9780471308225

Forest Ecology, 4th Edition

by ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780471308225

  • ISBN10:

    0471308226

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2/1/1998
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Summary

This revised and reorganized text is designed for a standard forest ecology course for undergraduates in forestry, natural resources, environmental science, environmental ecology, and field ecology programs. Provides an eminently current perspective on the material by emphasizing forest ecosystems using a landscape-ecosystem or geo-ecosystem approach. Written by both field teachers and researchers of forest ecology and practitioners of forest ecology in both public and private arenas. Treats traditional plant ecology topics of community, succession, biota from a landscape ecosystem perspective, also emphasizes earth science.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 CONCEPTS OF FOREST ECOLOGY
1(18)
Ecology
2(1)
Landscape Ecosystems
3(7)
Landscape Ecosystem and Community
6(1)
Ecosystem Structure
7(1)
Ecosystem Function
8(1)
Vertical and Horizontal Approaches
8(2)
Examples of Landscape Ecosystems
10(4)
An Approach to the Study of Forest Ecology
14(2)
Applicability in Ecosystem Management
16(1)
Suggested Readings
17(2)
PART 1 Ecosystems at Multiple Spatial and Temporal Scales 19(42)
CHAPTER 2 LANDSCAPE ECOSYSTEMS AT MULTIPLE SPATIAL SCALES
21(20)
Overview of Spatial and Temporal Scales
21(3)
Hierarchical Ecosystem Scales in Space
24(7)
Climatic Classification
24(3)
Vegetation Types and Biomes
27(3)
Physiography
30(1)
Distinguishing and Mapping Landscape Ecosystems at Multiple Spatial Scales
31(9)
Regional Landscape Ecosystems
34(4)
Regional Landscape Ecosystems of Michigan
35(3)
Local Landscape Ecosystems
38(2)
Local Landscape Ecosystems in Upper Michigan
38(2)
Suggested Readings
40(1)
CHAPTER 3 LONG-TERM ECOSYSTEM AND VEGETATION CHANGE
41(20)
Change Before the Pleistocene Age
42(1)
Pleistocene Glaciations
43(1)
Ecosystem and Vegetational Change Since the Last Glacial Maximum
44(9)
Pollen Analysis
46(1)
Eastern North America
46(5)
Overall Migration Sequence and Patterns
48(3)
Ecosystem Change in the Southern Appalachians
51(1)
Western North America
51(2)
Patterns of Tree Genera and Species Migrations
53(4)
Migration Irregularities and Disturbance
55(1)
Long-Term Change at a Given Site
56(1)
Independent Migration and Similarity of Communities Through Time
57(1)
Adaptations of Conifers and Angiosperms
58(2)
Suggested Readings
60(1)
PART 2 The Forest Tree 61(88)
CHAPTER 4 FOREST TREE VARIATION
63(31)
Components of Phenotypic Variation
64(2)
Plasticity of the Phenotype
65(1)
Sources of Variation
66(1)
The Evolutionary Sequence
67(1)
Sexual and Asexual Systems
68(1)
Genetic Diversity of Woody Species
68(1)
Genecology
69(16)
Patterns of Genecological Differentiation
70(1)
Genecological Categories
71(1)
Factors Eliciting Genecological Differentiation
71(5)
Growth Cessation
72(3)
Growth Resumption
75(1)
Examples of Genecological Differentiation
76(7)
Eastern North American Species
76(2)
Scots Pine
78(1)
Wide-Ranging Western North American Conifers
78(4)
Ponderosa Pine
79(2)
Douglas-fir
81(1)
Local Genecological Differentiation
82(1)
Factors Affecting Differentiation: Gene Flow and Selection Pressure
83(2)
Ecological Considerations at the Species Level
85(7)
Niche
87(1)
Hybridization
87(3)
Polyploidy
90(1)
The Fitness-Flexibility Compromise
91(1)
Suggested Readings
92(2)
CHAPTER 5 REGENERATION ECOLOGY
94(28)
Regeneration
95(3)
Sexual Reproduction
98(10)
Maturation and Ability to Flower
98(1)
Increasing Seed Production
99(1)
Reproductive Cycles
99(1)
Pollination
100(2)
Periodicity of Seed Crops
102(2)
Effects of Reproduction on Vegetative Growth
104(1)
Dispersal
105(2)
Seed Bank, Dormancy, and Germination
107(1)
Establishment Following Sexual Reproduction
108(7)
Post-Establishment Development
115(1)
Vegetative Reproduction
115(6)
Suggested Readings
121(1)
CHAPTER 6 STRUCTURE AND GROWTH
122(27)
Tree Form
122(9)
Architectural Models
124(7)
Short and Long Shoots
126(1)
Patterns of Intermittent Growth
127(3)
Sylleptic and Proleptic Shoots
130(1)
Roots
131(7)
Kinds, Forms, and Occurrence
132(1)
Fine Root Relations
132(3)
Horizontal and Vertical Root Development
135(1)
Periodicity of Primary Root Growth
136(1)
Root Grafting
137(1)
Specialized Roots and Buttresses
137(1)
Stems
138(7)
Xylem Cells and Growth Rings
140(1)
Periodicity and Control of Secondary Growth
141(3)
Control of Earlywood and Latewood Formation
143(1)
Winter Freezing and Water Transport
144(1)
Water Deficits and Tree Growth
145(3)
Suggested Readings
148(1)
PART 3 The Physical Environment 149(182)
CHAPTER 7 CLIMATE
153(29)
Climatic Control of Vegetation Distribution
154(11)
Radiation
154(2)
Air Circulation
156(2)
Air Masses
158(1)
Water
159(4)
Continents and Physiography
163(2)
Describing Climate
165(6)
Temperature
165(2)
Precipitation
167(3)
Fog and Dew
168(2)
Snow
170(1)
Evapotranspiration
170(1)
Wind
171(1)
Extreme Events
171(4)
Storms
172(1)
Drought
173(1)
Glaze
174(1)
Extreme Cold
174(1)
Microclimate
175(1)
Classifying Climate
175(3)
Climatic Change
178(3)
Suggested Readings
181(1)
CHAPTER 8 LIGHT
182(24)
Distribution of Light Reaching the Ecosphere
183(1)
Interception of Radiation
184(7)
Canopy Structure and Leaf Area
186(3)
Sun Flecks
189(2)
Light Quality Beneath the Forest Canopy
191(1)
Light and Growth of Trees
191(7)
Light and Tree Morphology and Anatomy
198(5)
Leaf Structure and Stratification in Tropical Forests
199(4)
Adventitious Buds and Epicormic Sprouting
203(1)
Photocontrol of Plant Response
203(1)
Light and Ecosystem Change
204(1)
Suggested Readings
205(1)
CHAPTER 9 TEMPERATURE
206(18)
Temperatures at the Soil Surface
206(2)
Temperatures Within the Forest
208(1)
Temperature Variations with Topographic Position
208(1)
Temperature and Plant Growth
209(12)
Cold Injury to Plants
213(1)
Dormancy
214(1)
Frost Hardiness and Cold Resistance
215(5)
Thermotrophic Movements in Rhododendrons
218(2)
Winter Chilling and Growth Resumption
220(1)
Natural Plant Distributions and Cold Hardiness
221(2)
Deciduousness and Temperature
222(1)
Suggested Readings
223(1)
CHAPTER 10 PHYSIOGRAPHY
224(31)
Concepts and Terms
225(2)
Characteristics of Physiography and their Significance
227(6)
Physiographic Setting
227(1)
Specific Landforms
228(1)
Elevation
228(1)
Form of Landforms
228(5)
Level Terrain
228(1)
Sloping Terrain
229(1)
Slope Characteristics
229(3)
Position on Slope
229(1)
Aspect
230(1)
Slope Inclination
230(2)
Parent Material in Relation to Landform
232(1)
Position of Landform in the Landscape
232(1)
Multiple Roles of Physiography
233(1)
Physiographic Diversity, Landscape Ecosystems, and Vegetation
234(14)
Mountainous Physiography
234(9)
Mountainous Terrain of California and the Pacific Northwest
234(4)
Physiography and Forests of the Central Appalachians
238(5)
Flatlands
243(5)
The Great Plains
243(1)
Southwestern Plateaus and Pine Forests
243(1)
Pine Savannas of the Western Great Lakes Region
244(1)
Till Plains of the Midwest
244(1)
Southeastern and Southern Coastal Plain
245(1)
Floodplains
245(3)
Physiography and Firebreaks
248(2)
Microlandforms and Microtopography
250(3)
Tree Uprooting and Pit and Mound Microtopography
250(3)
Microtopography and Regeneration in Hardwood Swamps
253(1)
Suggested Readings
253(2)
CHAPTER 11 SOIL
255(24)
Parent Material
255(3)
Soil Formation
258(2)
Soil Profile Development
258(2)
Physical Properties of Soil
260(5)
Soil Texture
260(1)
Soil Structure
261(1)
Soil Color
262(1)
Soil Water
263(2)
Physical Properties of Water
263(1)
Soil Water Potential
264(1)
Chemical Properties of Soil
265(10)
Clay Mineralogy
268(2)
Cation Exchange and Supply of Nutrients
270(4)
Soil Acidity
272(2)
Soil Organic Matter
274(1)
Soil Classification
275(1)
Landform, Soil, and Forest Vegetation: Landscape Relationships
276(2)
Suggested Readings
278(1)
CHAPTER 12 FIRE
279(19)
Fire and the Forest Tree
280(10)
Causes
280(1)
Fire Regime
280(4)
Fire Types, Frequency, and Severity
281(3)
Fire Adaptations and Key Characters
284(4)
Strategies of Species Persistence
288(2)
Closed-Cone Pines
289(1)
Fire and the Forest Site
290(7)
Indirect Effects
290(2)
Direct Effect
292(2)
Detrimental and Beneficial Effects
294(3)
Suggested Readings
297(1)
CHAPTER 13 SITE QUALITY AND ECOSYSTEM EVALUATION
298(33)
Direct Measurement of Forest Productivity
300(1)
Tree Height as a Measure of Site
300(6)
Site-Index Curves
302(4)
Comparisons between Species
306(1)
Advantages and Limitations
306(1)
Vegetation as an Indicator of Site Quality
306(8)
Species Groups of Groundflora
308(2)
Indicator Plants of Coastal British Columbia
309(1)
Ecological Species Groups
309(1)
Plant Associations and Habitat Types in the Western United States
310(4)
Operational Site Classification Based on Vegetation
310(4)
Applications and Limitations of Vegetation
314(1)
Environmental Factors as a Measure of Site
314(6)
Climatic Factors
315(1)
Physiographic Land Classification
315(1)
Physiographic and Soil Factors: Soil-Site Studies
316(4)
Soil Survey
320(1)
Multiple-factor Methods of Site and Ecosystem Classification
320(9)
Ecosystem Classification and Mapping in Baden-Wurttemberg
321(2)
Applications of Multifactor Methods in the United States and Canada
323(6)
Ecosystem Classification and Mapping in Michigan
323(3)
Ecosystem Classification in the Southeastern United States
326(1)
Ecological Land Classification in Canada
327(2)
Hills' Physiographic Approach
327(1)
Other Canadian Approaches
327(2)
Suggested Readings
329(2)
PART 4 Forest Communities 331(76)
CHAPTER 14 ANIMALS
333(28)
Plant Defense
334(7)
The Plant Dilemma: To Grow or Defend
334(2)
Insects
336(4)
Examples of Injury and Plant Defense
336(2)
Between-Plant and Within-Plant Heterogeneity
338(1)
Nutrition
338(1)
Plant Hybrid Zones as Reservoirs for Insects
339(1)
Mammals
340(1)
Role of Animals in Plant Life History
341(11)
Pollination
342(1)
Seed Dispersal
342(6)
Fish and Reptiles
343(1)
Birds
343(3)
Mammals
346(2)
Germination and Establishment
348(1)
Decomposition, Mineral Cycling, and Soil Improvement
349(1)
Damage and Death
350(2)
Production and Regeneration
352(1)
Wildlife Habitat and Fire
352(3)
Adaptations to Fire-Dependent Ecosystems
353(1)
Kinds and Abundance of Animals
353(1)
Factors Affecting Animal Responses to Fire
354(1)
Influence of Large Animals on Forest Ecosystems
355(5)
Livestock Grazing
356(1)
Human Component of Ecosystems
357(3)
Human-Introduced Exotics
358(2)
Suggested Readings
360(1)
CHAPTER 15 FOREST COMMUNITIES
361(46)
Community Concept
361(7)
Grounding Communities
363(5)
Florida Keys
363(2)
Interior Alaska
365(1)
Southern Illinois
366(2)
View from the Past: Community Concepts
368(5)
Schools and Terminology
368(4)
Concepts of Clements and Gleason
369(2)
Phytosociology in Europe
371(1)
Continuum Concept
372(1)
Community as a Landscape Property
373(2)
Examples of Spatial Variation in Forest Communities
375(5)
Discrete Forest Communities
375(3)
Coastal California: Giant and Pigmy Forests
375(2)
Forest-Grassland Ecotone
377(1)
Alpine Tree-Lines
377(1)
Merging Forest Communities
378(2)
Eastern Deciduous Forest-Southern Appalachians
378(1)
New England
379(1)
Competition and Niche Differentiation
380(3)
Interactions Among Organisms
383(12)
Mutualisms in Forest Ecosystems
383(3)
Symbiotic Mutualisms-Mycorrhizae
384(2)
Nonsymbiotic Mutualisms
386(1)
Competition
386(9)
Composition, Stand Structure, and Density
387(6)
Vertical Structure
389(2)
Stand Density
391(2)
Competition and Overstory Composition
393(1)
Competition in the Understory
394(1)
Understory Tolerance
395(11)
Characteristics of Understory Tolerant and Intolerant Species
396(1)
Tolerance Ratings of Tree Species
397(1)
Examples of Understory Tolerance in Forest Ecosystems
398(1)
Nature of Understory Tolerance
398(8)
Environmental Factors Relating to Understory Tolerance
398(5)
Physiological Processes Relating to Tolerance
403(3)
Suggested Readings
406(1)
PART 5 Forest Ecosystem Dynamics 407(246)
CHAPTER 16 DISTURBANCE
409(34)
Disturbance as an Ecosystem Process
410(4)
Source of Disturbance
413(1)
Major Disturbances in Forest Ecosystems
414(22)
Catastrophic and Local Land Movement
414(1)
Fire
414(14)
Role of Fire in Forest Ecosystems
415(8)
Pines in New England and the Lake States
417(1)
Western Pines and Trembling Aspen
417(4)
Southern Pines
421(1)
Douglas-fir in the Pacific Northwest
421(1)
Giant Sequoia
422(1)
Fire History and Behavior
423(4)
Northern Lake States
423(3)
Boreal Forest and Taiga
426(1)
Northern Rocky Mountains
426(1)
Fire Exclusion
427(1)
Wind
428(4)
Catastrophic and Local Effects
428(1)
Principles of Wind Damage
429(1)
Broad-Scale Disturbance by Hurricanes
430(1)
Southern Atlantic Coast
431(1)
New England--1938 Hurricane
431(1)
Wave-Regenerated Fir Species
431(1)
Floodwater and Ice Storm
432(1)
Insects and Disease
433(1)
Logging
433(3)
Land Clearing
436(1)
Biotic Composition Changes
436(5)
Elimination of Species
437(2)
Addition of Species
439(1)
Introductions to New Zealand
439(1)
Increased Animal Impact
440(1)
Climatic Change
441(1)
Suggested Readings
442(1)
CHAPTER 17 FOREST SUCCESSION
443(43)
Basic Concepts
444(3)
Primary and Secondary Succession
444(1)
Biological Legacies
445(1)
Successful Pathways, Mechanisms, and Models
445(1)
Autogenic and Allogenic Succession
445(1)
How Is Succession Determined?
446(1)
Evolution of the Concept of Forest Succession
447(1)
Formal Ecological Theory
448(1)
How Does Succession work?
448(13)
Clementsian Succession
450(1)
Stages of Succession
451(6)
Primary Succession
451(3)
Secondary Succession
454(3)
Successional Causes, Mechanisms, and Models
457(4)
Key Characteristics and Regeneration Strategies
457(1)
Availability and Arrival Sequence of Species
458(1)
Facilitation, Tolerance, and Inhibition
458(2)
Diagrammatic Comparison of Models
460(1)
Change in Ecosystems
461(2)
End Point of Succession?
462(1)
Succession as a Landscape Ecosystem Process
463(3)
Biomass and Diversity
466(2)
Examples of Forest Succession
468(16)
Recently Deglaciated Terrain--A Geoecology Approach
468(3)
Succession Following Fire in Ponderosa Pine Forests of Western Montana
471(2)
Gap Dynamics
473(6)
Gap Specialists: American Beech and Sugar Maple
477(2)
Old-Field Succession in the Eastern United States
479(4)
Fire and Oak Dominance--Oaks at Risk
483(1)
Suggested Readings
484(2)
CHAPTER 18 CARBON BALANCE OF TREES AND ECOSYSTEMS
486(38)
Carbon Balance of Trees
487(2)
Photosynthesis, Dark Respiration, and Leaf C Gain
487(2)
Light and Leaf C Gain
489(2)
Temperature and Leaf C Gain
491(1)
Water and Leaf C Gain
492(1)
Soil Nitrogen Availability and Leaf C Gain
493(1)
Construction and Maintenance Respiration
494(2)
Allocation to Structure, Storage, and Defense
496(3)
Light and C Allocation
499(1)
Soil Nitrogen Availability and C Allocation
499(5)
Carbon Balance of Ecosystems
503(1)
Biomass and Productivity of Forest Ecosystems
504(3)
Measurement of Biomass and Productivity
507(3)
Climate and Productivity
510(4)
Soil Properties, Forest Biomass, and ANPP
514(1)
Biomass Accumulation During Ecosystem Development
515(5)
Soil N Availability and Belowground Net Primary Productivity
520(3)
Suggested Readings
523(1)
CHAPTER 19 NUTRIENT CYCLING
524(53)
Nutrient Additions to Forest Ecosystems
526(8)
Mineral Weathering
526(2)
Atmospheric Deposition
528(2)
Biological Fixation of Nitrogen
530(4)
Nutrient Cycling within Forest Ecosystems
534(27)
Nutrient Transport to Roots
535(1)
Nutrient Uptake and Assimilation by Roots
536(3)
Root Architecture, Mycorrhizae, and Nutrient Acquisition
539(2)
Root Architecture
539(1)
Mycorrhizae
540(1)
Plant Litter and the Return of Nutrients to Forest Floor and Soil
541(6)
Leaf and Root Litter Production
541(2)
Nutrient Retranslocation
543(4)
Nutrients in the Forest Floor
547(3)
Organic Matter Decomposition and Nutrient Mineralization
550(11)
Chemical Constituents of Plant Litter
550(3)
Dynamics of Decomposition
553(4)
Nitrogen Immobilization and Mineralization
557(3)
Nitrogen Availability in Forest Ecosystems
560(1)
Nitrification
560(1)
Nutrient Loss from Forest Ecosystems
561(5)
Nutrient Leaching from Forest Ecosystems
562(2)
Dentrification
564(2)
The Cycling and Storage of Nutrients in Forest Ecosystems
566(3)
Nutrient Storage in Boreal, Temperate, and Tropical Forests
566(1)
The Nitrogen and Calcium Cycle of a Temperate Forest Ecosystem
567(2)
Ecosystem C Balance and the Retention and Loss of Nutrients
569(3)
Forest Harvesting and Nutrient Loss
572(3)
Suggested Readings
575(2)
CHAPTER 20 DIVERSITY
577(36)
Concepts of Biological and Ecosystem Diversity
578(1)
Species Diversity and Its Value
578(4)
Value of Biodiversity
580(2)
Measuring Diversity
582(14)
Levels of Diversity
582(2)
Measurement
584(4)
Inventory Diversity: Alpha Diversity
584(4)
Differentiation or Beta Diversity
588(1)
Diversity of Landscape Ecosystems
588(1)
Examples of Diversity
589(6)
Ground-Cover Species Diversity in Northern Lower Michigan
589(6)
Ecosystem Groups
589(4)
Ecosystem Types
593(2)
Ecosystem Diversity
595(1)
Causes of Species Diversity at Multiple Scales
596(12)
Diversity at Continental and Subcontinental Scales
597(7)
Paleogeography and Continental Relationships
597(3)
Glaciation
600(1)
Latitude and Elevation
600(4)
Diversity at Local Scales
604(4)
Physiography and Soil
604(2)
Community Composition and Structure
606(1)
Disturbance and Succession
606(2)
Human Effects and Concerns for Diversity
608(3)
Endemics and Rare and Endangered Species
608(1)
Keystone Species
608(2)
Effects of Forest Management on Diversity
610(1)
Conserving Ecosystem and Biological Diversity
611(1)
Landscape Ecosystem Approach
611(1)
Suggested Readings
612(1)
CHAPTER 21 LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY
613(40)
Concepts of Landscape Ecology
614(1)
Old-Growth Forests of the Pacific Northwest
615(8)
Coarse Woody Debris and Ecosystem Interactions in Riparian Zones
615(5)
Erosion and Geomorphology in Riparian Systems
620(1)
Forest-Stream Linkages at Multiple Spatial Scales
621(2)
Landscape-Level Disturbance
623(5)
Catastrophic Windstorm in New England
623(3)
Vegetational Diversity Mediated by Fire in Yellowstone National Park
626(2)
Landscape Pattern and Process Using a Landscape Ecosystem Approach
628(6)
Geomorphic Processes and Ecosystem Patterns
629(1)
Landscape Ecosystems and Endangered Spaces
630(4)
Forest Fragmentation
634(5)
Ecological Effects
636(3)
New Paradigm in Forestry: Sustainable Ecosystems
639(10)
Examples of Ecosystem Management
639(1)
21st-Century Ecosystem Management in Pacific Northwest Forests
640(9)
Variable-Retention Harvest System
642(3)
Lifeboating: Refugia and Inocula
642(1)
Structural Enrichment and Enhanced Connectivity
642(2)
Designing a Variable-Retention Harvest System
644(1)
Simulating Harvests and Forest Fragmentation
645(4)
Remote Sensing
649(3)
Suggested Readings
652(1)
PART 6 Forests of the World 653(26)
CHAPTER 22 FORESTS OF THE WORLD
655(24)
Evolution of Modern Tree Species
655(3)
Present-Day Forests of the World
658(5)
Geographical-Climatic Classification
659(2)
Physiognomic-Structural Classification
661(1)
Floristic Classification
662(1)
Multifactor Classification
662(1)
A Classification of Forests
663(1)
Tropical Forests
663(5)
Classification of Tropical Forests
663(1)
Swamp Forest
664(1)
Salt-Water Tropical Shorelines
664(1)
Fresh-Water Swamps
665(1)
Rain Forest
665(2)
Monsoon Forest
667(1)
Dry Forest
667(1)
Freeze-Hardy Forests
668(10)
Boreal Forest Taxa
668(3)
Spruces
669(1)
Firs
669(1)
Larches
670(1)
Pines
670(1)
Birches and Aspens
670(1)
Temperate Forest Taxa
671(7)
Pines
671(2)
Soft Pines
672(1)
Hard Pines
672(1)
Oaks
673(2)
Beeches and Maples
675(1)
Miscellaneous Hardwoods
676(1)
Miscellaneous Conifers
676(2)
Suggested Readings
678(1)
LITERATURE CITED 679(74)
SCIENTIFIC NAMES OF TREES AND SHRUBS 753(10)
INDEX 763

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