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Foundations of American Education,9780130452320
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Foundations of American Education

by ; ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780130452320

ISBN10:
0130452327
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

Why is the understanding of the fundamentals of American education important to today's teachers? Explore this book for answers to this fundamental question and gain an understanding of how the evolution of education impacts today's teaching and learning. Become a highly qualified teacher by connecting theory and practice, and by examining the philosophical and historical roots of education, its current structures, and the future of the field. This 5th edition invites the reader to reflect on historical issues, consider and respond to current educational issues, and become a professional, highly qualified teacher.

Table of Contents

Part One The Teaching Profession 1(58)
Status of the Profession
2(32)
The Teacher and Teaching: Definitions
4(1)
Profile of the Teaching Profession
5(1)
Why Become a Teacher?
6(1)
Ask Yourself: Do I Want To Be a Teacher?
7(1)
Satisfactions and Dissatisfactions With Teaching
7(2)
Teacher Preparation
9(6)
Baccalaureate Teacher Education Programs
Alternative Teacher Preparation Programs
Minority Representation in the Teaching Force
Teacher Certification
15(3)
Assessment for Initial Certification and Licensure
Emergency Certification
Recertification
Interstate Certification
National Certification: The NBPTS
Teacher Supply and Demand
18(2)
Salary and Other Compensation
20(4)
Salary Schedules
Performance-based Pay Plans
Competency-based Pay
Compensation for Supplemental Activities
Salaries for Administrative and Support Personnel
Indirect Compensation: Employee Benefits and Services
Controversial Issue: Individual Performance-based Pay
24(2)
Rating the Schools and Teaching
26(2)
Summary
28(6)
Development of the Profession
34(25)
Teaching as a Profession
36(1)
Requirements of a Profession
37(5)
Advanced Knowledge and Specialized Preparation
Provision of Essential Services to Society
The Exercise of Discretion
Autonomy and Freedom from Direct Supervision
Standardized Output and Performance Standards
Code of Professional Standards
Professional Organizations
Unresolved Questions
The Professionalization of Teaching
42(5)
Development of Professional Standards
Better-Prepared Teachers for America's Schools
Professional Development
Career Development
Mentoring
Teacher Evaluation
47(1)
What to Evaluate?
How Should the Evaluation Be Conducted?
Who Conducts the Evaluation?
Teachers as Leaders
48(1)
Professional Codes of Ethics
49(2)
Teachers' Organizations
51(1)
National Teachers' Organizations
State Organizations for Teachers
Local Organizations for Teachers
Subject Matter Organizations for Teachers
Teachers' Organizations and Public Policy Issues
Historical Note: The Birth of Teachers' Unions
52(3)
Summary
55(4)
Part Two Philosophy and Its Impact on the Schools 59(64)
The Major Philosophies
60(26)
What Is Philosophy?
62(1)
Approaches to the Study of Philosophy
62(1)
Branches of Philosophy
63(3)
Metaphysics: What Is the Nature of Reality?
Epistemology: What Is the Nature of Knowledge?
Axiology: What Is the Nature of Values?
Controversial Issue: Should Moral Education, Character Education, Ethics, or Values Education Be a Responsibility of the School?
66(1)
Ask Yourself: What Is My Philosophy of Life?
67(1)
Idealism
67(4)
Metaphysics
Epistemology
Axiology
Leading Proponents
Realism
71(1)
Metaphysics
Epistemology
Axiology
Leading Proponents
Neo-Thomism
72(2)
Metaphysics
Epistemology
Axiology
Leading Proponents
Pragmatism
74(3)
Metaphysics
Epistemology
Axiology
Leading Proponents
Existentialism
77(3)
Metaphysics
Epistemology
Axiology
Leading Proponents
Analytic Philosophy
80(1)
Summary
81(5)
The Impact of Educational Theories on Educational Practice
86(37)
Theories of Education
88(1)
Perennialism
88(1)
Curriculum
Teaching Methods
Classroom Management
Evaluation
The Perennialist Teacher
Leading Educational Proponents
Historical Note: St. Thomas Aquinas
89(4)
Progressivism
93(4)
Curriculum
Teaching Methods
Classroom Management
Evaluation
The Progressivist Teacher
Leading Educational Proponents
Behaviorism
97(4)
Curriculum
Teaching Methods
Classroom Management
Evaluation
The Behaviorist Teacher
Leading Educational Proponents
Essentialism
101(3)
Curriculum
Teaching Methods
Classroom Management
Evaluation
The Essentialist Teacher
Leading Educational Proponents
Existentialism
104(5)
Curriculum
Teaching Methods
Classroom Management
Evaluation
The Existentialist Teacher
Leading Educational Proponents
Social Reconstructionism, Critical Theory, and Postmodern Constructivism
109(6)
Curriculum
Teaching Methods
Classroom Management
Evaluation
The Social Reconstructionist Teacher
Leading Educational Proponents
Identifying Your Philosophy of Education
115(1)
Ask Yourself: What Is My Philosophy of Education?
116(1)
Summary
117(6)
Part Three Historical Foundations of Education 123(100)
American Education: European Heritage and Colonial Experience
124(32)
European Background of American Education
126(4)
Education in Ancient Societies
Education in the Middle Ages
Education During the Renaissance
Education During the Reformation
Later European Educational Thought
Ask Yourself: Does Corporal Punishment Have a Place in the Schools?
130(3)
Historical Note: Life of the Medieval University Student
133(8)
Education in Colonial America
141(12)
English Settlement
Education in the New England Colonies
Education in the Mid-Atlantic Colonies
Education in the Southern Colonies
Summary
153(3)
American Education: From Revolution to the Twentieth Century
156(34)
Education in the Revolutionary and Early National Period
158(7)
The Articles of Confederation and the Constitution
Northwest Land Ordinances
The Founding Fathers and Education
Educational Innovations
The Growth of the Academy
Education in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
165(17)
The Common School Movement
Secondary School Movement
Higher Education
Education of Minorities
Teacher Education
Historical Note: Zeal for Learning Among Freedmen, 1868
182(4)
Summary
186(4)
Modern American Education: From the Progressive Movement to the Present
190(33)
The Twentieth Century Unfolds
192(1)
The People and the Nation Grow
Economic Growth
Politics and Reform
Forces in Education
The Progressive Era in American Education
193(3)
The Beginnings of Progressive Education
John Dewey
Ella Flagg Young
Progressive Education Association
Higher Education
The Child Study Movement
The Measurement Movement
Education During the Great Depression
George C. Counts and the John Dewey Society
Turning Tides
The Influence of War
The Postwar Years
The Critics and the Decline of Progressive Education
The Montessori Movement
Historical Note: Ella Flagg Young, Pioneer School Administrator
196(8)
From Sputnik to the New Federalism
204(9)
Curriculum Reforms
Education and the War on Poverty
The Civil Rights Movement
The 1970s: Retreat and Retrenchment
The 1980s: Renewed Conservatism and Reform
The 1990s: National Goals, National Standards, and Choice
213(3)
School Choice, Charter Schools, and Privatization
Controversial Issue: Parental Public School Choice
216(1)
A New Century Begins
217(2)
Summary
219(4)
Part Four The Schools and Society 223(112)
School and Society
224(34)
Some Basic Concepts
226(1)
Agents of Socialization
226(5)
The Family
The Changing Family
The Peer Group
The Mass Media
The Purposes and Expectations of Schooling
231(2)
Intellectual Purpose: To Acquire Knowledge and Skills
Economic Purpose: To Compete in a Global Economy
Social Purpose: To Transmit Cultural Values
The Inequality of Educational Opportunity
233(1)
Social Class
Ethnic Differences and School Achievement and Attainment: Hispanic Americans
Racial Differences and School Achievement and Attainment
Gender Differences and School Achievement and Attainment
Video Insight: The Power of the Neighborhood School
234(1)
Historical Note: The Concept of Social Class
235(17)
Summary
252(6)
Responding to a Diverse and Multicultural Society
258(42)
From Assimilation to Multiculturalism
260(1)
Multicultural Education
261(4)
Multicultural Influences on Student Learning
Creating Equal Educational Opportunities for Racial and Ethnic Minorities
265(9)
Desegregation
Native American/Alaska Native Education
Creating Equal Educational Opportunities for Migrant Students
274(3)
Meeting the Educational Needs of Immigrant Students
277(1)
Creating Equal Educational Opportunities for Linguistic Minority Students
278(3)
Bilingual Education
Improving African American Language Skills: The Black English Debate
Issues in Dealing With Linguistic Minority Students
Video Insight: Controversy Over Bilingual Education
281(1)
Compensatory Education for Disadvantaged Students
281(3)
Types of Programs
The Effectiveness of Title I Programs
Creating Equal Educational Opportunities for Students With Disabilities
284(6)
Individuals With Disabilities Education Act and Section 504
The Least Restrictive Environment and Inclusion Debate
Ask Yourself: Inclusion Checklist
290(1)
Promoting Gender Equity
290(4)
Strategies for Achieving Gender Equity
Summary
294(6)
Students at Risk
300(35)
At-risk Children and Youth
302(1)
Identifying At-Risk Students
302(1)
Risk, Resiliency, and Protective Factors
302(2)
Tobacco, Drug, and Alcohol Use and Abuse
304(3)
The Effects of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Identifying Alcohol and Drug Use
Prevention Strategies
Intervention Strategies
Suicide
307(3)
Identifying the Suicidal Child or Adolescent
Prevention Strategies
Intervention Strategies
Postvention Strategies
Controversial Issue: The School's Role in Suicide Prevention
310(1)
Dropping Out of School
311(2)
Economic Consequences
Identifying the Potential Dropout
Prevention Strategies
Intervention Strategies
Teenage Pregnancy
313(3)
Consequences of Adolescent Pregnancy
Prevention Strategies
Intervention Strategies
AIDS and Other STDs
316(2)
Identifying HIV/AIDS
Prevention Strategies
Intervention Strategies
Child Abuse and Neglect
318(4)
Physical Abuse
Child Neglect
Sexual Abuse
Emotional Abuse
Identifying Child Abuse
Prevention Strategies
Intervention Strategies
School Violence
322(4)
Prevention Strategies
Intervention Strategies
Video Insight: Action, Reaction, and Zero Tolerance: How Far Is Too Far?
326(1)
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender (GLBT) Youth
326(3)
Improving the School Climate
Intervention Strategies
Summary
329(6)
Part Five Legal and Political Control and Financial Support 335(106)
Legal Framework for the Public Schools
336(32)
Federal Constitutional Provisions Affecting Education
338(4)
General Welfare Clause
Obligations of Contracts Clause
First Amendment
Fourth Amendment
Fifth Amendment
Eighth Amendment
Fourteenth Amendment
State Constitutional Provisions Affecting Education
342(1)
Statutory Law
343(2)
Federal Statutes
State Statutes
Case Law
345(1)
Administrative Law
345(1)
Powers and Organization of the Courts
345(4)
The Federal Court System
The State Court Systems
Historical Note: Thurgood Marshall: Breaking the Color Barrier on the U.S. Supreme Court
349(1)
Religion and Education
350(7)
Religious Activities
Challenges to the Curriculum
Public Support for Nonpublic Schools
Compulsory Attendance
Private and Home Schooling
Video Insight: God and Evolution in Kansas Classrooms
357(7)
Summary
364(4)
Teachers, Students, and the Law
368(38)
Teacher Rights and Responsibilities
370(4)
Terms and Conditions of Employment
Teacher Dismissal
Constitutional Rights of Teachers
Teacher Rights: Freedom from Employment Discrimination and Sexual Harassment
Equal Opportunity and Affirmative Action
Legal Responsibilities of Teachers
Tort Liability of School District Employees
Video Insight: Transgender Teacher
374(15)
Student Rights and Responsibilities
389(2)
Student Discipline
Search and Seizure
Freedom of Expression
Student Appearance as Symbolic Speech
Sexual Harassment of Students
Student Records
Controversial Issue: Service Learning
391(10)
Summary
401(5)
Governance and Financing of Elementary and Secondary Schools
406(35)
The Context of the Public Schools
408(1)
Organization for Education
408(12)
Education at the Local Level
Education at the State Level
Financing of Education
420(6)
Public Policy Goals in School Finance
State School Finance Programs
Sources of Revenue for Schools
The Courts and School Finance
Federal Aid for Elementary and Secondary Schools
Historical Note: The Lotteries and Education
426(6)
Private Education
432(1)
Private School Enrollments
Current Issues in Organizing and Financing Education
433(3)
Competition for Funds
Special Needs Students
Enrollment Increases
Equity in State Funding Systems
Accountability
Charter Schools
Controversial Issue: Charter Schools
436(1)
Summary
437(4)
Part Six Curriculum and Instruction 441(60)
The School Curriculum: Development and Design
442(28)
Forces Influencing the Curriculum
444(8)
Parent and Community Groups
Teachers
Local School Boards
State Governments
Federal Government
National Committees and Reports
Professional Organizations
National Goals and Standards
Standardized Tests
Textbooks
Video Insight: Cheating 101
452(1)
Curriculum Development
453(2)
Technical Production Perspective
Critical Perspective
Curriculum Mapping
455(1)
Patterns of Curriculum Organization
456(1)
The Subject-Area Design
The Integrated Curriculum Design
The Core Curriculum Design
The Student-Centered Curriculum Design
The Constructivism Curriculum Design
The Social Reconstruction Curriculum Design
Controversial Issue: The Subject-Centered and Student-Centered Curricula
457(6)
Curriculum Contrasts
463(1)
The Hidden Curriculum
463(1)
The Curriculum Cycle
464(1)
Summary
465(5)
Instructional Practices in Effective Schools
470(31)
Schools for All
472(1)
Instructional Goals and Objectives
472(2)
Educational Goals
Educational Objectives
Taxonomies of Educational Objectives
Organizing for Instruction
474(4)
Group Instruction
Cooperative Learning
Personalized Instruction
Independent Learning
Models of Instruction
478(8)
Expository Instruction
Demonstration Instruction
Inquiry Instruction
Critical Thinking Instruction
Mastery Learning
Powerful Learning
Relationships Between Teaching and Learning
486(2)
School Improvement Models
488(2)
Accelerated Schools
Coalition of Essential Schools
League of Professional Schools
School Development Program
Success for All
School Reform Models: Conclusions
Historical Note: Polingaysi Qoyawayma
490(6)
Summary
496(5)
Part Seven Projections for the Future 501(25)
Education for the New Millennium
502(24)
Historical Note: Nostradamus---Astrologer, Physician, and Futurist
504(1)
Changing Demographics
505(5)
Educational Implications
Accountability
510(1)
Educational Implications
Technology
511(2)
Educational Implications
School District Governance
513(2)
Educational Implications
Private Contractors for Public Education
515(2)
Educational Implications
Choice
517(2)
Educational Implications
Research on Teaching and Learning
519(1)
Educational Implications
Coping With the Future
520(1)
Summary
521(5)
Appendix: Education Resources on the Web 526(1)
Glossary 527(10)
Author Index 537(3)
Subject Index 540

Excerpts

Public and political attention has been focused in recent years on improving the quality of public education. A quality teaching force is central to achieving this goal. "Efforts to improve teacher quality and to advance the professionalization of teaching have focused on the development of standards and increased testing for certification. In fact, furthering the professionalization of teaching is one of the most important movements in teaching in the last half-century. Our primary goal in writing this fourth edition has been to provide current and useful information that will help those interested in careers in elementary and secondary education develop an understanding of the philosophical and historical roots of education, current educational structures and practices, and projections for the future. With this understanding they can make informed decisions about their professional and career goals. There is general agreement about the need for able persons in education; however, the decision to become a teacher should come only after careful deliberation. Before making the decision to enter teaching, individuals need to understand the complexities of the teacher's role, the many and diverse duties and responsibilities of the profession, and the commitment of time and energy required to be a successful teacher. ORIENTATION OF THE TEXT To help the student develop an understanding of education, this book follows a sequenced presentation of major topics: the status of the teaching profession and efforts to increase the professionalization of teaching; the philosophical foundations and historical background of education; the relationship between schools and society; educational responses to an increasingly diverse and multicultural society; the particular challenges of working with diverse populations and at-risk youth; the law and its effect on teachers and students; the organization and financing of elementary and secondary schools; the current and evolving process of teaching and learning; and projected demographic, social, technological, and organizational and governance changes and their impact on education. In this interdisciplinary approach we explore both the theoretical and the applied aspects of education. We have prepared a text that includes a balance of past, present, and future applications in a context that students will find both readable and challenging. Interdisciplinary Emphasis One of the strengths of the text is the extensive use of relevant concepts from the social sciences. The philosophical roots of education are identified and discussed. Historical materials were used in developing the extensive discussion of the evolution of schooling for the past several centuries. Disciplines such as sociology, economics, politics of education, political science, public administration, finance, and law have been used to provide an understanding of the current and developing context of education. Research from the field of psychology is used extensively in the discussion of teaching, learning, and meeting the needs of at-risk children and youth. Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Education Through the use of current research we have emphasized the connections between theory and research and the applied world of teaching. Unlike many foundation texts that concentrate primarily on pedagogical knowledge and academic skill domains, this text provides a comprehensive application of research and theory to actual classroom/teaching situations and practice. Through margin notes, special features, and discussion questions, the educational implications of research and theory are reinforced in ways that will be understandable to both practicing and prospective teachers. NEW TO THIS EDITION In order to provide an integrated and more current perspective, this edition: Emphasizes the major efforts to increase the professionalization of teaching. Show


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