Focus on Writing offers students thorough coverage of writing college paragraphs and essays in a visually inviting format and with a unique tool for assessing and revising writing: the easy-to-grasp, easy-to-remember TEST method. Standing for Topic sentence or Thesis statement, Evidence, Summary statement, and Transitions, this practical tool helps students self-edit their writing for unity, support, and coherence. In this edition, best-selling authors Laurie Kirszner and Stephen Mandell expand on their detailed, step-by-step guidance for developing paragraphs; offer more coverage of critical reading and thinking, a new chapter on college success, research; and provide new student models that reflect realistic student work.
During their long collaboration, Laurie Kirszner and Stephen Mandell have written a number of best-selling college texts for Bedford/St. Martin's, including Patterns for College Writing, Foundations First, Writing First, Focus on Writing, and, most recently, Practical Argument. Laurie Kirszner is a Professor of English at the University of the Sciences, where she has taught composition, literature, creative writing, and scientific writing, and served as coordinator of the first-year writing program. Stephen Mandell is a Professor of English at Drexel University, where he founded and directed the basic writing program and has taught composition, literature, speech, and technical and business writing.
CHAPTER 1 Writing and College SuccessHOW WRITING CAN HELP YOU SUCCEEDSTRATEGIES FOR COLLEGE SUCCESSa Orientation Strategiesb First-Week Strategiesc Day-to-Day Strategiesd Time-Management Strategiese Note-Taking Strategiesf Homework Strategiesg Taking In-Class Essay Examsh Taking Standardized Assessment Testsi Strategies for Maintaining Academic Honestyj Strategies for Staying Safe on CampusWRITING PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYSUNIT 1 Focus on Paragraphs CHAPTER 2 Understanding the Writing Process STEP 1: PLANNINGa Focusing on Your Assignment, Purpose, and Audience b Finding Ideas to Write About Freewriting Brainstorming Clustering Keeping a Journalc Identifying Your Main Idea and Writing a Topic Sentence STEP 2: ORGANIZINGd Choosing Supporting Pointse Developing Supporting Points f Making an OutlineSTEP 3: DRAFTING g Drafting Your Paragraph STEP 4: TESTingh TESTing Your Paragraph STEP 5: REVISING AND EDITINGi Revising Your ParagraphSelf-Assessment Checklist: Revising Your Paragraph j Editing Your ParagraphSelf-Assessment Checklist: Editing Your Paragraph Review Checklist: Writing a ParagraphCHAPTER 3 TESTing Your Paragraphsa TESTing for a Topic Sentence b TESTing for Evidence c TESTing for a Summary Statementd TESTing for Transitions Chapter ReviewReview Checklist: TESTing Your ParagraphsUNIT 2 Patterns of Paragraph Development CHAPTER 4 Exemplification a Exemplification Paragraphsb Case Study: A Student Writes an Exemplification ParagraphTESTing an Exemplification Paragraph c Writing about VisualsCHAPTER 5 Narration a Narrative Paragraphsb Case Study: A Student Writes a Narrative ParagraphTESTing a Narrative Paragraph c Writing about VisualsCHAPTER 6 Description a Descriptive Paragraphsb Case Study: A Student Writes a Descriptive ParagraphTESTing a Descriptive Paragraph c Writing about VisualsCHAPTER 7 Processa Process Paragraphsb Case Study: A Student Writes a Process ParagraphTESTing a Process Paragraph c Writing about VisualsCHAPTER 8 Cause and Effecta Cause-and-Effect Paragraphsb Case Study: A Student Writes a Cause-and-Effect ParagraphTESTing a Cause-and-Effect Paragraph c Writing about VisualsCHAPTER 9 Comparison and Contrasta Comparison-and-Contrast Paragraphsb Case Study: A Student Writes a Comparison-and-Contrast ParagraphTESTing a Comparison-and-Contrast Paragraph c Writing about VisualsCHAPTER 10 Classification a Classification Paragraphsb Case Study: A Student Writes a Classification ParagraphTESTing a Classification Paragraph c Writing about VisualsCHAPTER 11 Definition a Definition Paragraphsb Case Study: A Student Writes a Definition ParagraphTESTing a Definition Paragraph c Writing about VisualsCHAPTER 12 Argumenta Argument Paragraphsb Case Study: A Student Writes an Argument ParagraphTESTing an Argument Paragraph c Writing about VisualsUNIT 3 Focus on Essays CHAPTER 13 Writing an EssaySTEP 1: PLANNINGa Understanding Essay Structure b Moving from Assignment to Topicc Finding Ideas to Write About Freewriting Brainstorming Keeping a Journald Stating Your Thesis STEP 2: ORGANIZINGe Choosing Supporting Points f Making an Outline STEP 3: DRAFTINGg Drafting Your Essay STEP 4: TESTingh TESTing Your Essay STEP 5: REVISING AND EDITINGi Revising Your EssaySelf-Assessment Checklist: Revising Your Essay j Editing Your Essay Self-Assessment Checklist: Editing Your Essay k Checking Your Essay’s FormatChapter Review Review Checklist: Writing an EssayCHAPTER 14 TESTing Your Essaysa TESTing for a Thesisb TESTing for Evidencec TESTing for a Summary Statementd TESTing for Transitionse Putting It TogetherChapter Review Review Checklist: TESTing Your Essays CHAPTER 15 Introductions and Conclusionsa Introductions Beginning with a Narrative Beginning with a Question (or a Series of Questions) Beginning with a Definition Beginning with a Quotation Beginning with a Surprising Statementb Conclusions Concluding with a Narrative Concluding with a Recommendation Concluding with a Quotation Concluding with a PredictionChapter Review Review Checklist: Introductions and Conclusions CHAPTER 16 Patterns of Essay Development a Exemplification EssaysCase Study: A Student Writes an Exemplification EssayStep-by-Step Guide: Writing an Exemplification EssayTESTing an Exemplification Essayb Narrative EssaysCase Study: A Student Writes a Narrative EssayStep-by-Step Guide: Writing a Narrative EssayTESTing a Narrative Essayc Descriptive EssaysCase Study: A Student Writes a Descriptive EssayStep-by-Step Guide: Writing a Descriptive EssayTESTing a Descriptive Essayd Process EssaysCase Study: A Student Writes a Process EssayStep-by-Step Guide: Writing a Process EssayTESTing a Process Essaye Cause-and-Effect EssaysCase Study: A Student Writes a Cause-and-Effect EssayStep-by-Step Guide: Writing a Cause-and-Effect EssayTESTing a Cause-and-Effect Essayf Comparison-and-Contrast EssaysCase Study: A Student Writes a Comparison-and-Contrast EssayStep-by-Step Guide: Writing a Comparison-and-Contrast EssayTESTing a Comparison-and-Contrast Essayg Classification EssaysCase Study: A Student Writes a Classification EssayStep-by-Step Guide: Writing a Classification EssayTESTing a Classification Essayh Definition EssaysCase Study: A Student Writes a Definition EssayStep-by-Step Guide: Writing a Definition EssayTESTing a Definition Essayi Argument EssaysCase Study: A Student Writes an Argument EssayStep-by-Step Guide: Writing an Argument EssayTESTing an Argument EssayChapter ReviewReview Checklist: Patterns of Essay DevelopmentUNIT 4 ResearchCHAPTER 17 Writing a Research Papera Choosing a Topicb Doing Research Finding Information in the Library Finding Information on the Internet Evaluating Sourcesc Taking Notes Paraphrasing Summarizing Quoting Working Sources into Your Writing Synthesizingd Watching Out for Plagiarisme Developing a Thesisf Making an Outlineg Writing Your Paperh Documenting Your Sources Parenthetical References in the Text The Works-Cited List Sample MLA-Style PaperChapter ReviewREVISING AND EDITING YOUR WRITING UNIT 5 Writing Effective Sentences Chapter 18 Writing Simple Sentences a Subjects b Prepositional Phrases c Verbs Chapter Review Review Checklist: Writing Simple SentencesChapter 19 Writing Compound Sentencesa Using Coordinating Conjunctions b Using Semicolons c Using Transitional Words and Phrases Chapter Review Review Checklist: Writing Compound SentencesChapter 20 Writing Complex Sentences a Identifying Complex Sentences b Using Subordinating Conjunctions c Using Relative Pronouns Chapter Review Review Checklist: Writing Complex SentencesChapter 21 Writing Varied Sentences a Varying Sentence Types b Varying Sentence Openings c Combining Sentences d Mixing Long and Short Sentences Chapter Review Review Checklist: Writing Varied SentencesChapter 22 Using Parallelism a Recognizing Parallel Structure b Using Parallel StructureChapter Review Review Checklist: Using ParallelismChapter 23 Using Words Effectivelya Using Specific Words b Using Concise Language c Avoiding Slang d Avoiding Clichés e Using Similes and Metaphors f Avoiding Sexist Language g Commonly Confused WordsChapter Review Review Checklist: Using Words Effectively Unit Review UNIT 6 Solving Common Sentence ProblemsChapter 24 Run-Ons a Recognizing Run-Ons b Correcting Run-Ons Chapter Review Review Checklist: Run-Ons Chapter 25 Fragments a Recognizing Fragments b Missing-Subject Fragments c Phrase Fragments d -ing Fragments e Dependent Clause Fragments Chapter Review Review Checklist: FragmentsChapter 26 Subject-Verb Agreement a Understanding Subject-Verb Agreement b Compound Subjects c Be, Have, and Do d Words between Subject and Verb e Collective Noun Subjects f Indefinite Pronoun Subjects g Verbs before Subjects Chapter Review Review Checklist: Subject-Verb Agreement Chapter 27 Illogical Shifts a Shifts in Tense b Shifts in Person c Shifts in Voice Chapter Review Review Checklist: Illogical ShiftsChapter 28 Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers a Correcting Misplaced Modifiers b Correcting Dangling Modifiers Chapter Review Review Checklist: Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers Unit Review UNIT 7 Understanding Basic Grammar Chapter 29 Verbs: Past Tense a Regular Verbs b Irregular Verbs c Problem Verbs: Be d Problem Verbs: Can/Could and Will/Would Chapter Review Review Checklist: Verbs: Past TenseChapter 30 Verbs: Past Participles a Regular Past Participles b Irregular Past Participles c The Present Perfect Tense d The Past Perfect Tense e Past Participles as Adjectives Chapter Review Review Checklist: Verbs: Past ParticiplesChapter 31 Nouns and Pronouns a Identifying Nouns b Forming Plural Nouns c Identifying Pronouns d Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement e Special Problems with Agreement f Vague and Unnecessary Pronounsg Pronoun Case h Special Problems with Pronoun Casei Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns Chapter Review Review Checklist: Nouns and PronounsChapter 32 Adjectives and Adverbs a Identifying Adjectives and Adverbs b Comparatives and Superlatives Chapter Review Review Checklist: Adjectives and AdverbsChapter 33 Grammar and Usage for ESL Writers a Subjects in Sentences b Plural Nouns c Count and Noncount Nouns d Determiners with Count and Noncount Nouns e Articles f Negative Statements and Questions g Verb Tense h Stative Verbs i Modal Auxiliaries j Gerunds k Placing Modifiers in Order l Choosing Prepositions m Prepositions in Familiar Expressions n Prepositions in Phrasal Verbs Chapter Review Review Checklist: Grammar and Usage for ESL Writers Unit ReviewUNIT 8 Understanding Punctuation and Mechanics Chapter 34 Using Commas a Commas in a Series b Commas with Introductory Phrases and Transitional Words and Phrases c Commas with Appositives d Commas with Nonrestrictive Clauses e Commas in Dates and Addresses f Unnecessary Commas Chapter Review Review Checklist: Using CommasChapter 35 Using Apostrophes a Apostrophes in Contractions b Apostrophes in Possessives c Incorrect Use of Apostrophes Chapter Review Review Checklist: Using ApostrophesChapter 36 Understanding Mechanics a Capitalizing Proper Nouns b Punctuating Direct Quotations c Setting Off Titles d Hyphense Abbreviationsf Numbersg Using Minor Punctuation Marks Chapter Review Review Checklist: Understanding Mechanics BECOMING A CRITICAL READER Unit 9 Reading Essays Chapter 37 Reading Critically a Previewing b Highlighting c Annotating d Outlining e Summarizing f Writing a Response Paragraph g Reading in the Classroom, in the Community, and in the Workplace Reading Textbooks Reading News Articles Reading on the JobReview Checklist: Reading CriticallyChapter 38 Readings for Writers a Exemplification"The Case for Short Words," Richard Lederer "Around the World, Women Are on the Move," Richard Rodriguez b Narration"The Sanctuary of School," Lynda Barry "My Half-Baked Bubble," Joshuah Bearman c Description"Fish Cheeks," Amy Tan "A Fable for Tomorrow," Rachel Carson d Process"How to Mummify a Pharaoh," Adam Goodheart "My Grandmother’s Dumpling," Amy Ma e Cause and Effect"How Facebook Is Making Friending Obsolete," Julia Angwin "The Seat Not Taken," John Edgar Wideman f Comparison and Contrast"The Twin Revolutions of Lincoln and Darwin," Steven Conn "Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus," John Gray g Classification"The Men We Carry in Our Minds," Scott Russell Sanders "The Dog Ate My Flash Drive, and Other Tales of Woe," Carolyn Foster Segal h Definition"Quinceañera," Julia Alvarez "I Want a Wife," Judy Brady i Argument"In Praise of the F Word," Mary Sherry "Dnt Txt N Drv," Oprah Winfrey "The Guns of Academe," Adam Winkler