell McCombs
Donald Shaw
The Original Agenda: Not What to Think, But What to Think About
360(1)
A Theory Whose Time Had Come
361(1)
Media Agenda and Public Agenda: A Close Match
362(1)
What Causes What?
363(1)
Who Are the People Most Affected by the Media Agenda?
364(1)
Which Issues Are Boosted by Media Attention?
365(1)
Framing: Transferring the Salience of Attributes
366(1)
A Revised Headline: Not Just What to Think About, but How to Think about It
367(1)
Who Sets the Agenda for the Agenda Setters?
368(1)
Critique: Are the Effects Too Limited, the Scope Too Wide?
369(2)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
371(1)
A Second Look
371(2)
The Media Equation
373(13)
Byron Reeves
Clifford Nass
The Media Equation: Media = Real Life
373(2)
Beyond Intuition That Protests: ``Not Me, I Know a Picture Is Not a Person''
375(1)
Old Brains, New Technologies
375(1)
Proving the Equation
376(6)
Interpersonal Distance
377(1)
Similarity and Attraction
378(2)
Source Credibility
380(2)
Adding Up the Evidence
382(1)
Critique: An Intriguing One-Way Relationship
382(2)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
384(1)
A Second Look
384(2)
Ethical Reflections 386(3)
Jurgen Habermas' Discourse Ethics
386(1)
Clifford Christians' Communitarian Ethics
387(2)
PART FIVE CULTURAL CONTEXT 389(1)
Intercultural Communication 390(42)
Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory
393(13)
William Gudykunst
Enter the Stranger
393(1)
Effective Communication: The Result of Mindfulness
394(2)
Anxiety and Uncertainty: Twin Offspring of Cultural Variability
396(2)
Managing Anxiety and Uncertainty When Cultures Clash
398(4)
Motivation Factors
399(1)
Knowledge Factors
399(2)
Skill Factors
401(1)
Critique: Overwhelmed by Intergroup Variables
402(2)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
404(1)
A Second Look
404(2)
Face-Negotiation Theory
406(14)
Stella Ting-Toomey
Collectivism vs. Individualism
408(2)
The Multiple Faces of Face
410(1)
Face: Linking Culture and Conflict Management
411(2)
Back to the Drawing Board: Adding Styles and Power
413(3)
New Conflict Styles
413(2)
Power Distance
415(1)
Application: Competent Intercultural Facework
416(1)
Critique: Confounded by Individual Differences
417(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
418(1)
A Second Look
419(1)
Speech Codes Theory (The Ethnography of Communication)
420(12)
Gerry Philipsen
The Distinctiveness of Speech Codes
422(1)
The Substance of Speech Codes
422(3)
Meanings of Speaking
425(1)
The Site of Speech Codes
426(1)
The Discursive Force of Speech Codes
427(1)
Performance Ethnography
428(1)
Critique: Different Speech Codes in Communication Theory
429(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
430(1)
A Second Look
430(2)
Gender and Communication 432(39)
Genderlect Styles
435(12)
Deborah Tannen
When Harry Met Sally: The Clash of Two Cultures
436(2)
Feminine Focus on Connection vs. Masculine Focus on Status
438(1)
Rapport Talk vs. Report Talk
438(4)
Public Speaking vs. Private Speaking
439(1)
Telling a Story
439(1)
Listening
440(1)
Asking Questions
440(1)
Conflict
441(1)
``Now You're Beginning to Understand''
442(1)
Critique: Is Tannen Soft on Research and Men?
443(2)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
445(1)
A Second Look
445(2)
Standpoint Theory
447(12)
Sandra Harding
Julia T. Wood
A Feminist Standpoint Grounded in Philosophy and Literature
448(2)
Women as a Marginalized Group
450(2)
Knowledge from Nowhere vs. Situated Science
452(1)
Strong Objectivity: Less Partial Views from the Standpoint of Women
453(2)
Theory to Practice: Communication Research from the Standpoint of Women
455(1)
Critique: Discovering Standpoint(s) on the Edge
456(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
457(1)
A Second Look
458(1)
Muted Group Theory
459(12)
Cheris Kramarae
Muted Groups: Black Holes in Someone Else's Universe
460(1)
The Masculine Power to Name Experience
461(1)
Men as the Gatekeepers of Communication
462(1)
Women's Truth into Men's Talk: The Problem of Translation
463(2)
Speaking Out in Private: Networking with Women
465(1)
Speaking Out in Public: A Feminist Dictionary
466(1)
Sexual Harassment: Coining a Term to Label Experience
466(2)
Critique: Is a Good Man Hard to Find (and Change)?
468(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
469(1)
A Second Look
470(1)
Ethical Reflections 471(4)
Carol Gilligan's Different Voice
471(1)
Seyla Benhabib's Interactive Universalism
472(3)
PART SIX INTEGRATION 475(1)
Communication Theory 476(16)
Order Out of Chaos
481(11)
Plotting Theories on an Objective-Interpretive Scale
482(2)
``On the One Hand ... on the Other''
484(1)
Four Options for Objective and Interpretive Scholars: Reject, Respect, Cooperate, Merge
485(4)
Rejection of Inferior Scholarship
485(1)
Respect and Celebration of Differences
486(1)
Cooperation with Needed Colleagues
487(1)
Legitimizing the Child of a Shotgun Marriage
488(1)
A Final Note
489(1)
Questions to Sharpen Your Focus
490(1)
A Second Look
490(2)
Appendix A: Glossary 492(10)
Appendix B: Abstracts of Theories 502(6)
Appendix C: Academic Journals That Focus on Communication Theory 508(1)
Appendix D: Feature Films That Illustrate Communication Theory 509(2)
Endnotes 511(20)
Credits and Acknowledgments 531(2)
Index 533


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