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Forensic Psychology

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780534526795

ISBN10:
0534526799
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/7/2000
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 1st edition with a publication date of 8/7/2000.
What is included with this book?
  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

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Summary

Univ. of Kansas, Kansas City. Textbook includes a broad focus exposing the reader to a wide array of career opportunities. Includes coverage of clinical forensic psychology with practical information, case studies, and a discussion of the history of the field. For students.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
About the Author xx
Information on the Internet xxi
The Challenge of Forensic Psychology
1(24)
What Is Forensic Psychology?
2(1)
The Promise and the Problems of Forensic Psychology
3(1)
The Conflict Between Psychology and the Law
4(8)
Laws and Values
5(1)
The Legal System's Reliance on Intuition Over Empiricism
6(1)
Two Illustrative Court Decisions
7(5)
The History of the Relationship Between Psychology and the Law
12(5)
The Role of Hugo Munsterberg
12(3)
Reaction of the Legal Community
15(1)
A Period of Inactivity
15(1)
Resurgence in the 1970s
16(1)
The Present
16(1)
The Perspectives of Psychology and the Law
17(5)
What Determines Truth?
17(3)
The Nature of Reality
20(1)
The Legal System's Criticisms of Psychology
21(1)
The Future of the Relationship Between Psychology and the Law
22(1)
Summary
23(1)
Key Terms
24(1)
Suggested Readings
24(1)
Roles and Responsibilities of Forensic Psychologists
25(25)
The Multitude of Roles
26(1)
The Temptations of Forensic Psychologists
26(4)
Promising Too Much
27(1)
Substituting Advocacy for Scientific Objectivity
27(1)
Letting Values Overcome Empirically Based Findings
27(2)
Doing a Cursory Job
29(1)
Maintaining Dual Relationships and Competing Roles
29(1)
Specific Roles: The Trial Consultant
30(2)
Duties
30(1)
Clientele
31(1)
Conflicts With the Legal System
31(1)
Ethical Responsibilities
31(1)
Specific Roles: The Expert Witness
32(9)
Duties
32(2)
Clientele
34(1)
Conflicts
34(1)
Ethical Responsibilities
35(2)
The Impact of the Daubert Decision
37(4)
Specific Roles: The Preparation of Amicus Briefs
41(6)
Duties
42(2)
Differences Between Psychologists
44(1)
Effectiveness
45(1)
Ethical Considerations
46(1)
Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists
47(1)
Summary
47(1)
Key Terms
48(1)
Suggested Readings
48(2)
The Police: Selection, Training, and Evaluation
50(21)
Psychology's Role in Police Work
51(1)
Who Are the Clients?
51(3)
The Public
51(3)
The Police Department
54(1)
The Selection of Police
54(7)
A History of Psychology and Police Selection
55(1)
Tools for Psychological Selection
55(6)
The Training of Police
61(6)
The Psychologist's Activities in a Police Department
62(1)
The Curriculum of Training Programs
63(1)
On-the-Job Training
63(1)
Specialized Training: Responses to Spouse Assault
64(1)
Negotiating With Terrorists and Hostage Takers
64(3)
Evaluating Effectiveness of Police Activities
67(2)
Fitness-for-Duty Evaluations
67(1)
Community Policing
68(1)
Summary
69(1)
Key Terms
69(1)
Suggested Readings
69(2)
Criminal Profiling
71(30)
Criminal Profiling and Forensic Psychology
72(1)
Why Develop Criminal Profiles?
72(3)
The Extent of Serial Criminal Behavior
72(1)
Recurring Mysteries
73(1)
False Stereotypes and Simplified Assumptions
74(1)
Current Needs for Profiling
75(3)
Arsonists
75(1)
Serial Bombers
76(2)
What Is Criminal Profiling?
78(5)
Definitions
78(1)
Three Approaches to Criminal Profiling
78(5)
Criminal-Profiling Procedures Used by the Police and the FBI
83(11)
The ``Mad Bomber''
85(2)
Procedures
87(3)
How Effective Is Criminal Profiling?
90(4)
Psychological Autopsies in Unexpected or Equivocal Deaths
94(5)
General Guidelines
95(1)
Specific Cases
96(3)
Summary
99(1)
Key Terms
99(1)
Suggested Readings
100(1)
Hypnosis and Lie Detection in Criminal Investigation
101(19)
Forensic Psychology and Police Investigative Techniques
102(1)
Hypnosis in Criminal Investigations
102(5)
Advocacy: Martin Reiser's Position
102(1)
The ``Hillside Strangler'' Case
103(1)
Hypnosis of Witnesses and Victims
104(1)
Supportive Research Reviews
104(1)
When Is Hypnosis Beneficial?
104(2)
Conclusions
106(1)
Court Decisions
106(1)
Guidelines
106(1)
The Cognitive Interview
107(1)
The Polygraph Technique
108(4)
Using the Polygraph to Interrogate Criminal Suspects
108(1)
A Psychological Analysis of the Polygraph Procedure
109(2)
The Floyd Fay Case
111(1)
Research Evaluation
112(4)
Criticisms of the Polygraph's Claims of Validity
112(2)
The Current Legal Status
114(2)
The Role of the Psychologist as a Psychometric Expert
116(2)
Summary
118(1)
Key Terms
118(1)
Suggested Readings
119(1)
Improving Eyewitness Identification Procedures
120(20)
Gathering Useful Information From Eyewitnesses
121(5)
System Variables Versus Estimator Variables
122(1)
Improper Police Procedures
122(4)
Questioning Witnesses (Information Generation)
126(3)
Lack of Training
126(1)
Interview Content
126(1)
Failure to Recognize the Dynamics of the Interview
126(2)
Improving the Accuracy of Witnesses' Information
128(1)
Lineups and Photo Arrays
129(4)
Common Errors
131(1)
Operational Rules
132(1)
Children as Eyewitnesses
133(1)
Public Policy Issues
133(4)
Recent Statute-of-Limitation Laws
133(1)
Judges' Decisions on the Admissibility of Expert Testimony
134(2)
Supreme Court Decisions
136(1)
Summary
137(1)
Key Terms
138(1)
Suggested Readings
139(1)
Police Interrogations and Confessions
140(26)
The Importance of a Confession
141(1)
The Paul Ingram Case
141(2)
The Charges
141(1)
Interrogation Procedures
142(1)
Ingram's Response
142(1)
Evaluating the Accuracy of Ingram's Confession
142(1)
The Outcome
143(1)
The Forensic Psychologist and Police Interrogations
143(1)
The Psychology of False Confessions
143(4)
Three Types of False Confessions
143(3)
How Many Confessions Are False?
146(1)
False Confessions in the Laboratory
147(1)
The Role of Police Interrogations in Generating Confessions
147(11)
The Goals of Interrogation
148(2)
What Police Can and Can't Do
150(8)
What Can Psychologists Contribute?
158(5)
The Police as Client
158(3)
The Courts as Client
161(2)
Society as Client
163(1)
Summary
163(1)
Key Terms
164(1)
Suggested Readings
164(2)
Alternative Dispute Resolution and Trial Preparation
166(24)
Overview
167(2)
Forensic Psychologists as Trial Consultants
167(1)
``Trial'' Consultant or ``Litigation'' Consultant?
167(1)
Mediators: A Different Type of Trial Consultant
167(1)
Pretrial Activities
168(1)
Ethical Issues
168(1)
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
169(5)
Examples of Conflict
170(1)
Conflict Resolution Versus Conflict Settlement
170(1)
Third-Party Mediators
171(2)
A Conceptualization of Effective Negotiation
173(1)
Evaluation of Mediation's Effectiveness
174(1)
Change of Venue Requests
174(6)
Origin of Request
174(1)
The Litigation Consultant's Activities
175(1)
Effects of Pretrial Publicity
176(1)
Testifying at a Hearing
177(1)
A Case Study
177(2)
Sequestered Voir Dire
179(1)
Witness Preparation
180(3)
Two Real-Life Examples
180(2)
What Is Proper and What Is Not
182(1)
Organizing the Case
183(4)
Opening Statements
183(3)
Presentation of the Evidence
186(1)
Closing Arguments
187(1)
Summary
187(1)
Key Terms
188(1)
Suggested Readings
188(2)
Jury Selection
190(23)
When Lawyers and Litigation Consultants Disagree
191(2)
Conflicts in Styles and Values
191(1)
Examples of Attorneys' Stereotypes
192(1)
What Do Psychologists Do?
193(1)
Two Approaches to Jury Selection
193(1)
Broad Attitudes and Traits
193(1)
Case-Specific Approaches
194(1)
Measurement of Juror Bias
194(8)
Criminal Trials
194(6)
Civil Trials
200(2)
Case-Specific Approaches
202(3)
The Harrisburg Seven Trial
203(1)
The de la Beckwith Retrial
204(1)
Does Scientific Jury Selection Work?
205(1)
Is It Ethical for Psychologists to Aid in Jury Selection?
206(5)
Juror Investigation
207(1)
Use of Supplemental Juror Questionnaires
208(1)
Discovery and Attorney Work Product
209(1)
Fairness in Jury Selection
210(1)
The Relationship of the Trial Consultant to the Attorney
210(1)
Summary
211(1)
Key Terms
211(1)
Suggested Readings
212(1)
Insanity and Competency
213(22)
Overview
214(1)
Determining Insanity
214(4)
Why Is Determining Insanity Difficult?
214(1)
Differences Between Insanity and Psychosis
214(4)
Psychologists' Roles in Insanity Cases
218(6)
Assessment of Criminal Responsibility
218(1)
Testifying as an Expert Witness
219(1)
The Hinckley Trial
220(1)
The Dahmer Trial
220(2)
Ultimate-Issue Testimony
222(2)
Assessing Competency
224(6)
Competency to Plead Guilty
225(1)
Competency to Stand Trial
225(4)
Competency of Juveniles
229(1)
Risk Assessment
230(1)
Predicting Suicide
230(1)
Predicting Danger to Others
230(1)
Malingering
231(2)
Summary
233(1)
Key Terms
233(1)
Suggested Readings
234(1)
Battered Woman Syndrome and Domestic Violence
235(25)
The Nature of Domestic Violence
236(2)
What Characterizes an Abuser?
236(1)
Roles for the Forensic Psychologist
237(1)
The Extent of Domestic Violence and Spouse Battering
238(1)
Reports of Incidence Rates
238(1)
The National Response
238(1)
Myths About the Battered Woman
239(5)
Empirical Evaluation of the Myths
241(1)
Why These Myths?
241(3)
Battered Woman Syndrome
244(4)
What Is a Syndrome?
244(1)
Components of Battered Woman Syndrome
244(1)
The Relationship of BWS to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
245(1)
The Role of the Forensic Psychologist in the Assessment of BWS
246(2)
BWS in Court
248(3)
Battered Women Who Kill Their Abusers
248(1)
Possible Defenses for a Woman Who Has Killed Her Batterer
248(1)
Self-Defense
248(3)
The Insanity Defense
251(1)
Cross-Examination of the Battered Woman
251(1)
Using a Psychologist as an Expert Witness on BWS
252(2)
Reasons for Using an Expert Witness
252(2)
Procedural and Ethical Issues Regarding the Use of Expert Witnesses
254(1)
Admissibility of Expert Testimony
254(1)
The Stance of the Expert Witness---Objectivity or Advocacy?
255(1)
Jurors' Reactions to BWS as Defense Evidence
255(1)
Criticisms of the Use of BWS and the Battered Woman Defense
256(2)
Defense of Women at Trial
257(1)
Perpetuating the Battered Woman Stereotype as a Passive, Helpless Woman
257(1)
The Scientific Validity of BWS
257(1)
Summary
258(1)
Key Terms
258(1)
Suggested Readings
259(1)
Rape Trauma Syndrome
260(15)
A Typical Rape Case
261(1)
Purpose of the Chapter
261(1)
What Is the Rape Trauma Syndrome?
261(5)
Phase I: Acute Crisis Phase
262(2)
Phase II: Long-Term Reactions
264(1)
The Relationship of Rape Trauma Syndrome to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
265(1)
What Can a Psychologist Do?
266(1)
Assessment
266(1)
Testimony as an Expert Witness
267(2)
The Issue of Consent
268(1)
Questions About the Behavior of the Alleged Victim
268(1)
Supporting a Claim of Damages in a Civil Suit
268(1)
Testifying as a Defense for Culpable Behavior by a Rape Survivor
268(1)
The Admissibility of Psychological Testimony
269(2)
The Scientific Status of Research on RTS
271(1)
Substituting PTSD for RTS
272(1)
Summary
273(1)
Key Terms
273(1)
Suggested Readings
273(2)
The Sexual Abuse of Children
275(17)
The Emergence of Concern About Sexual Child Abuse
276(1)
The McMartin Preschool Case
276(1)
The Charges and the Trials
276(1)
Sexual Child Abuse in Schools and Day Care Centers
277(1)
Roles for Psychologists
277(1)
Evaluating the Child
277(1)
Assessing Competency to Testify
278(1)
Preparing the Child to Testify
278(1)
Testifying as an Expert Witness
278(1)
Assessing Allegations by a Child
278(6)
Interviewing Techniques
279(1)
The Criterion-Based Content Analysis Technique
280(1)
Using Anatomically Detailed Dolls
281(2)
Suggestions for Improving Procedures
283(1)
Determining Whether a Child Is Competent to Testify
284(1)
Children's Rights When Testifying
285(2)
Psychologists as Expert Witnesses
287(3)
Testimony for the Prosecution
287(3)
Testimony for the Defense
290(1)
Summary
290(1)
Key Terms
291(1)
Suggested Readings
291(1)
Child Custody Decisions
292(22)
The Intensity of Child Custody Disputes
293(1)
What Roles Can Psychologists Play?
294(3)
Marriage Counselor
294(1)
Mediator
294(1)
Child Therapist
295(1)
Court-Appointed Evaluator
296(1)
Expert Witness
297(1)
Applied Researcher
297(1)
Serving the Needs of Three Different Types of Clients
297(1)
The Children
298(1)
The Parents
298(1)
The Judge
298(1)
The Court-Appointed Evaluator Role
298(11)
Standards for Resolution of Custody Disputes
298(2)
Custody Determinations in Mixed-Race Cases or Cases Involving a Homosexual Parent
300(1)
Ethical Issues and Temptations
301(2)
Techniques of Custody Evaluation
303(6)
The Expert Witness Role
309(1)
Ultimate-Opinion Testimony
309(1)
Ethical Considerations
309(1)
The Applied Researcher Role
310(1)
The Effects of Divorce on Children
310(1)
The Effects of Type of Custody
310(1)
Summary
311(2)
Key Terms
313(1)
Suggested Readings
313(1)
Discrimination
314(20)
What Is Discrimination?
315(3)
Prejudice and Discrimination
315(1)
Modern Racism
316(2)
Who Is Discriminated Against?
318(1)
Overview of the Chapter
318(1)
What Can Psychology Contribute?
318(5)
Conceptual Analysis
318(1)
Methodology
319(4)
Court Decisions Regarding Race and Assignment to Special Education Classes
323(3)
Affirmative Action
326(4)
The Courts and Affirmative Action
326(2)
Psychological Contributions
328(2)
Employment Discrimination
330(1)
Hate Crimes
331(1)
Summary
332(1)
Key Terms
332(1)
Suggested Readings
332(2)
Sexual Harassment
334(14)
Increased Awareness of Sexual Harassment
335(1)
Origins of the Term
335(1)
Incidence Rates
335(1)
Highly Publicized Cases
336(1)
Conceptualizations of Sexual Harassment
336(2)
Confusion in the Public
336(1)
Gruber's Typology of Sexual Harassment
337(1)
Fitzgerald's Typology
337(1)
Sexual Harassment Cases in the Courts
338(5)
Two Types of Sexual Harassment
338(1)
Harris v. Forklift Systems, Inc.
339(4)
How Can Psychology Help?
343(3)
Analyzing the Causes of Harassment
343(1)
Distinctions Between Female and Male Victims
344(1)
Measuring Beliefs
344(1)
Predicting the Outcome of Complaints
345(1)
Restructuring the Workplace
345(1)
Summary
346(1)
Key Terms
347(1)
Suggested Readings
347(1)
Death Penalty Trials and Appeals
348(23)
Competent to Be Executed?
349(1)
Why Do Forensic Psychologists Get Involved in Death Penalty Cases?
349(1)
Roles for Forensic Psychologists
349(3)
An Outline of the Process and Possible Roles
349(2)
Is the Psychologist's Role Necessarily That of an Advocate?
351(1)
Social-Psychological Research and Evaluation Research on the Death Penalty
352(1)
Convictions and Executions of Innocent Persons
352(8)
Estimating the Number of Wrong Convictions
353(2)
The Execution of Innocent People
355(1)
The Case of Randall Dale Adams
356(1)
Trial-Related Reasons for Incorrect Convictions
357(3)
Appellate Courts and the Death Penalty
360(2)
The U.S. Supreme Court's Reaction to Death Penalty Appeals
362(1)
Specific Activities of the Forensic Psychologist
363(6)
Mitigation Assessment
363(1)
Competency Evaluations
363(3)
Evaluating Defense Arguments
366(1)
Research on the Effects of the Death Penalty
367(2)
Summary
369(1)
Key Terms
370(1)
Suggested Readings
370(1)
Influencing Public Policy
371(22)
Applying Psychological Knowledge to Legal Policy Decisions
372(1)
Psychologists and Legislatures
372(1)
Psychologists and Executive Branch Decisions
373(1)
Psychologists and the Courts
373(1)
The Use of Amicus Briefs
373(5)
History of the Relationship Between Psychology and the Courts
374(1)
Direct Attempts to Influence the Courts
375(1)
Ballew v. Georgia: Too Little Too Late?
375(3)
Involvement by the American Psychological Association
378(1)
Classifying APA Briefs
378(1)
The Goals of APA Science-Translation Briefs
379(1)
The Effectiveness of APA Briefs
379(2)
How Is Effectiveness Measured?
379(1)
Is It Better to Be Ignored or Rejected?
380(1)
APA Amicus Briefs and Supreme Court Decisions
381(7)
Ake v. Oklahoma: An Example of Less Discernible Input
382(3)
Lockhart v. McCree: A Rejection of the APA's Brief
385(3)
What Can Be Learned From Analysis of Individual Cases?
388(2)
The Potency of Deeply Held Values
388(1)
Identifying and Representing the Goals of Psychologists Accurately
388(2)
Summary
390(1)
Key Terms
391(1)
Suggested Readings
391(2)
References 393(40)
Name Index 433(12)
Subject Index 445


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