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Fitness Landscapes and the Origin of Species,9780691117584
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Fitness Landscapes and the Origin of Species

by
ISBN13:

9780691117584

ISBN10:
0691117586
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/6/2004
Publisher(s):
Princeton Univ Pr
Availability:
This title is currently not available.
List Price: $105.00

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Summary

The origin of species has fascinated both biologists and the general public since the publication of Darwin'sOrigin of Speciesin 1859. Significant progress in understanding the process was achieved in the "modern synthesis," when Theodosius Dobzhansky, Ernst Mayr, and others reconciled Mendelian genetics with Darwin's natural selection. Although evolutionary biologists have developed significant new theory and data about speciation in the years since the modern synthesis, this book represents the first systematic attempt to summarize and generalize what mathematical models tell us about the dynamics of speciation. Fitness Landscapes and the Origin of Speciespresents both an overview of the forty years of previous theoretical research and the author's new results. Sergey Gavrilets uses a unified framework based on the notion of fitness landscapes introduced by Sewall Wright in 1932, generalizing this notion to explore the consequences of the huge dimensionality of fitness landscapes that correspond to biological systems. In contrast to previous theoretical work, which was based largely on numerical simulations, Gavrilets develops simple mathematical models that allow for analytical investigation and clear interpretation in biological terms. Covering controversial topics, including sympatric speciation and the effects of sexual conflict on speciation, this book builds for the first time a general, quantitative theory for the origin of species.

Author Biography

Sergey Gavrilets is Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and Mathematics at the University of Tennessee

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Mathematical symbols xv
Common abbreviations xviii
Introduction
1(20)
General structure of the book
7(2)
Some biological ideas and notions
9(12)
Species definition and the nature of reproductive isolation
9(1)
Geographic modes of speciation
10(4)
Some speciation scenarios and patterns
14(7)
Part I FITNESS LANDSCAPES
Fitness landscapes
21(32)
Working example: one-locus, two-allele model of viability selection
22(3)
Fitness landscape as fitness of gene combinations
25(5)
Fitness landscape as the mean fitness of populations
30(3)
The metaphor of fitness landscapes
33(7)
Wright's rugged fitness landscapes
34(2)
Fisher's single-peak fitness landscapes
36(2)
Kimura's flat fitness landscapes
38(2)
Fitness landscapes for mating pairs
40(1)
Fitness landscapes for quantitative traits
41(5)
Fitness landscape as fitness of trait combinations
41(1)
Fitness landscape as the mean fitness of populations
42(3)
Fitness landscape for mating pairs
45(1)
General comment on fitness landscapes
46(1)
Summary
47(1)
Conclusions
48(5)
Dynamics of allele frequencies in one-locus, multiallele population
49(1)
Hill climbing on a rugged fitness landscape
50(1)
Evolution on flat landscapes
51(2)
Steps toward speciation on rugged fitness landscapes
53(28)
Stochastic transitions between isolated fitness peaks
53(13)
Fixation of an underdominant mutation
54(6)
Peak shift in a quantitative character
60(2)
Fixation of compensatory mutations in a two-locus haploid population
62(4)
Some consequences of spatial subdivision and density fluctuations
66(9)
Spatial subdivision
66(5)
Stochastic transitions in a growing population
71(4)
Peak shifts by selection
75(1)
Summary
76(1)
Conclusions
77(4)
Diffusion theory: the probability of fixation
78(1)
Diffusion theory: the time to fixation
79(1)
Diffusion theory: the duration of transition
80(1)
Nearly neutral networks and holey fitness landscapes
81(36)
Simple models
82(13)
Russian roulette model in two dimensions
83(3)
Russian roulette model on hypercubes
86(3)
Generalized Russian roulette model
89(1)
Multiplicative fitnesses
90(1)
Stabilizing selection on an additive trait
91(1)
Models based on the Nk-model
92(3)
Neutral networks in RNA landscapes
95(2)
Neutral networks in protein landscapes
97(2)
Other evidence for nearly neutral networks
99(1)
The metaphor of holey fitness landscapes
100(5)
Deterministic evolution on a holey landscape
105(3)
Error threshold
105(1)
Genetic canalization
106(2)
Stochastic evolution on a holey landscape
108(5)
Random walks
108(4)
Dynamics of haploid populations
112(1)
Summary
113(1)
Conclusions
114(3)
Part II THE BATESON-DOBZHANSKY-MULLER MODEL
Speciation in the BDM model
117(32)
The BDM model of reproductive isolation
117(7)
Fitness landscapes in the BDM model
119(2)
The mechanisms of reproductive isolation in the BDM model
121(3)
Population genetics in the BDM model
124(6)
Haploid population
125(3)
Diploid population
128(2)
Dynamics of speciation in the BDM model
130(13)
Allopatric speciation
131(6)
Parapatric speciation
137(6)
Summary
143(2)
Conclusions
145(4)
Hitting probability and hitting time in discrete-time Markov chains
146(1)
Genetic barrier to gene flow
147(2)
Multidimensional generalizations of the BDM model
149(46)
One- and two-locus, multiallele models
149(2)
Multilocus models
151(41)
The Walsh model
152(2)
Divergent degeneration of duplicated genes
154(1)
Three- and four-locus models
155(3)
Accumulation of genetic incompatibilities
158(16)
Allopatric speciation
174(11)
Parapatric speciation
185(7)
Summary
192(2)
Conclusions
194(1)
Spatial patterns in the BDM model
195(38)
Individual-based models: spread of mutually incompatible neutral genes
197(10)
Model
197(1)
Parameters
198(1)
Numerical procedure
199(1)
Results
200(5)
Interpretations
205(2)
Deme-based models: spread of mutually incompatible neutral genes
207(14)
Model
207(3)
Parameters and dynamic characteristics
210(1)
Results
211(8)
Interpretations
219(2)
Deme-based models: spread of mutually incompatible advantageous genes
221(7)
Comment on adaptive radiation
228(1)
Summary
229(1)
Conclusions
230(3)
PART III SPECIATION VIA THE JOINT ACTION OF DISRUPTIVE NATURAL SELECTION AND NONRANDOM MATING
Maintenance of genetic variation under disruptive natural selection
233(46)
Spatially heterogeneous selection
235(16)
The Levene model
235(3)
Two-locus, two-allele haploid version of the Levene model
238(2)
Restricted migration between two niches
240(2)
Spatial gradients in selection
242(7)
Coevolutionary clines
249(2)
Spatially uniform disruptive selection
251(3)
Migration-selection balance: the Karlin-McGregor model
251(1)
Migration-selection balance: the Bazykin model
252(2)
Temporal variation in selection
254(1)
Frequency-dependent selection in a single population
255(22)
Phenomenological approach
256(1)
Intraspecific competition
257(6)
Spatially heterogeneous selection and competition
263(2)
Adaptive dynamics approach
265(12)
Summary
277(1)
Conclusions
278(1)
Evolution of nonrandom mating and fertilization
279(52)
A general framework for modeling nonrandom mating and fertilization
280(7)
Random mating within mating pools joined preferentially
282(2)
Preferential mating within mating pools joined randomly
284(3)
Similarity-based nonrandom mating
287(22)
Single locus
287(12)
Multiple loci
299(10)
General conclusions on similarity-based nonrandom mating
309(1)
Matching-based nonrandom mating
309(18)
Two loci
311(10)
Two polygenic characters
321(4)
One locus, one character
325(2)
General conclusions on matching-based nonrandom mating
327(1)
Nonrandom mating controlled by a culturally transmitted trait
327(1)
Summary
328(2)
Conclusions
330(1)
Interaction of disruptive selection and nonrandom mating
331(68)
Disruptive selection and similarity-based nonrandom mating
332(27)
Single locus
333(19)
Single quantitative character
352(4)
Sympatric speciation with culturally transmitted mating preferences
356(3)
Disruptive selection and matching-based nonrandom mating
359(9)
Two loci
359(5)
Two polygenic characters
364(4)
``Magic trait'' models
368(19)
Single locus
369(1)
Two loci: speciation by sexual conflict
370(4)
Single polygenic character
374(10)
Two polygenic characters: speciation by sexual selection
384(3)
Disruptive selection and modifiers of mating
387(9)
Summary
396(2)
Conclusions
398(1)
General conclusions
399(20)
The structure of fitness landscapes and speciation
399(2)
Allopatric speciation
401(1)
Parapatric speciation
401(2)
Sympatric speciation
403(3)
Some speciation scenarios and patterns
406(6)
General rules of evolutionary diversification
412(2)
Why species?
414(2)
Some open theoretical questions
416(1)
Final thoughts
417(2)
References 419(38)
Index 457


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