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First Peoples'distinctive approach continues to make it the bestselling and most highly acclaimed text for the American Indian history survey. Respected scholar Colin G. Calloway provides a solid foundation grounded in timely scholarship and a narrative that brings a largely untold history to students. The signature "docutext" format of First Peoplesstrikes the ideal balance, combining in every chapter a compelling narrative and rich written and visual documents from Native and non-Native voices alike. An expansion by two full chapters presents a more diverse and nuanced picture of the history of Native peoples in America.
Colin G. Calloway is John Kimball Jr. 1943 Professor of History and Professor of Native American Studies at Dartmouth College. He served for two years as associate director and editor at the D'Arcy McNickle Center for the History of the American Indian at the Newberry Library in Chicago and taught for seven years at the University of Wyoming. Professor Calloway has written many books on Native American history, including White People, Indians, and Highlanders: Tribal Peoples and Colonial Encounters in Scotland and America; The Shawnees and the War for America; The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America; One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West Before Lewis and Clark; and two books for the Bedford Series in History and Culture: Our Hearts Fell to the Ground: Plains Indians Views of How the West Was Lost, and The World Turned Upside Down: Indian Voices from Early America.
Table of Contents
Preface Maps, Tables, and Charts
INTRODUCTION: AMERICAN INDIANS IN AMERICAN HISTORY Perspectives on the Past America’s Master Narrative Indian History: A Shared Past Working with Sources A Note on Name Usage and Geographic Focus References
CHAPTER 1: AMERICAN HISTORY BEFORE COLUMBUS Determining What Came Before Precontact Population Creation Stories and Migration Theories Debates over Native Origins Glimpses of Precontact Societies West Coast Affluence Columbia Plateau Fishers Great Basin Foragers First Buffalo Hunters of the Plains First Farmers of the Southwest Farmers and Mound Builders of the Eastern Woodlands Emerging Tribes and Confederacies Seaborne Strangers The Prophesied Arrival DOCUMENTS A Navajo Emergence Story HASTIN TLO’TSI HEE, The Beginning Corn and Game: Women and Men in Cherokee Society Kana'ti and Selu The Iroquois Great League of Peace CHIEFS OF THE SIX NATIONS, The Laws of the Confederacy (1900) PICTURE ESSAY: Early American Towns and Cities The Ruins of Pueblo Bonito Cliff Palace at Mesa Verde Taos Pueblo Cahokia Mounds, c. A.D. 1150–1200 JOHN WHITE, Indian Village of Secoton (1585) References Suggested Readings
CHAPTER 2: THE INVASIONS OF AMERICA, 1492–1680 First Contacts and Mutual Appraisals Native America through the European Lens Enduring Images Columbian Exchanges Changing New World Landscapes Biological Catastrophes Indians Confront the Spanish A Mission for Gold and God Conquest of the Aztecs Searching for Other Empires North American Attempts to Colonize and Christianize The Pueblo War of Independence Indians Confront the French Commerce and Conflict Pelts and Priests Indians Confront the English Securing a Beachhead in Virginia Making a New England King Philip’s War DOCUMENTS A Narrative of the de Soto Invasion RODRIGO RANGEL AND GONZALO FERNÁNDEZ DE OVIEDO, Accountof the Northern Conquest and Discovery of Hernando de Soto (c. 1546) An Indian Explanation of the Pueblo Revolt Declaration of the Indian Juan (1681) Jesuits and Hurons in New France JEAN DE BRÉBEUF, The Mission to the Hurons (1635–37) A Mi'kmaq Questions French “Civilization” CHRESTIEN LECLERQ, A Mi'kmaq Responds to the French (1677) Metacomet Explains the Causes of “King Philip’s War” JOHN EASTON, A Relacion of the Indyan Warre (1675) PICTURE ESSAY: Indian Depictions of the Invaders A Tlaxcalan Depiction of Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán’s Conquest of Northwestern Mexico, c. 1530 Spaniards on Horseback George Washington Covenant Wampum Belt, c. 1790 Haidi Carving of a Missionary, c. 1877 Haidi Argillite Figure Group, c. 1850 JONATHAN WARM DAY, The Last Supper (1991) References Suggested Readings
CHAPTER 3: INDIANS IN COLONIAL WORLDS, 1680–1763 Economic and Cultural Exchanges Indians in Colonial Societies Colonists in Indian Societies Fur Trades and Slave Trades The Impact of the Fur Trade The Cost of the Fur Trade Indian Slavery Diplomacy in Colonial America The Language and Lessons of Diplomacy Attempts at Diplomatic Balance Wars for America A World Transformed by War The French and English War Division within Tribal Communities Captives Taken, Captives Returned Responses to Change in the West: Indian Power on the Plains Horses Transform the Plains Jostling for Position on the Plains At the Confluence of Guns and Horses European Competitors on the Southern Plains DOCUMENTS The Treaty of Lancaster CANASATEGO, Speeches at the Treaty of Lancaster (1744) The Abenakis Defy the English ATEAWANETO, Speech Resisting Colonial Expansion (1752) A Captive with the Senecas MARY JEMISON (DICKEWAMIS), A Narrative of Her Life (1824) War and Diplomacy in the Southwest DON TOMÁS VÉLEZ CACHUPÍN, Instructions of Don Tomás Vélez Cachupín (1754) PICTURE ESSAY: Atlantic Travelers: Indians in Eighteenth-Century London JOHN VERELST, Tee Yee Neen Ho Ga Row (Hendrick, “Emperor of the Six Nations”) (c. 1710) ISAAC BASIRE, Seven Cherokees (1730) WILLIAM VERELST, The Common Council of Georgia Receiving the Indian Chiefs (1734–35) FRANCIS PARSONS, Cunne Shote (1762) JONATHAN SPILSBURY, after Mason Chamberlin, The Reverend Mr. Samson Occom (1768) References Suggested Readings
CHAPTER 4: REVOLUTIONS EAST AND WEST, 1763–1800 Worlds Turned Upside Down Pontiac’s War: Indians Confront New Empires Attempting to Draw a Line Indians and the American Revolution Indian Loyalties Divided Treaties of Peace and Conquest Indians Confront an Expanding Nation The United States Develops an Indian — and a Land — Policy Indians Build a United Defense Upheavals in the West Colliding Empires on the Southern Plains California Missions The Pacific Northwest Pelt Rush Smallpox Used Them Up DOCUMENTS The Revolution Comes to the Cherokees HENRY STUART, Report from Cherokee Country (1776) Memories of War and Smallpox SAUKAMAPPEE, “We knew nothing until it brought death among us” (1787–88) An Indian Solution to the Conflict over Indian Lands WESTERN INDIANS, Message to the Commissioners of the United States (1793)
PICTURE ESSAY: Northwest Coast Indians on the Brink: The Drawings of John Webber JOHN WEBBER, A View in Ship Cove, Nootka Sound (1778) JOHN WEBBER, Interior of Habitation at Nootka Sound (1778) JOHN WEBBER, A Woman of Nootka Sound (1778) JOHN WEBBER, A Man of Nootka Sound (1778) JOHN WEBBER, A Woman of Prince William’s Island (1778) JOHN WEBBER, A Man of Oonalashka (1778) References
CHAPTER 5: AMERICAN INDIANS AND THE NEW NATION, 1800–1840 Accommodating and Resisting Change Adapting to New Ways The Last Phases of United Indian Resistance Lewis and Clark in Indian Country Encounters on the Missouri Over the Mountains and Back Indian Removals Roots of the Removal Policy The Cherokee Resistance Implementing Removal in the South Removal in the North Surviving behind the Frontier DOCUMENTS A Double Homicide at Two Medicine MERIWETHER LEWIS, An Account of His Fight with the Blackfeet (1806) Cherokee Women Oppose Land Sales and Removals CHEROKEE WOMEN, Petition (May 2, 1817) and Petition (June 30, 1818) Foundations of Federal Indian Law and a Native Response JOHN MARSHALL, Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia (1831) and Worcester v. Georgia (1832) JOHN ROSS, Reactions to Worcester v. Georgia: Letter to Richard Taylor, John Baldridge, Sleeping Rabbit, Sicketowee, and Wahachee (April 28, 1832) Race, Class, and History in Nineteenth-Century New England WILLIAM APESS, An Indian’s Looking Glass for the White Man (1833) PICTURE ESSAY: Indian Life on the Upper Missouri: A Catlin/Bodmer Portfolio KARL BODMER, The Interior of the Hut of a Mandan Chief Diagram of the Interior of an Earth Lodge GEORGE CATLIN, Mint, a Pretty Girl KARL BODMER, Pehriska-Ruhpa, Moennitarri Warrior, in the Costume of the Dog Danse GEORGE CATLIN, Pigeon’s Egg Head (The Light) Going to and Returning from Washington References Suggested Readings
CHAPTER 6: DEFENDING THE WEST, 1840–1890 Invaders from the East: Incursions before the American Civil War The Ravages of Disease Ethnic Cleansing in Texas, c. 1836–48 American Empire Reaches the Pacific, 1846–56 Opening Clashes on the Plains, 1851–56 Wars and Treaties, 1861–74 Indian Experiences during the American Civil War Final Treaties and Ongoing Conflicts, 1866–74 Land Seizure and Removal to Reservations Battles for Sacred Lands and Homelands, 1875–78 The End of Apache Resistance Different Strategies for Survival Indian Scouts and Allies Return of the Prophets DOCUMENTS Sixty Years of Kiowa History The Dohasan Calendar (1832–92) Protection and Exploitation in the State of California An Act for the Government and Protection of Indians (April 22, 1850) The Treaty of Fort Laramie and the Struggle for the Black Hills IRON SHELL, Brulé Sioux, “We want you to take away the forts from the country.” (April 28, 1868) ONE HORN, Miniconjou, “This is our land, and yet you blame us for fighting for it.” (May 27, 1868) Treaty with the Sioux — Brulé, Oglala, Miniconjou, Yanktonai, Hunkpapa, Blackfeet, Cuthead, Two Kettle, Sans Arcs, and Santee — and Arapaho (1868) Chief Joseph’s Plea for Freedom CHIEF JOSEPH, An Indian’s View of Indian Affairs (1879) PICTURE ESSAY: The Battle of the Little Bighorn in Myth and History WILLIAM CAREY, The Death Struggle of General Custer (1876) Custer’s Last Stand (1904) They Died with Their Boots On (1941) Little Big Man (1970) Lakotas Fighting Custer’s Command Custer’s Dead Cavalry References
CHAPTER 7: “KILL THE INDIAN AND SAVE THE MAN,” 1870S–1920S Americanizing the American Indian Policies of Detribalization Resistance Takes New Forms The Dawes Allotment Act (1887) Indian Territory Becomes Oklahoma The Educational Assault on Indian Children Removing Children from the Tribe Life in the Schools Surviving the Schools, Using the Education The Two Worlds of Ohiyesa and Charles Eastman Native Americans Enter the Twentieth Century “I Still Live”: Indians in American Society Cultural Expression and the American Way A New Generation of Leaders Soldiers and Citizens Indian Affairs on the Eve of the Great Depression DOCUMENTS Dismantling Tribes and Their Homelands MERRILL E. GATES, From the Seventeenth Annual Report of the Board of Indian Commissioners (1885) An Indian View of the Indian Bureau CARLOS MONTEZUMA, What Indians Must Do (1914) Sioux School Experiences LUTHER STANDING BEAR, What a School Could Have Been Established (1933) ZITKALA-ŠA, The Melancholy of Those Black Days (1921) PICTURE ESSAY: The Fort Marion Artists HOWLING WOLF, Cheyenne Warrior Striking an Enemy Courtship Scene PAUL CARYL ZOTOM, On the Parapet of Ft. Marion Next Day after Arrival (c. 1875) Distribution of Goods CHIEF KILLER, Education of the Fort Marion Prisoners (1875–78) WOHAW, Self-Portrait, c. 1876–77 References Suggested Readings
CHAPTER 8: FROM THE GREAT CRASH TO ALCATRAZ, 1929–1969 A New Era in Indian Affairs? John Collier and the Indian New Deal The Indian Reorganization Act Opposing and Disputing the IRA Indians and World War II Termination The Indian Claims Commission Removing the Government’s Trust Responsibilities Relocation and Urban Indians Drowning Homelands A Younger Generation Responds Upheaval in America The Rise of Indian Militancy DOCUMENTS Two Views of the Indian Reorganization Act JOHN COLLIER, An “Indian Renaissance,” from the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs (1935) ROBERT BURNETTE AND JOHN KOSTER, A Blueprint for Elected Tyranny (1974) Indians in the Cities ANONYMOUS, Life in the City: Chicago (c. 1970) IGNATIA BROKER, Brought to a Brotherhood (1983) Documents of Indian Militancy CLYDE WARRIOR, “We Are Not Free”: From Testimony before the President’s National Advisory Commission on Rural Poverty (1967) INDIANS OF ALL TRIBES, Proclamation to the Great White Father and to All His People (1969) PICTURE ESSAY: Indians and World War II Banning the Swastika Iroquois Declare War on the Axis Powers on the Steps of the U.S. Capitol Indian Women in the Marine Corps Reserve Navajo Code Talkers Flag Raising at Iwo Jima QUINCY TAHOMA, First Furlough (1943) References
CHAPTER 9: SELF-DETERMINATION AND SOVEREIGNTY, 1970–2010 New Policies, New Militancy The American Indian Movement Siege at Wounded Knee Legacies of Wounded Knee From Paternalism to Partnership Protecting Women’s Reproductive Rights Regaining Rights: Child Welfare and Religious Freedom Taking Back Education and Bringing Home Ancestors Indian Education for Indian Students Repatriation The Struggle for Natural Resources Coal, Uranium, and Oil Fighting For and Against Water Sovereignty Goes to Court Victories for Tribal Rights Chipping Away at Tribal Sovereignty DOCUMENTS A Woman’s View from Wounded Knee MARY CROW DOG, I Would Have My Baby at Wounded Knee (1991) The Supreme Court and Tribal Sovereignty SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES, Oliphant v. Suquamish Indian Tribe (1978) Tribal Colleges: Indian Education for Indian People THE CARNEGIE FOUNDATION, From Tribal Colleges: Shaping the Future of Native America (1989) Indian Leadership at the End of the Twentieth Century VINE DELORIA, JR., The Popularity of Being Indian: A New Trend in Contemporary American Society (1984) WILMA MANKILLER, Returning the Balance (1993) PICTURE ESSAY: Indian Artists Depict Modern Indian Life MARCUS AMERMAN, The Gathering (1997) T. C. CANNON, Collector #5, or Man in Wicker Chair (c. 1975) HARRY FONSECA, Coyote Woman in the City (1979) DAVID BRADLEY, American Gothic, Ghost Dancers (2009) KAY WALKINGSTICK, You’re not an Indian, you weren’t born on the reservation (1993) References Suggested Readings
CHAPTER 10: NATIONS WITHIN A NATION: INDIAN COUNTRY TODAY A Twenty-First-Century Renaissance The Census: An Evolving Profile of Indian America Who Is an Indian? “Recognized” and “Nonrecognized” Tribes Old Stereotypes and New Images A New Era in Washington? Changes at the BIA A New Museum A New Embassy and a New “White Father” Self-Rule and Self-Help Nations, Not Minorities Triple Citizens Homelands or Wastelands Nuclear Waste in Indian Country The Earth Hurts Building Prosperity in Indian Country Economic Success through Sovereignty Gaming: A Devil’s Bargain? Building Well Nations Confronting Drugs and Alcohol Balancing Ways of Healing Preserving Language and Culture DOCUMENTS Playing Indian and Fighting Mascots TIM GIAGO, Mascots, Spirituality, and Insensitivity (1991) S. L. PRICE, The Indian Wars (2002) Justice in Indian Country CHIEF JUSTICE ROBERT YAZZIE, Life Comes from It: Navajo Justice (1994) N. BRUCE DUTHU, Broken Justice in Indian Country (2008) U.S.–Indian Relations on a World Stage GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE UNITED NATIONS, United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (September 13, 2007) PICTURE ESSAY: Tribal Sovereignty in Action Pawnee Nation Flag Tribal Police Navajo Supreme Court Cheyenne Arapaho License Plate Iroquois Passport Language Preservation – Phraselator References Suggested Readings
Appendix I. General Reference Works Appendix II. Film Resources Index