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Food Fortification: The evidence, ethics, and politics of adding nutrients to foodcritically analyses mandatory food fortification as a technology for protecting and promoting public health. An increasing number of foods fortified with novel amounts and combinations of nutrients are being introduced into the food supplies of countries around the world to raise populations' nutrient intakes. It is a technology that is becoming more widely used to tackle a variety of public health problems such as micronutrient malnutrition. Food fortification policies and programs are controversial. There are disputes over the ethics of food fortification as everyone who consumes fortified foods will be exposed to raised levels of nutrients irrespective of whether they will gain any benefit and often without their knowledge. There are also contested views about the evidence that is available to support such activities. This book discusses mandatory food fortification as an intervention to protect and promote public health through presenting a synthesis of the findings from research investigations into three topical case studies of mandatory food fortification: Universal salt iodisation to help prevent goitre; mandatory flour fortification with folic acid to help reduce the risk of neural tube defects; and mandatory milk fortification with vitamin D to help prevent vitamin D deficiency. Each case study is assessed for its public health benefits, risks and ethical considerations.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction Section 1: The evidential, ethical, and political underpinnings of food fortification 2. Food fortification evidence and ethics 3. Food fortification politics: the actors, activities, and agendas 4. Investigating food fortification Section 2: The case studies 5. Case study 1: Universal salt iodisation 6. Case study 2: Mandatory flour fortification with folic acid 7. Case study 3: Mandatory milk fortification with vitamin D Section 3: Insights from the past and present, and a view to the future 8. Insights for food fortification and public health 9. A view to the future 10. Conclusion