9780471983712

Forensic and Environmental Detection of Explosives

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780471983712

  • ISBN10:

    0471983713

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 1999-09-09
  • Publisher: WILEY
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Summary

Forensic and Environmental Detection of Explosives is the first comprehensive book on the detection of explosives. It combines the two main fields of application: * Forensic detection of explosives - the detection of hidden explosives in airfreight, luggage, vehicles, and on suspects. * Environmental detection of explosives - detecting on-site explosives in soil and water of contaminated areas and the detection of landmines. Dr Jehuda Yinon is a world renowned expert on the analysis of explosives and has served as consulting expert during the Oklahoma bombing trial, where his previous book Modern Methods and Applications in Analysis of Explosives was quoted by both the prosecution and defense experts. This new book complements the author's previous book on the analysis of explosives. It includes the following features: * Classifications of explosives * Explanations of the basic terms related to the detection of explosives * Vapor detection methods * Probing radiation methods * Tagging of explosives * Systems integration and performance testing * Detection of explosives in contaminated areas * Detection of landmines. This book is an ideal reference book for those working in forensic and law enforcement agencies concerned with the detection of hidden explosives, as well as for environmental scientists dealing with explosives decontamination. The book is also recommended as a text book for graduate students in analytical, environmental and forensic science.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
Abbreviations xiii
Classification of Explosives and basic terms
1(28)
Properties of basic explosives
1(17)
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)
1(2)
1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX)
3(2)
1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazacyclooctane (HMX)
5(1)
Tetryl
5(2)
Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN)
7(1)
Nitroglycerin (NG)
8(2)
Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN)
10(1)
Triacetone triperoxide (TATP)
10(1)
Ammonium nitrate (AN)
11(2)
Various explosives
13(5)
Classification of explosives
18(4)
Military explosives
18(1)
Nitroglycerin-based dynamites
18(1)
Ammonium nitrate-based explosives
19(1)
Slurry and emulsion explosives
19(1)
Low-order explosives (propellants)
20(1)
Special purpose explosives (detonating cords, blasting caps, and primers)
21(1)
Basic terms
22(7)
Vapor detection methods (sniffers)
29(59)
Introduction
29(1)
Trained animals
30(1)
Sampling and preconcentration
31(2)
Gas chromatography (GC)
33(7)
Electron-capture detector (ECD)
34(1)
Chemiluminescence detector
34(3)
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector
37(3)
Mass spectrometry
40(20)
Introduction
40(8)
Detection of explosives by mass spectrometry
48(12)
Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS)
60(6)
Principles of operation
60(3)
IMS detection of explosives
63(3)
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy methods
66(4)
Introduction
66(1)
Infrared absorption of explosive vapors
66(1)
Infrared detection of explosives
67(3)
Bioluminescence
70(3)
Basic principles
70(1)
Bioluminescence detection of explosives
71(2)
Laser optoacoustic spectroscopy
73(2)
Physical principles of operation
73(2)
Laser optoacoustic detection of explosives
75(1)
Personnel screening booths (portals)
75(4)
Walk-in/walk-out booth
76(1)
Walk-through booth
76(3)
Explosive vapor generators
79(9)
Continuous vapor generators
80(4)
Transient vapor generator
84(1)
Pulsed vapor generators
84(2)
Canine olfaction vapor delivery system (olfactometer)
86(2)
Probing radiation methods (bulk detection)
88(69)
Introduction
88(1)
Properties of explosives
88(1)
Electromagnetic radiation
89(45)
X-Rays
89(15)
Gamma (γ) rays
104(4)
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy
108(7)
Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy
115(3)
Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy
118(5)
Microwave spectroscopy
123(1)
Millimeter-wave imaging
124(2)
Dielectric sensor method
126(1)
Raman spectroscopy
127(7)
Neutron techniques
134(23)
Thermal neutron activation (TNA)
136(3)
Fast neutron activation (FNA)
139(1)
Pulsed fast-thermal neutron analysis
140(1)
Pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNA)
141(4)
Fast neutron transmission spectroscopy (FNTS)
145(4)
Ratio of gamma to fast neutron attenuation
149(2)
Neutron elastic scatter
151(2)
Associated particle imaging (API)
153(1)
Neutron production by accelerators
154(3)
Systems integration and performance testing
157(10)
Systems integration
157(5)
Performance testing and evaluation
162(5)
Testing of detection systems for bulk explosives
163(1)
Evaluation of particle and vapor detectors
164(3)
Tagging of explosives
167(19)
Introduction
167(1)
Identification taggants
167(3)
Detection taggants
170(7)
Vapor detection of tagged explosives
177(9)
Environmental detection of explosives
186(34)
Introduction
186(1)
Degradation of explosives
187(6)
Degradation products of TNT
188(1)
Degradation products of tetryl
189(1)
Degradation products of RDX
189(3)
Degradation products of nitrate ester explosives
192(1)
Chemical color screening tests
193(4)
Immunochemical detection methods
197(12)
Introduction
197(1)
Immunoassay methods for the detection of explosives
198(11)
Electrochemical detection methods
209(7)
Properties of amperometric gas sensors
209(1)
Amperometric gas sensor for the detection of thermal decomposition products of TNT
210(4)
Cyclic voltammetry sensor for the detection of TNT in water and soil
214(2)
Laser detection methods
216(4)
Detection of landmines
220(37)
Introduction
220(1)
Classification of mines
221(5)
Mine detection techniques
226(31)
Anomaly detectors
226(15)
Chemical sensing of explosives
241(13)
Neutralization of landmines
254(1)
Performance evaluation of mine detection techniques
255(2)
References 257(18)
Index 275

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