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Forensic Psychology (with InfoTrac),9780534632250
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Forensic Psychology (with InfoTrac)

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780534632250

ISBN10:
0534632254
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/21/2004
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $243.66
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Summary

Written by two of the leading authorities in the field, FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY, Second Edition introduces students to the practice of forensic psychology by showing readers how psychologists aid the legal system by serving as expert witnesses, criminal profilers, and trial consultants for jury selection and child custody hearings. Wrightsman and Fulero present the roles and responsibilities of forensic psychologists, and addresses both the opportunities and temptations inherent in those roles. Through this lens, the authors explore the ethical issues facing practicing forensic psychologists, such as promising clients too much, the possibility of becoming advocates rather than objective scientists, and the pitfalls associated with substituting one's values for data. Wrightsman and Fulero provide students with an accurate and candid picture of the field, and the range of careers in forensic psychology.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
About the Authors xxiii
CHAPTER 1 Forensic Psychology: Promises and Problems 1(24)
What Is Forensic Psychology?
2(2)
History of the Relationship Between Psychology and the Law
4 (6)
The Applied Side
4(1)
The Academic Side: The Role of Hugo Munsterberg
5 (3)
Reaction From the Legal Community
8(1)
A Period of Inactivity
8(1)
Resurgence in the 1970's
9(1)
The Present
10(1)
Conflicts Between Psychology and the Law
10(12)
Laws and Values
10(2)
What Determines "Truth"?
12(3)
The Nature of Reality
15(1)
The Legal System's Criticisms of Psychology
15(2)
Two Illustrative Court Decisions
17(5)
The Future of the Relationship Between Psychology and the Law
22 (1)
Summary
22(1)
Key Terms
23(1)
Suggested Readings
23(2)
CHAPTER 2 Forensic Psychologists: Roles and Responsibilities 25(26)
The Multitude of Forensic Psychology Roles and Activities
26 (1)
Specific Roles: Researcher
26(1)
Specific Roles: Consultant to Law Enforcement
27(1)
Specific Roles: The Trial Consultant
27(2)
Specific Roles: Forensic Evaluator and Expert Witness
29(11)
Evaluation and Assessment
30(1)
Expert Witnessing
31(9)
Specific Roles: Presentation of Psychology to Courts and Legislatures
40 (6)
The Temptations of Forensic Psychology
46(3)
Promising Too Much
47(1)
Substituting Advocacy for Scientific Objectivity
47(1)
Letting Values Overcome Empirical Findings
48(1)
Doing a Cursory Job
48(1)
Summary
49(1)
Key Terms
49(1)
Suggested Readings
50(1)
CHAPTER 3 Psychology and Law Enforcement: Selection, Training, and Evaluation 51
Who Are the Clienteles?
52 (3)
The Public
52(3)
The Police Department
55 (1)
The Selection of Police
55(7)
A History of Psychology and Police Selection
56(1)
Tools for Psychological Selection
56(6)
The Training of Police
62(6)
Activities of a Psychologist in a Police Department
62(2)
The Curriculum ofTraining Programs
64(1)
On-the-Job Training
65 (1)
Specialized Trail iiilg
65(3)
Evaluating Effectiveness of Police Activities
68(1)
Fitness for-Duty Evaluations
68(1)
Community Policing
69(1)
Summary
69 (1)
Key Terms
70 (1)
Suggested Readings
70
CHAPTER 4 Techniques of Criminal Investigation: Profiling, Psychological Autopsies, Hypnosis, and Lie Detection 7(98)
Criminal Profiling and Forensic Psychology
73(1)
Why Develop Criminal Profiles?
73 (4)
Definitions and Recurring Mysteries
73(2)
False Stereotypes and Simplified Assumptions
75 (1)
The D. C. Sniper Case
76(1)
What Is Criminal Profiling?
77(4)
Definitions
77(1)
Three Approaches to Criminal Profiling
78 (3)
Procedures Used in Criminal Profiling
81(6)
Crime Scene Analysis and the Generation of Psychological Profiles
82(3)
How Effective Is Criminal Profiling?
85 (1)
Are Professional Profilers Better?
86 (1)
An Evaluation of Profiling
87(1)
Psychological Autopsies
87(4)
Guidelines
89(1)
A Specific Case
89(2)
Hypnosis in Criminal Investigations
91 (4)
Advocacy: Martin Reiser's Position
91 (1)
The Hillside Strangler Case
91(1)
Hypnosis of Witnesses and Victims
92 (1)
Research Reviews
92(1)
Conclusions
93(1)
Court Decisions
93(1)
Guidelines
94(1)
The Polygraph Technique
95(2)
Use of the Polygraph in Interrogation
95 (1)
A Psychological Analysis
95(2)
Research Evaluation
97(2)
Criticisms of the Polygraph
97(2)
The Current Legal Status
99(1)
The Role of the Forensic Psychologist
99 (2)
Summary
101(1)
Key Terms
102(1)
Suggested Readings
103(2)
CHAPTER 5 Insanity and Competency 105 (20)
Insanity Determination
106(4)
The Difficulty in Determining Insanity
106 (1)
Insanity versus Psychosis
106(4)
The Psychologist's Roles in Insanity Cases
110 (6)
Assessment of Criminal Responsibility
110 (1)
Testifying as an Expert Witness
111(5)
Assessing Competency
116(6)
Competency to Plead Guilty
116(1)
Competency to Stand Trial
117(3)
Competency of Juveniles
120(2)
Malingering
122(1)
Summary
123(1)
Key Terms
124(1)
Suggested Readings
124(1)
CHAPTER 6 From Dangerousness to Risk Assessment: Violence, Sexual Offending, Domestic Violence, Child Abuse, and Suicide 125(14)
Risk Assessment and Predictions of Dangerousness
126(1)
The "First Generation" of Research
127(1)
Movement From Prediction of Dangerousness to Risk Assessment
128 (1)
Prediction of Violence
129(3)
Prediction of Sexual Offending
132(1)
Prediction of Domestic Violence and Child Abuse
133(3)
Domestic Violence
133 (2)
Child Abuse
135(1)
Prediction of Suicide
136 (1)
Summary
137(1)
Key Terms
137(1)
Suggested Readings
138(1)
CHAPTER 7 "Syndrome" Evidence: Battered Woman Syndrome and Rape Trauma Syndrome 139(31)
The Battered Woman Syndrome (BWS)
140(5)
What Is a Syndrome?
140(2)
Components of the Battered Woman Syndrome
142(1)
The Relationship of BWS to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
143(1)
Role of the Forensic Psychologist in the Assessment of BWS
143(2)
The BWS in Court
145(4)
Battered Women Who Kill
145 (1)
Possible Defenses
146(3)
The Use of a Psychologist as an Expert Witness on the Battered Woman Syndrome
149(3)
Reasons for Use of the Expert Witness
149(1)
Cross-Examination
150(2)
Procedural and Ethical Issues Regarding the Use of Expert Witnesses
152 (1)
Admissibility of Expert Testimony on BWS
152(1)
The Stance of the Expert Witness-Objectivity or Advocacy?
152(1)
Jurors' Reactions to BWS as a Part of Defense Evidence
153(1)
Criticisms of the Use of the Battered Woman Syndrome and the Battered Woman Defense
154(1)
Defense of Women at Trial
154(1)
Perpetuating the Battered Woman Stereotype: The Passive, Helpless Woman
154 (1)
The Scientific Validity of the Battered Woman Syndrome
155(1)
The Rape Trauma Syndrome
155(6)
What Is the Rape Trauma Syndrome?
155(2)
Phase I: Acute Crisis Phase
157 (1)
Phase II: Long-Term Reactions
158(2)
The Relationship of RTS to PTSD
160(1)
What Can a Psychologist Do?
161 (2)
Assessment
161(1)
Testimony as an Expert Witness
162(1)
Admissibility of Psychological Testimony on RTS
163(2)
The Status of Research on RTS
165 (1)
Substituting PTSD for RTS
166 (1)
Summary
167(1)
Key Terms
168(1)
Suggested Readings
169(1)
CHAPTER 8 Child Sexual Abuse 170(18)
The McMartin Preschool Case
171 (1)
The Charges and the Trials
171 (1)
The Issue
171(1)
Roles for Psychologists
172(1)
Evaluating the Child
172(1)
Assessing Competency to Testify
172 (1)
Preparing the Child to Testify
172 (1)
Testifying as an Expert Witness
173(1)
Assessing Allegations by the Child
173 (6)
Interviewing Techniques
173(2)
Using the Criterion-Based Content Analysis Technique
175 (1)
Using Anatomically Detailed Dolls
176 (3)
Suggestions for Improving Procedures
179(1)
Determining If the Child Is Competent to Testify
179(1)
Children's Rights When Testifying
180(2)
Psychologists as Expert Witnesses
182 (3)
Types of "Testimony for the Prosecution
182 (3)
Testimony for the Defense
185(1)
Summary
185(1)
Key Terms
186(1)
Suggested Readings
186(2)
CHAPTER 9 Child Custody and Related Decisions 188(23)
What Roles Can Psychologists Play?
190(4)
Marriage Counselor
190(1)
Mediator
190(1)
Child Therapist
191(1)
Court-Appointed Evaluator
192(1)
Expert Witness
193(1)
Applied Researcher
194(1)
What Do Clienteles Want?
194(1)
The Children
194(1)
The Parents
194(1)
The Judge
194(1)
The Court-Appointed Evaluator
195(11)
Standards for Resolution of Custody Disputes
195 (2)
Custody Determinations in Mixed-Race Cases or in Cases Involving a Parent With a Homosexual Orientation
197 (1)
Ethical Issues and Temptations
198(2)
The Technique of Custody Evaluation
200(6)
The Expert Witness Role
206(1)
Ultimate-Opinion Testimony
206(1)
Ethical Considerations
206(1)
The Evaluation Researcher Role
206(3)
Effects of Divorce on Children
207(1)
Effects of 7jype of Custody
207(2)
Summary
209(1)
Key Terms
209 (1)
Suggested Readings
210(1)
CHAPTER 10 Improving Eyewitness Identification Procedures 211(23)
How Important Is Eyewitness Testimony in Criminal Cases?
212(1)
Can Eyewitness Testimony Contribute to Wrongful Convictions?
212 (1)
How Can Forensic Psychologists Help Police Obtain Useful Information From Eyewitnesses?
213(4)
System Variables versus Estimator Variables
213(1)
Examples of Problematic Police Procedures
214(3)
Questioning Witnesses (Information Generation)
217(3)
Lack of Training
217 (1)
Interview Content
218(1)
Failure to Recognize the Dynamics of the Interview
218(1)
Ways to Improve the Accuracy of Information Elicited From Witnesses
219 (1)
Use of Lineups and Photo Arrays
220(5)
Common Errors
222 (1)
Operational Rules
223(2)
Children as Eyewitnesses
225(1)
Public Policy Issues
225(6)
Recent Changes in Statute-of-Limitation Laws in Recovered Memory or Child Sexual Abuse Cases
226(1)
Judges' Decisions on the Admissibility of Expert Testimony
226(4)
Supreme Court Decisions
230(1)
Summary and a Cautionary Evaluation
231(1)
Key Terms
232(1)
Suggested Readings
232(2)
CHAPTER 11 Interrogations and Confessions 234 (26)
The Paul Ingram Case
235(2)
The Charges
235(1)
Interrogation Procedures
236(1)
Ingram's Response
236(1)
Evaluating the Accuracy of Ingram's Confession
236(1)
The Outcome
237(1)
The Forensic Psychologist and Police Interrogations
237(1)
The Psychology of False Confessions
237 (4)
Three Types of False Confessions
237 (3)
How Many Confessions Are False?
240 (1)
False Confessions in the Laboratory
241(1)
The Role of Police Interrogations in Generating Confessions
241 (11)
The Goals of Interrogations
242(2)
What Can Police Do and What Can't They Do?
244 (8)
What Can Psychologists Contribute?
252(6)
The Police as a Clientele
252(3)
The Courts as a Clientele
255(2)
Society as a Clientele
257(1)
Summary and Conclusions
258(1)
Key Terms
258(1)
Suggested Readings
259(1)
CHAPTER 12 Trial Consultation: Jury Selection, Case Preparation, and Pretrial Publicity 260(31)
Overview
261(1)
Trial Consultants as Forensic Psychologists
261(1)
Trial Consultants: Better Thought of as Litigation Consultants?
261 (1)
Possible Pretrial Activities
261(1)
Ethical Issues
262(1)
Pretrial Activities
262(1)
Change-of-Venue Requests in Response to Pretrial Publicity
262 (4)
Origin of Requests
262(1)
The Litigation Consultant's Activities
263 (1)
The Effects of Pretrial Publicity
264 (1)
Testifying at a Hearing
265(1)
Sequestered Voir Dire
266(1)
Witness Preparation
266(3)
What Is Proper and What Is Not
268 (1)
Organizing the Case
269(4)
Opening Statements
269(2)
Presentation of the Evidence
271 (1)
Closing Arguments
272(1)
Jury Selection: Psychology and Law in Conflict
273 (2)
Examples of Lawyers' Approaches
274 (1)
What Do Psychologists Do?
274(1)
Two Approaches to Jury Selection
275 (1)
Broad Attitudes and Traits
275(1)
Case-Specific Approaches
275(1)
Measurement of Juror Bias
276(6)
Criminal Trials
276(3)
Civil Trials
279(3)
Does Scientific Jury Selection Work?
282(1)
Is It Ethical for Psychologists to Aid in Jury Selection?
283 (4)
Juror Investigations
283(1)
Use of Supplemental Juror Questionnaires
284(1)
The Problem of Discovery and the Attorney Work Product
285 (1)
Fairness in Jury Selection
286(1)
The Relationship of the Trial Consultant to the Attorney
287 (1)
Summary
287(1)
Key Terms
288(1)
Suggested readings
289(2)
CHAPTER 13 Discrimination 291(20)
The Targets of Discrimination
292(3)
What Is Discrimination?
292(1)
Modern Racism
293(1)
Who Are the Recipients of Discrimination?
293(2)
Overview of the Chapter
295(1)
What Can Psychology Contribute?
295 (4)
Conceptual Analysis-An Example
295(1)
Methodology
296(3)
Racial Differences and the Use of Test Results to Assign Students to Special Education Classes
299(3)
The Impact of Affirmative Action Policies
302(4)
The Courts and Affirmative Action
303(2)
Psychological Contributions
305 (1)
Employment Discrimination
306 (2)
Hate Crimes
308(1)
Summary
309(1)
Key Terms
309(1)
Suggested Readings
310(1)
CHAPTER 14 Sexual Harassment 311(14)
Increased Awareness of Sexual Harassment
312 (1)
Origins of the Term
312(1)
Incidence Rates
312(1)
Highly Publicized Cases
313(1)
Conceptualizations of Sexual Harassment
313 (2)
Confusion Surrounding the Term
313 (1)
Gruber's Typology of Sexual Harassment
314 (1)
Fitzgerald's Typology
314(1)
Sexual Harassment in the Courts
315(4)
Two Types of Sexual Harassment
315(1)
The Harris v. Forklift Systems, Inc. Decision
316(3)
Psychology's Contributions to Understanding and Ameliorating Sexual Harassment
319(4)
Developing Models for Causes of Sexual Harassment and for Attributions of Causality
320(1)
Distinguishing Between Female and Male Victims
321(1)
Measuring Beliefs
321(1)
Predicting the Outcome of Complaints
322(1)
Restructuring the Workplace
322(1)
Summary
323(1)
Key Terms
323(1)
Suggested Readings
324(1)
CHAPTER 15 Death Penalty Trials and Appeals 325(27)
Why Do Forensic Psychologists Get Involved in Death Penalty Cases?
326 (1)
Roles for Forensic Psychologists
326(6)
An Outline of the Process and Possible Roles
326 (5)
Is the Role Necessarily That of an Advocate?
331 (1)
Social-Psychological Research and Evaluation Research on the Death Penalty
331(1)
Convictions and Executions of Innocent People
332 (8)
Estimating the Number of Wrong Convictions
332 (2)
Examples of Death Sentences for Innocent People
334 (1)
The Case of Randall Dale Adams
335(1)
Trial-Related Reasons for Incorrect Convictions
336 (4)
Appellate Courts and the Death Penalty
340(1)
The U.S. Supreme Court's Reaction to Death Penalty Appeals
341 (1)
Some Specific Activities
342(7)
Evaluations for Dangerousness
342(1)
Competency Examinations
343(3)
Evaluating Defense Arguments
346(1)
The Problem of Jury Instructions
347(1)
The Generation of Other Research Findings
347 (2)
Summary
349(1)
Key Terms
350(1)
Suggested Readings
350(2)
CHAPTER 16 Influencing Public Policy 352(21)
Application of Psychological Knowledge to Decisions by Legal-System Policy Makers
353(1)
Ways of Influencing Legislatures
353(1)
Testimony by Psychologists
353(1)
Psychologists and the Courts
354(1)
The Use of Amicus Briefs
354(5)
History of the Relationship
354(1)
Direct Attempts to Influence the Courts
355(1)
Ballew v. Georgia (1978): Too Little and Too Late?
356(3)
Involvement by the American Psychological Association
359 (1)
Ways of Classifying APA Briefs
359(1)
What Are the APA's Goals in Submitting Science-Translation Briefs?
359(1)
The Effectiveness of APA Briefs
360(1)
How Do We Measure Effectiveness?
360(1)
Is It Better to Be Ignored or Rejected?
361(1)
The Relationship of the APA Amicus Brief to the Supreme Court's Decision
361(8)
An Example of a Decision Consistent with the APA's Goals But Not Directly Reflecting the APA's Input: Ake v. Oklahoma (1985)
364(2)
An Example of Rejection of the APA Brief: Lockhart v. McCree (1986)
366(3)
What Can We Learn From an Analysis of Individual Cases?
369(2)
The Potency of Deeply Held Values
369(1)
Identifying and Representing Our Goals Accurately
369 (2)
Summary
371(1)
Key Terms
371(1)
Suggested Readings
372(1)
References 373 (48)
Name Index 421 (18)
Subject Index 439


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