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Ferocious and all encompassing, the First World War touched countless lives in Europe and far beyond. In this volume, Susan R. Grayzel explores the unprecedented nature of modern “Total War,” and outlines the origins, experiences, and legacies of the war through — and beyond — Europe and the West. The introduction offers important insights into the cultural, political, and psychological landscape from which the war emerged, as well as a thoughtful examination of the conduct of the war and its aftermath. A wide array of documents, ranging from nationalist propaganda and diplomatic agreements to poetry and intimate letters and journals, reveal the far-reaching causes and consequences of this total war, and offer unique perspectives from voices sometimes overlooked in the study of the war — including colonial soldiers, contemporary psychologists, artists, protestors, and women at the home front and the front lines. Incisive document headnotes, maps, a chronology, questions to consider, and a bibliography enrich students’ understanding of this fateful period.
Susan R. Grayzel (Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley) is Professor of History at the University of Mississippi. She is co-editor of Gender, Labour, War and Empire and the author of Women and the First World War. Her book Women’s Identities at War: Gender, Motherhood and Politics in Britain and France during the First World War won the British Council Prize from the North American Conference on British Studies.
Table of Contents
Foreword Preface List of Maps and Illustrations
PART ONE. INTRODUCTION: THE FIRST WORLD WAR: A MODERN, GLOBAL CONFLICT The Origins of the First World War Living Through the First World War The War's End and Aftermath
PART TWO. THE DOCUMENTS 1. The Origins of the First World War 1. The Treaty of Vienna (The Dual Alliance), 1879 2. The Hague Conventions, 1907 3. Bertha Von Suttner, Lay Down Your Arms, 1899 4. H. G. Wells, The War in the Air, 1908 5. F. T. Marinetti, The Manifesto of Futurism, 1909 6. Charles Mangin, The Black Force, 1910 2. Living Through the First World War Poetic Responses to the Outbreak of War 7. Rupert Brooke, Peace, 1915 8. Anna Akhmatova, July 1914, 1917 Wartime Propaganda Posters 9. British Recruitment Poster, Women of Britain Say—Go!, 1915 10. German War Bonds Poster, Help Us Win!, 1917 11. Russian War Bonds Poster, Freedom Loan, 1917 12. French War Bond Poster, Subscribe to the National War Loan, 1917 Voices from the Battle Fronts 13. Julian Grenfell, Letter from a British Officer in the Trenches, November 18, 1914 14. Hugo Müller, Letter from a German Soldier on the Western Front, October 17, 1915 15. Christian Cresswell Carver, Letter from a British Officer describing the Battle of the Somme, late July 1916 16. Karl Gorzel, Letter from a German Soldier on the Battle of Somme, October 1916 17. Sowar Sohan Singh, Letter from a Soldier in the British Indian Army, July 10, 1915 18. Behari Lal, Letter from a Soldier in the British Indian Army, November 28, 1917 19. Mehmen Arif Ölçen, Recollections of a Turkish Prisoner of War, 1917-1918 20. Lidiia Zakharova, Diary Entry from a Russian Nurse on the Front Lines, 1915 21. Henri Barbusse, Under Fire, 1916 22. Gino Charles Speranza, Diary Entry from an American on the Italian Front, 1917. Noncombatant Voices from the War’s Other Fronts 23. Marie and Paul Piraud, Correspondence between a French Civilian and her Husband on theFront Lines, 1915 and 1916 24. Leslie Davis, U. S. Consul, Report on Armenian Genocide, June 30, 1915 25. Viscount Bryce Report on Atrocities Against Armenians, Narrative of an Armenian Lady, November 1915 26. Lena Guilbert Ford, “Keep the Home Fires Burning,” 1915 27. Berlin Police Reports, 1915 28. Resolutions Adopted by the International Women’s Peace Congress at the Hague, May 1915 29. Maria Dobler Benemann, “Visé (After a Letter from the Field),” 1915 30. Editha von Krell, Recollections of Four Months Working in a German Munitions Factory, 1917. 31. Philippe Verneuil, “Le Départ”, 1917 32. Ranier Maria Rilke, Letter to Joachim von Winterfeldt-Menkin, on the death of his soldier friend, September 1918 33. Ethel Bilbrough, Diary Entry Describing a Zeppelin Raid in England, October 1915 34. Maria Degrutére, Diary Entries from a Civilian in Occupied France, 1915-1916 35. V. I. Lenin, April Theses, 1917 Reflections on the Meaning and Effects of the War 36. Sigmund Freud, Thoughts for the Times on War and Death, 1915 37. Gustave Le Bon, The Psychology of the Great War, 1916 38. G. Elliot Smith and T. H. Pear, Shell Shock and its Lessons, 1917 Poetic Responses after Years of War 39. Edith Sitwell, “The Dancers,” 1918 [[year of publication, written about 1916]] 40. Wilfred Owen, “Dulce et Decorum Est,” 1917-1918 3. The Aftermath of the First World War 41. The Times of London, Casualties in the World War, 1914–1918. 42. Chicago Tribune Editorial, “America First, Now and Hereafter,” 1918 43. The Treaty of Versailles, 1919 44. E. D. Morel, “The Horror on the Rhine,” 1920 45. The Sykes-Picot Agreement, 1916 46. The Balfour Declaration, 1917 47. The Westminster Gazette, “Women and Wages,” 1919 48. Nar Diouf, A Senagalese Veteran’s Oral Testimony 49. Otto Dix, Flander’s Field, 1934-1936 50. Ernst Jünger, Storm of Steel, 1920 51. Erich Maria Remarque, All Quiet on the Western Front, 1928 52. Helen Zenna Smith, Not So Quiet…, 1930.
Appendixes Chronology of the First World War (1879-1920) Questions for Consideration Selected Bibliography