9780849300721

Forensic Pathology, Second Edition

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780849300721

  • ISBN10:

    084930072X

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 6/28/2001
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

Medicolegal investigation of death is the most crucial and significant function of the medical examiner within the criminal justice system. The medical examiner is primarily concerned with violent, sudden, unexpected, and suspicious deaths and is responsible for determining the cause and manner of death, identifying the deceased, determining the approximate time of death and injury, collecting evidence from the body, issuing the death certificate, and documenting these events through an official autopsy report. The basis of the medicolegal investigation is forensic pathology.Written for both medical and investigative professionals, Forensic Pathology, Second Edition presents an overview of medicolegal investigative systems. Completely updated, the book examines investigative techniques and procedures that lead to obtaining accurate conclusions of death by homicide, accident, or suicide.

Table of Contents

Medicolegal Investigative Systems
Definition of Death
1(1)
Delayed Deaths
2(1)
Cause, Manner, and Mechanism of Death
3(3)
Sudden, Unexpected Natural Death
6(3)
The Coroner System
9(2)
The Medical Examiner System
11(3)
Operation of a Medical Examiner System
14(5)
Name Accreditation
19(1)
References
19(2)
Time of Death
Livor Mortis
21(5)
Rigor Mortis
26(2)
Body Temperature
28(2)
Decomposition
30(5)
Chemical Changes in Body Fluids
35(2)
Flow-Cytometry
37(1)
Gastric Emptying and Digestion
37(2)
Insect Activity
39(1)
Scene Markers
40(1)
References
41(2)
Deaths Due to Natural Disease
Cardiovascular Disease
43(1)
Coronary Atherosclerosis
44(1)
Bridging
45(1)
Dissecting Coronary Aneurysm
46(1)
Coronary Artery Spasm
46(1)
Mechanism of Sudden Death
47(1)
Sudden Death: Exercise and Climate
48(1)
Hypertensive Cardiovascular Disease
48(1)
Cardiomyopathy
49(3)
Valvular Disease
52(3)
Coronary Artery Anomalies
55(1)
Myocarditis
55(2)
Aortic Dissection
57(1)
Sudden Death on a Physiological Basis
58(1)
Deaths Due to Intracranial Lesions
58(1)
Epilepsy
58(3)
Nontraumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
61(1)
Berry Aneurysms
61(4)
Intracerebral Hemorrhage
65(3)
Primary Brain Tumors
68(1)
Meningitis
69(2)
Reyes Syndrome
71(1)
Hydrocephalus
72(1)
Psychiatric Patients
73(1)
Respiratory System
74(1)
Epiglottitis
74(1)
Pulmonary Thromboemboli
75(1)
Asthma
76(1)
Pneumonia
77(1)
Hemoptysis
78(1)
Spontaneous Pneumothorax of Newborns
78(1)
Urogenital and Gastrointestinal Tracts
79(1)
Spleen
79(1)
Pancreas
79(2)
Liver
81(1)
Adrenals
82(1)
Miscellaneous
83(1)
Tumor and Trauma
83(1)
References
84(8)
Blunt Trauma Wounds
Abrasions
92(2)
Dating of Abrasions
94(4)
Contusions
98(2)
Dating of Contusions
100(2)
Postmortem Bruising
102(1)
The Eyes and Eyelids
103(1)
Decomposed Bodies
104(1)
Lacerations
104(4)
Defense Wounds Due to Blunt Force
108(1)
Determination of Whether a Wound is Ante- or Postmortem
108(1)
Fractures of the Face
109(1)
Fractures of the the Extremities
110(1)
Fractures from Direct Application of Force
111(1)
Fractures Caused by Indirect Application of Force
112(2)
Pelvic Fractures
114(1)
Healing of Fractures
115(1)
References
116(1)
Blunt Trauma Injuries of the Trunk and Extremities
Blunt Force Injuries of the Chest
117(1)
Injury to the Ribs
117(1)
The Sternum
118(1)
The Heart
119(3)
The Aorta
122(4)
Diaphragm
126(1)
Lungs
126(4)
Blunt Force Injuries of the Abdominal Viscera
130(2)
Liver
132(2)
Pancreas
134(1)
Spleen
135(1)
Gastrointestinal Tract
136(3)
Kidneys
139(1)
Urinary Bladder
139(1)
Internal Genitalia
140(1)
Blunt Force Injuries of the Estremities
140(3)
References
143(4)
Trauma to the Skull and Brain: Craniocerebral Injuries
Impact Injuries
147(1)
Soft Tissue Injuries
147(1)
Fractures of the Skull
148(7)
Contusions of the Brain
155(5)
Lacerating, Penetrating, and Perforating Wounds of the Brain
160(2)
Epidural Hemorrhages
162(3)
Acceleration/Deceleration Injuries
165(1)
Subdural Hematomas
166(3)
Diffuse Axonal Injury
169(3)
Death Due to Cerebral Concussion
172(1)
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
173(2)
Vertebral Artery Injury (Laceration)
175(1)
Traumatic Injury of the Carotid Artery
176(1)
Traumatic Dissection of Intracranial Arteries
176(1)
Traumatic Brain Swelling and Edema
177(2)
Boxing Injuries
179(1)
Occipito-Cervical Injuries
180(1)
Lacerations of the Brainstem
181(1)
Traumatic Intracranial Aneurysms
181(1)
Cerebral Palsy
182(1)
References
183(4)
Wounds Caused by Pointed and Sharp-Edged Weapons
Stab Wounds
187(1)
Depth of Stab Wounds
188(1)
Appearance of Stab Wounds in Skin
189(5)
Stab Wounds from Weapons Other than Knives
194(7)
Identifying the Weapon
201(3)
Manner of Death
204(2)
Stab Wounds by Anatomical Location
206(2)
Incised-Stab Wounds
208(1)
Physical Activity Following a Fatal Stab Wound
209(2)
Force Necessary to Inflict Fatal Stab Wounds
211(1)
Postmortem Bleeding
212(1)
Incised Wounds
212(4)
Incised Wounds of the Neck
216(5)
Miscellaneous
221(2)
Chop Wounds
223(4)
Therapeutic or Diagnostic Wounds
227(1)
References
228(2)
Asphyxia
Suffocation
230(1)
Entrapment / Environmental Suffocation
230(1)
Smothering
231(4)
Choking
235(5)
Mechanical Asphyxia
240(4)
Suffocating Gases
244(1)
Strangulation
245(12)
Ligature Strangulation
257(5)
Manual Strangulation
262(8)
Chemical Asphyxiants
270(2)
Sexual Asphyxia (Autoerotic Asphyxia, Autoerotic Deaths)
272(3)
References
275(4)
Deaths Caused by Motor Vehicle Accidents
Causes of Motor Vehicle Accidents
279(1)
Natural Disease as a Cause of Motor Vehicle Accidents
280(1)
Categories of Motor Vehicle Accidents
281(1)
Front Impact Crashes
281(9)
Side Impact Crashes
290(3)
Rollovers
293(3)
Rear Impact Crashes
296(1)
Seat Belts and Air Bags
296(2)
Air Bags
298(3)
Motor Vehicle Fires
301(1)
Motorcycle Accidents
302(3)
Suicide by Motor Vehicles
305(1)
Determination of Who Was Driving
305(1)
Motor Vehicle-Train Accidents
306(1)
Toxicology in Motor Vehicle Accidents
306(2)
Pedestrian Deaths
308(1)
Relationship Between Speed at Impact and Injuries
308(1)
Child Pedestrians
309(1)
Adult Pedestrians
309(8)
References
317(2)
Airplane Crashes
Crashes Involving Light Planes
319(1)
Crashes of Commercial Aircraft
320(1)
Causes of Crashes
320(1)
Crash Scene
321(1)
Crash Patterns
321(2)
In-Flight Fire
323(1)
Helicopter Crashes
323(1)
Hot-Air Balloons
323(1)
Lightning Strikes
323(1)
References
324(2)
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Incidence of SIDS
326(1)
Presentation of Cases
326(1)
Non-Hereditary Nature of SIDS
327(1)
Diagnosis of SIDS
328(1)
Etiology of SIDS
328(1)
Investigation of the Death
329(2)
Communication with the Parents
331(1)
References
332(4)
Neonaticide, Infanticide, and Child Homicide
Neonaticide
336(1)
Infanticide and Child Murder
337(2)
Battered Baby Syndrome
339(7)
The ``Impulse'' or ``Angry'' Homicide
346(3)
``Gentle'' Homicides and the Lethal Variant of Munchausen's Syndrome by Proxy
349(6)
Miscellaneous Causes of Child Deaths
355(1)
Radiological Evidence of Child Abuse
356(2)
The Shaken Baby Syndrome
358(4)
Unintentional Causes of Intracranial Hemorrhage
362(1)
References
363(4)
Fire Deaths
Burns
367(1)
Severity of Burn Injuries
368(4)
Deaths Caused by Fire
372(1)
The Burned Body
372(2)
Smoke Inhalation
374(3)
Inhalation Injuries
377(1)
Identification of the Deceased
378(2)
Causes of Fires
380(1)
Homicide by Fire
380(1)
Self Immolation
381(1)
Scalding Burns
382(1)
Chemical Burns
383(1)
Microwave Burns
384(2)
Miscellaneous
386(1)
Flash Fires: Fires Involving Flammable Hydrocarbon Liquids
386(1)
Flashover
386(1)
References
387(2)
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Mechanism of Action
389(1)
Deaths from Motor Vehicle Exhaust
390(1)
Survival Time
391(1)
Outdoor Deaths Caused by Carbon Monoxide
392(1)
Carbon Monoxide Deaths from Sources Other than Exhaust
392(1)
Decomposition and Carbon Monoxide
393(1)
Signs and Symptoms of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
393(1)
Fatal Levels of Carbon Monoxide
394(1)
Suicide or Accident
394(1)
Autopsy Findings
395(2)
References
397(3)
Death by Drowning
Physiology of Drowning
400(2)
Autopsy Findings
402(3)
Tests for Drowning
405(1)
Drownings in Bathtubs
406(1)
Scuba Divers
406(1)
References
407(3)
Electrocution
Mechanism of Death
410(1)
Fractures Caused by Electrocution
411(1)
Involuntary Movements Caused by Electricity-Induced Contraction of Muscle
411(1)
Autopsy Findings
412(2)
Manner of Death
414(1)
Lightning
415(3)
References
418(4)
Hyperthermia and Hypothermia: the Effects of Heat and Cold
Heat Stroke
422(4)
Malignant Hyperthermia
426(1)
Miscellaneous Causes of Hyperthermia
426(1)
Saunas
427(1)
Exercise, Body Temperature, Humidity and Exhaustion
427(1)
Hypothermia
428(1)
Hypothermia in Water
429(2)
Hypothermia on Land
431(1)
References
432(3)
Rape
The Living Rape Victim
435(3)
Rape-Homicides
438(1)
Transport of the Body
438(2)
Examination of the Body
440(1)
Trace Evidence Recovery from the Hands
440(1)
Examination of the Clothing
441(1)
The Body
441(1)
Hair
441(1)
Evidence of Sexual Intercourse
442(2)
Bite Marks
444(1)
Homosexual Rape
444(1)
DNA Analysis
444(5)
Short Tandem Repeats
449(1)
Combined DNA Index System
450(1)
Mitochondrial DNA Analysis
450(1)
References
451(2)
Emboli
Gas Embolism
453(5)
Fat Embolism Syndrome
458(1)
Amniotic Fluid Emboli
459(3)
References
462(3)
Topics in Forensic Pathology
Primary Cardiac Arrest During Exercise
465(1)
Starvation
466(2)
Anaphylactic Deaths
468(1)
Injury of the Eye Caused by Acids and Alkalis
469(1)
Death in the Dental Chair
470(3)
Maternal Mortality: Criminal Abortion
473(1)
Abortifacient Drugs
473(1)
Local Abortifacient
473(1)
Instrumentation
474(4)
Stillborn Infants
478(1)
Traumatic Lesions of Birth
479(1)
Water Intoxication
480(1)
Vitreous
481(2)
Electrolyte Disorders
483(1)
Blast Injuries
484(1)
Intra-Operative Deaths
484(2)
References
486(3)
Nursing Home Deaths
Drug Overdoses
489(1)
Accidents Not Involving Medications
489(1)
Homicides
489(1)
Suicides
490(1)
Gross Neglect of Patients
490(1)
Signs of Neglect
490(1)
Contractures
491(1)
Malnutrition
491(2)
Dehydration
493(1)
Decubitus Ulcers
493(3)
Homicide by Decubitus Ulcers
496(1)
Deaths Caused by Hospital Bed Side-Rails
496(1)
Deaths Caused by Medical Restraints
497(1)
References
497(3)
Sudden Death During or Immediately after a Violent Struggle
Excited Delirium
500(1)
Catecholamine Release
500(1)
Potassium
500(1)
Effects of Catecholamines on the Heart
501(1)
Actions of Drugs
501(1)
Alcohol
502(1)
Endogenous Mental Disease: Acute Psychotic Episodes
502(1)
Natural Disease Without Anatomical Manifestations
502(1)
Deaths Ascribed to Positional Asphyxia
503(1)
Certification of Death
504(1)
Pepper Spray
505(1)
References
505(2)
Interpretive Toxicology: Drug Abuse and Drug Deaths
Collections of Tissue for Analysis
507(3)
Tissue Analyses
510(2)
Analysis
512(1)
Toxicology Screens
513(2)
Deaths
515(1)
Ethyl Alcohol
516(4)
Methyl Alcohol
520(1)
Isopropanol
520(1)
Ethylene Glycol
521(1)
Phencyclidine (PCP)
521(1)
Heroin
521(3)
Propoxyphene
524(1)
Fentanyl
524(1)
Cocaine
524(1)
Methamphetamine and Amphetamine
525(1)
Miscellaneous Narcotics
526(1)
Inhalants
527(1)
Lead
527(1)
Iron
528(1)
Lye (NaOH)
528(2)
Arsenic
530(1)
Cyanide
531(1)
Strychnine
531(1)
Digoxin, Succinylcholine, and Insulin
532(3)
Antidepressants
535(8)
Mixed Drug Overdose
543(1)
Barbiturates
544(1)
References
544(3)
Appendix
The Forensic Autopsy
547(2)
The Autopsy Report
549(4)
Index 553

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