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Expanded or added topics include outcomes research and the disablement model, validity and diagnostic screening, meta-analysis, scales used in survey and outcomes research, logistic regression, measures of reliability, and data management to prepare for computer analysis.
Foundations of Clinical Research | p. 1 |
A Concept of Research | p. 3 |
A Definition of Clinical Research | p. 3 |
Contemporary Perspectives | p. 4 |
Sources of Knowledge | p. 7 |
Types of Research | p. 12 |
The Research Process | p. 15 |
Understanding Method, Content, and Philosophy | p. 17 |
Commentary: Research and Clinical Problem Solving | p. 18 |
The Role of Theory in Clinical Research | p. 21 |
Purposes of Theories | p. 22 |
Components of Theories | p. 23 |
Types of Theories | p. 25 |
Characteristics of Theories | p. 26 |
Theory and Research | p. 27 |
Theory and Law | p. 29 |
Commentary: Applying Theory | p. 29 |
Ethical Issues in Clinical Research | p. 33 |
Integrity of the Researcher | p. 33 |
Protection of Human Rights in Clinical Research | p. 34 |
Institutional Review Board | p. 39 |
Elements of Informed Consent | p. 40 |
Commentary: A Patient Care Perspective | p. 45 |
Concepts of Measurement | p. 47 |
Principles of Measurement | p. 49 |
Quantification and Measurement | p. 50 |
The Indirect Nature of Measurement | p. 50 |
Rules of Measurement | p. 52 |
Commentary: When Is an Ordinal Measure Not an Ordinal Measure? | p. 57 |
Reliability | p. 61 |
Measurement Error | p. 61 |
Reliability Coefficients | p. 64 |
Types of Reliability | p. 66 |
Generalizability | p. 73 |
Pilot Testing | p. 75 |
Commentary: What Is the True Score? | p. 75 |
Validity of Measurements | p. 79 |
Validity and Reliability | p. 79 |
Validity of Inferences | p. 80 |
Face Validity | p. 82 |
Content Validity | p. 83 |
Criterion-Related Validity | p. 84 |
Construct Validity | p. 87 |
Evaluating Diagnostic Procedures | p. 92 |
Measuring Change | p. 101 |
Criterion Referencing and Norm Referencing | p. 105 |
Cross-Validation | p. 107 |
Commentary: The Ongoing Pursuit of Validity | p. 107 |
Design | p. 111 |
The Research Question | p. 113 |
Selecting a Topic | p. 114 |
The Research Problem | p. 115 |
Importance and Feasibility of the Research Question | p. 117 |
Target Population | p. 119 |
The Research Rationale | p. 119 |
Variables | p. 120 |
Research Objectives | p. 123 |
Reviewing the Literature | p. 127 |
Pilot Testing | p. 133 |
Commentary: Putting the Horse before the Cart | p. 133 |
Sampling | p. 137 |
Populations and Samples | p. 137 |
Sampling Techniques | p. 140 |
Probability Sampling | p. 141 |
Nonprobability Sampling | p. 146 |
Recruitment | p. 149 |
Commentary: Sampling, Like Life, is a Compromise | p. 150 |
Experimental Control | p. 153 |
Characteristics of Experiments | p. 154 |
The Research Protocol | p. 157 |
Blinding | p. 159 |
Design Strategies for Controlling Intersubject Differences | p. 159 |
Threats to Validity | p. 163 |
Commentary: The Realities of Clinical Research | p. 173 |
Experimental Design | p. 177 |
Selecting a Design | p. 178 |
Design Notation | p. 179 |
True Experimental Designs | p. 179 |
Repeated Measures Designs | p. 187 |
Quasi-Experimental Designs | p. 193 |
Commentary: The Design Should Fit the Question | p. 199 |
Sequential Clinical Trials | p. 203 |
The Design of a Sequential Trial | p. 204 |
Measuring Preferences | p. 205 |
Sequential Plans for Evaluating Preferences | p. 206 |
Limitations of Sequential Designs | p. 215 |
Commentary: Try It, You'll Like It | p. 217 |
Single-Subject Designs | p. 223 |
Structure of Single-Subject Designs | p. 224 |
Target Behavior | p. 227 |
Reliability | p. 231 |
Experimental Control: Limitations of the A-B Design | p. 234 |
Withdrawal Designs | p. 235 |
Multiple-Treatment Designs | p. 238 |
Multiple-Baseline Designs | p. 243 |
Changing Criterion Design | p. 246 |
Data Analysis in Single-Subject Research | p. 249 |
Generalization of Findings | p. 258 |
Commentary: It's a Start | p. 261 |
Descriptive and Exploratory Research | p. 265 |
Retrospective and Prospective Research | p. 266 |
Descriptive Research | p. 267 |
Exploratory Research | p. 277 |
Commentary: First Things First | p. 281 |
Surveys | p. 285 |
Interviews and Questionnaires | p. 286 |
Design of Surveys | p. 287 |
Constructing Survey Questions | p. 293 |
Scales | p. 299 |
Q-Sort | p. 308 |
Delphi Survey | p. 310 |
Analysis of Survey Data | p. 311 |
Informed Consent | p. 312 |
Commentary: They Have a Thousand and One Uses | p. 312 |
Epidemiology | p. 317 |
Descriptive Epidemiology | p. 319 |
Analytic Designs: Observational Studies | p. 324 |
Analytic Designs: Clinical Trials | p. 330 |
Measures of Association | p. 332 |
Evaluating Causality in Observational Studies | p. 341 |
Commentary: A New View of Outcomes | p. 341 |
Other Research Approaches | p. 345 |
Evaluation Research | p. 346 |
Methodological Research | p. 351 |
Secondary Analysis | p. 353 |
Meta-Analysis | p. 355 |
Historical Research | p. 358 |
Commentary: Moving Forward | p. 360 |
Analysis | p. 365 |
Descriptive Statistics and Measures of Variability | p. 367 |
Frequency Distributions | p. 367 |
Measures of Central Tendency | p. 372 |
Measures of Variability | p. 374 |
The Normal Distribution | p. 381 |
Commentary: Description Only Goes So Far | p. 385 |
Statistical Inference | p. 387 |
Probability | p. 387 |
Sampling Error | p. 389 |
Confidence Intervals | p. 392 |
Hypothesis Testing | p. 397 |
Errors in Hypothesis Testing | p. 399 |
Type I Error: Level of Significance | p. 400 |
Type II Error: Statistical Power | p. 402 |
Concepts of Statistical Testing | p. 404 |
Parametric versus Nonparametric Statistics | p. 409 |
Commentary: Statistical versus Clinical Significance | p. 410 |
The t-Test | p. 413 |
The Conceptual Basis for Comparing Group Means | p. 413 |
The t-Test for Independent Samples | p. 416 |
The t-Test for Paired Samples | p. 422 |
Inappropriate Use of Multiple t-Tests | p. 423 |
Use of Confidence Intervals to Test Differences between Means | p. 425 |
Commentary: The Significance of Significance | p. 426 |
Analysis of Variance | p. 427 |
Analysis of Variance for Independent Samples: One-Way Classification | p. 427 |
Analysis of Variance: Two-Way Classification | p. 432 |
Analysis of Variance: Three-Way Classification | p. 441 |
Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance | p. 442 |
Commentary: Beyond Analysis of Variance | p. 450 |
Multiple Comparison Tests | p. 453 |
Type I Error Rate: Per Comparison versus Family | p. 454 |
Statistical Ratios for Multiple Comparison Tests | p. 455 |
Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference | p. 456 |
Newman-Keuls Method | p. 457 |
Scheffe's Comparison | p. 460 |
Bonferroni t-Test | p. 461 |
Simple and Complex Contrasts | p. 462 |
Presentation of Results of Multiple Comparisons | p. 463 |
Multiple Comparison Procedures for Factorial Designs | p. 463 |
Multiple Comparison Procedures for Repeated Measures | p. 466 |
Trend Analysis | p. 467 |
Commentary: Choices, Choices, Choices | p. 471 |
Nonparametric Tests for Group Comparisons | p. 473 |
Criteria for Choosing Nonparametric Tests | p. 473 |
Procedure for Ranking Scores | p. 475 |
Test for Two Independent Samples: Mann-Whitney U-Test | p. 475 |
Test for More than Two Independent Samples: Kruskal-Wallis One-Way Analysis of Variance by Ranks | p. 478 |
Tests for Two Correlated Samples: Sign Test and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test | p. 482 |
Test for More than Two Correlated Samples: Friedman Two-Way Analysis of Variance by Ranks | p. 486 |
Commentary: Decisions, Decisions, Decisions | p. 489 |
Correlation | p. 491 |
Scatter Plots | p. 492 |
Correlation Coefficients | p. 493 |
Linear versus Curvilinear Relationships | p. 493 |
Criteria for Evaluating Correlation Coefficients | p. 494 |
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient | p. 496 |
Correlation of Ranks: Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient | p. 497 |
Correlation of Dichotomies | p. 500 |
Interpreting Correlation Coefficients | p. 505 |
Commentary: The Stork Was Busy | p. 507 |
Regression | p. 509 |
Linear Regression | p. 509 |
Assumptions for Regression Analysis | p. 515 |
Outliers | p. 517 |
Accuracy of Prediction | p. 519 |
Analysis of Variance of Regression | p. 521 |
Restrictions on the Interpretation of Linear Regression Analysis | p. 523 |
Nonlinear Regression | p. 523 |
Analysis of Covariance | p. 527 |
Commentary: It's Not That Simple | p. 534 |
Analysis of Frequencies: Chi-square | p. 537 |
The Chi-square Statistic | p. 538 |
Goodness of Fit | p. 539 |
Interpreting Significant Effects: Standardized Residuals | p. 543 |
Tests of Independence | p. 544 |
McNemar Test for Correlated Samples | p. 551 |
Coefficients of Association | p. 552 |
Commentary: Uses of Chi-square | p. 554 |
Statistical Measures of Reliability | p. 557 |
Reliability Theory and Measurement Error | p. 557 |
Intraclass Correlation Coefficient | p. 560 |
Agreement | p. 568 |
Internal Consistency: Cronbach's Alpha | p. 575 |
Response Stability | p. 577 |
Alternate Forms: Limits of Agreement | p. 581 |
Commentary: Know Your Reliability Coefficient | p. 584 |
Multivariate Analysis | p. 587 |
Partial Correlation | p. 587 |
Multiple Regression | p. 589 |
Logistic Regression | p. 597 |
Discriminant Analysis | p. 603 |
Factor Analysis | p. 607 |
Multivariate Analysis of Variance | p. 615 |
Commentary: Can We Keep It Simple? | p. 618 |
Data Management | p. 621 |
Recording Data | p. 621 |
Data Coding | p. 622 |
Data Entry | p. 623 |
Data Modification | p. 626 |
Data Management | p. 628 |
Commentary: "Anyone can analyze data, but to really mess things up takes a computer." | p. 629 |
Communication | p. 631 |
Writing a Research Proposal | p. 633 |
Components of the Research Plan | p. 635 |
Plan for Administrative Support | p. 639 |
Presentation of the Proposal | p. 642 |
Commentary: Review, Revise, Edit, Revise, Review | p. 642 |
Reporting the Results of Clinical Research | p. 645 |
The Journal Article | p. 645 |
The Poster Presentation | p. 656 |
The Oral Presentation | p. 658 |
Commentary: Taking the Final Step | p. 661 |
Evaluating Research Reports | p. 663 |
Analyzing Content of an Article | p. 663 |
Commentary: The Reader's View | p. 671 |
Appendices | |
Statistical Tables | p. 673 |
Summary of Statistical Procedures | p. 699 |
Power and Sample Size | p. 705 |
The Effect Size Index | p. 705 |
Power Analysis for the t-Test | p. 707 |
Power Analysis for the Analysis of Variance | p. 710 |
Power Analysis for Correlation | p. 714 |
Power Analysis for Regression | p. 715 |
Power Analysis for Chi-square | p. 717 |
Transformation of Data | p. 731 |
Sample Informed Consent Form | p. 735 |
Glossary of Statistical Symbols and Abbreviations | p. 739 |
Index | p. 743 |
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