9780691115450

Fisheries Ecology and Management

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780691115450

  • ISBN10:

    0691115451

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2004-10-18
  • Publisher: Princeton Univ Pr

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Summary

Quantitative modeling methods have become a central tool in the management of harvested fish populations. This book examines how these modeling methods work, why they sometimes fail, and how they might be improved by incorporating larger ecological interactions.Fisheries Ecology and Managementprovides a broad introduction to the concepts and quantitative models needed to successfully manage fisheries. Walters and Martell develop models that account for key ecological dynamics such as trophic interactions, food webs, multi-species dynamics, risk-avoidance behavior, habitat selection and density-dependence. They treat fisheries policy development as a two-stage process, first identifying strategies for varying harvest in relation to changes in abundance, then finding ways to implement such strategies in terms of monitoring and regulatory procedures. This book provides a general framework for developing assessment models in terms of state-observation dynamics hypotheses, and points out that most fisheries assessment failures have been due to inappropriate observation model hypotheses rather than faulty models for ecological dynamics. Intended as a text in upper division and graduate classes on fisheries assessment and management, this useful guide will also be widely read by ecologists and fisheries scientists.

Table of Contents

List Of Figuresp. xi
List Of Tablesp. xvii
Prefacep. xix
Acknowledgmentsp. xxi
Changing Objectives And Emerging Assessment Methodsp. 1
Introductionp. 3
The Role of Predictive Modelsp. 3
The Distinction between Fish Science and Fisheries Sciencep. 5
Approaches to Prediction of Policy Impactp. 6
Experimental Managementp. 9
The Ecological Basis of Sustainable Harvestingp. 12
Trade-Offs in Fisheries Managementp. 20
Trade-Off Relationships and Policy Choicesp. 22
Short-Term versus Long-Term Valuesp. 25
Biological Diversity versus Productivityp. 31
Economic Efficiency versus Diversity of Employment Opportunitiesp. 37
Allocation of Management-Agency Resourcesp. 39
Elementary Concepts In Population Dynamics And Harvest Regulationp. 41
Strategic Requirements for Sustainable Fisheriesp. 43
Harvest Optimization Modelsp. 46
Constructing Feedback Policiesp. 49
Feedback Policy Implementationp. 58
Feedback Policies for Incremental Quota Changep. 61
Actively Adaptive Policiesp. 63
Tactics for Effective Harvest Regulationp. 65
Tactical Options for Limiting Exploitation Ratesp. 67
Managing the Risk of Depensatory Effects under Output Controlp. 69
Tactics for Direct Control of Exploitation Ratesp. 74
Regulation of Exploitation Rates in Recreational Fisheriesp. 77
p. 79
Monitoring Options and Prioritiesp. 80
Maintaining Genetic Diversity and Structure in Harvested Populationsp. 83
Use And Abuse Of Single-Species Assessment Modelsp. 87
An Overview of Single-Species Assessment Modelsp. 89
Objectives of Single-Species Assessmentp. 89
State-Observation Componentsp. 91
Estimation Criteria and Measuring Uncertaintyp. 95
Modeling Optionsp. 101
Using Composition Informationp. 110
Dealing with Parameters That Aren'tp. 121
Foraging Arena Theory (I)p. 124
Beverton-Holt Model for Stock-Recruitmentp. 128
Alternative Models Based on Juvenile Carrying Capacityp. 132
Using Foraging Arena Arguments to Derive the Beverton-Holt Modelp. 136
Implications for Recruitment Research and Predictionp. 147
Problems in the Assessment of Recruitment Relationshipsp. 151
Which Parameters Matter?p. 152
Predicting Reproductive Performance at Low Stock Sizesp. 158
Predicting Capacity to Recover from Historical Overfishingp. 160
The Errors-in-Variables Bias Problemp. 162
The Time-Series Bias Problemp. 165
Can Statistical Fisheries Oceanography Save the Day?p. 173
Modeling Spatial Patterns And Dynamics In Fisheriesp. 179
Spatial Population Dynamics Modelsp. 181
Life-History Trajectoriesp. 182
Multistage Modelsp. 185
Eulerian Representationp. 188
Lagrangian Representationp. 193
Policy Gaming with Spatial Modelsp. 198
Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Fishing Effortp. 200
Long-Term Capacityp. 201
Short-Term Effort Responsesp. 204
Spatial Allocation of Fishing Effortp. 210
Mosaic Closuresp. 223
Food Web Modeling To Help Assess Impact Of Fisheries On Ecological Support Functionsp. 229
Foraging Arena Theory (II)p. 231
Understanding Foraging Arena Theoryp. 232
Predicting Trophic Flowsp. 236
Adding Realism (I): Foraging Time Adjustmentsp. 240
Adding Realism (II): Trophic Mediationp. 244
Ecosimp. 246
Representing Trophic Ontogeny in Ecosimp. 248
Single-Species Dynamics from Ecosim Rate Equationsp. 252
Ecosystem-Scale Variationp. 254
Options for Ecosystem Modelingp. 256
Qualitative Analysis of Dominant Trophic Interactionsp. 259
Qualitative Analysis of More Complex Linkagesp. 270
Models That Link Dynamics with Nutrient Cycling Processesp. 271
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