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Foundations of Clinical Research : Applications to Practice,9780838526958
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Foundations of Clinical Research : Applications to Practice

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780838526958

ISBN10:
0838526950
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Pearson
List Price: $95.40
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Summary

This book serves as a comprehensive reference for a variety of research situations. This edition reflects the popular approaches to analysis and design, and addresses the focus of health-care related research through the 1990s and into the 21st century. Expanded or added topics include outcomes research and the disablement model, validity and diagnostic screening, meta-analysis, scales used in survey and outcomes research, logistic regression, measures of reliability, and data management to prepare for computer analysis. For those in the health professions, including physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, nursing, and exercise physiology.

Table of Contents

PART I: FOUNDATIONS OF CLINICAL RESEARCH 1(46)
A Concept of Research
3(18)
A Definition of Clinical Research
3(1)
Contemporary Perspectives
4(3)
Sources of Knowledge
7(5)
Types of Research
12(3)
The Research Process
15(2)
Understanding Method, Content, and Philosophy
17(1)
Commentary: Research and Clinical Problem Solving
18(3)
The Role of Theory in Clinical Research
21(12)
Purposes of Theories
22(1)
Components of Theories
23(2)
Types of Theories
25(1)
Characteristics of Theories
26(1)
Theory and Research
27(2)
Theory and Law
29(1)
Commentary: Applying Theory
29(4)
Ethical Issues in Clinical Research
33(14)
Integrity of the Researcher
33(1)
Protection of Human Rights in Clinical Research
34(5)
Institutional Review Board
39(1)
Elements of Informed Consent
40(5)
Commentary: A Patient Care Perspective
45(2)
PART II: CONCEPTS OF MEASUREMENT 47(64)
Principles of Measurement
49(12)
Quantification and Measurement
50(1)
The Indirect Nature of Measurement
50(2)
Rules of Measurement
52(5)
Commentary: When Is an Ordinal Measure Not an Ordinal Measure?
57(4)
Reliability
61(18)
Measurement Error
61(3)
Reliability Coefficients
64(2)
Types of Reliability
66(7)
Generalizability
73(2)
Pilot Testing
75(1)
Commentary: What Is the True Score?
75(4)
Validity of Measurements
79(32)
Validity and Reliability
79(1)
Validity of Inferences
80(2)
Face Validity
82(1)
Content Validity
83(1)
Criterion-Related Validity
84(3)
Construct Validity
87(5)
Evaluating Diagnostic Procedures
92(9)
Measuring Change
101(4)
Criterion Referencing and Norm Referencing
105(2)
Cross-Validation
107(1)
Commentary: The Ongoing Pursuit of Validity
107(4)
PART III: DESIGN 111(254)
The Research Question
113(24)
Selecting a Topic
114(1)
The Research Problem
115(2)
Importance and Feasibility of the Research Question
117(2)
Target Population
119(1)
The Research Rationale
119(1)
Variables
120(3)
Research Objectives
123(4)
Reviewing the Literature
127(6)
Pilot Testing
133(1)
Commentary: Putting the Horse before the Cart
133(4)
Sampling
137(16)
Populations and Samples
137(3)
Sampling Techniques
140(1)
Probability Sampling
141(5)
Nonprobability Sampling
146(3)
Recruitment
149(1)
Commentary: Sampling, Like Life, is a Compromise
150(3)
Experimental Control
153(24)
Characteristics of Experiments
154(3)
The Research Protocol
157(2)
Blinding
159(1)
Design Strategies for Controlling Intersubject Differences
159(4)
Threats to Validity
163(10)
Commentary: The Realities of Clinical Research
173(4)
Experimental Design
177(26)
Selecting a Design
178(1)
Design Notation
179(1)
True Experimental Designs
179(8)
Repeated Measures Designs
187(6)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
193(6)
Commentary: The Design Should Fit the Question
199(4)
Sequential Clinical Trials
203(20)
The Design of a Sequential Trial
204(1)
Measuring Preferences
205(1)
Sequential Plans for Evaluating Preferences
206(9)
Limitations of Sequential Designs
215(2)
Commentary: Try It, You'll Like It
217(6)
Single-Subject Designs
223(42)
Structure of Single-Subject Designs
224(3)
Target Behavior
227(4)
Reliability
231(3)
Experimental Control: Limitations of the A-B Design
234(1)
Withdrawal Designs
235(3)
Multiple-Treatment Designs
238(5)
Multiple-Baseline Designs
243(3)
Changing Criterion Design
246(3)
Data Analysis in Single-Subject Research
249(9)
Generalization of Findings
258(3)
Commentary: It's a Start
261(4)
Descriptive and Exploratory Research
265(20)
Retrospective and Prospective Research
266(1)
Descriptive Research
267(10)
Exploratory Research
277(4)
Commentary: First Things First
281(4)
Surveys
285(32)
Interviews and Questionnaires
286(1)
Design of Surveys
287(6)
Constructing Survey Questions
293(6)
Scales
299(9)
Q-Sort
308(2)
Delphi Survey
310(1)
Analysis of Survey Data
311(1)
Informed Consent
312(1)
Commentary: They Have a Thousand and One Uses
312(5)
Epidemiology
317(28)
Descriptive Epidemiology
319(5)
Analytic Designs: Observational Studies
324(6)
Analytic Designs: Clinical Trials
330(2)
Measures of Association
332(9)
Evaluating Causality in Observational Studies
341(1)
Commentary: A New View of Outcomes
341(4)
Other Research Approaches
345(20)
Evaluation Research
346(5)
Methodological Research
351(2)
Secondary Analysis
353(2)
Meta-Analysis
355(3)
Historical Research
358(2)
Commentary: Moving Forward
360(5)
Part IV: ANALYSIS 365(266)
Descriptive Statistics and Measures of Variability
367(20)
Frequency Distributions
367(5)
Measures of Central Tendency
372(2)
Measures of Variability
374(7)
The Normal Distribution
381(4)
Commentary: Description Only Goes So Far
385(2)
Statistical Inference
387(26)
Probability
387(2)
Sampling Error
389(3)
Confidence Intervals
392(5)
Hypothesis Testing
397(2)
Errors in Hypothesis Testing
399(1)
Type I Error: Level of Significance
400(2)
Type II Error: Statistical Power
402(2)
Concepts of Statistical Testing
404(5)
Parametric versus Nonparametric Statistics
409(1)
Commentary: Statistical versus Clinical Significance
410(3)
The t-Test
413(14)
The Conceptual Basis for Comparing Group Means
413(3)
The t-Test for Independent Samples
416(6)
The t-Test for Paired Samples
422(1)
Inappropriate Use of Multiple t-Tests
423(2)
Use of Confidence Intervals to Test Differences between Means
425(1)
Commentary: The Significance of Significance
426(1)
Analysis of Variance
427(26)
Analysis of Variance for Independent Samples: One-Way Classification
427(5)
Analysis of Variance: Two-Way Classification
432(9)
Analysis of Variance: Three-Way Classification
441(1)
Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance
442(8)
Commentary: Beyond Analysis of Variance
450(3)
Multiple Comparison Tests
453(20)
Type I Error Rate: Per Comparison versus Family
454(1)
Statistical Ratios for Multiple Comparison Tests
455(1)
Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference
456(1)
Newman-Keuls Method
457(3)
Scheffee's Comparison
460(1)
Bonferroni t-Test
461(1)
Simple and Complex Contrasts
462(1)
Presentation of Results of Multiple Comparisons
463(1)
Multiple Comparison Procedures for Factorial Designs
463(3)
Multiple Comparison Procedures for Repeated Measures
466(1)
Trend Analysis
467(4)
Commentary: Choices, Choices, Choices
471(2)
Nonparametric Tests for Group Comparisons
473(18)
Criteria for Choosing Nonparametric Tests
473(2)
Procedure for Ranking Scores
475(1)
Test for Two Independent Samples: Mann-Whitney U-Test
475(3)
Test for More than Two Independent Samples: Kruskal-Wallis One-Way Analysis of Variance by Ranks
478(4)
Tests for Two Correlated Samples: Sign Test and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test
482(4)
Test for More than Two Correlated Samples: Friedman Two-Way Analysis of Variance by Ranks
486(3)
Commentary: Decisions, Decisions, Decisions
489(2)
Correlation
491(18)
Scatter Plots
492(1)
Correlation Coefficients
493(1)
Linear versus Curvilinear Relationships
493(1)
Criteria for Evaluating Correlation Coefficients
494(2)
Pearson Product--Moment Correlation Coefficient
496(1)
Correlation of Ranks: Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient
497(3)
Correlation of Dichotomies
500(5)
Interpreting Correlation Coefficients
505(2)
Commentary: The Stork Was Busy
507(2)
Regression
509(28)
Linear Regression
509(6)
Assumptions for Regression Analysis
515(2)
Outliers
517(2)
Accuracy of Prediction
519(2)
Analysis of Variance of Regression
521(2)
Restrictions on the Interpretation of Linear Regression Analysis
523(1)
Nonlinear Regression
523(4)
Analysis of Covariance
527(7)
Commentary: It's Not That Simple
534(3)
Analysis of Frequencies: Chi-square
537(20)
The Chi-square Statistic
538(1)
Goodness of Fit
539(4)
Interpreting Significant Effects: Standardized Residuals
543(1)
Tests of Independence
544(7)
McNemar Test for Correlated Samples
551(1)
Coefficients of Association
552(2)
Commentary: Uses of Chi-square
554(3)
Statistical Measures of Reliability
557(30)
Reliability Theory and Measurement Error
557(3)
Intraclass Correlation Coefficient
560(8)
Agreement
568(7)
Internal Consistency: Cronbach's Alpha
575(2)
Response Stability
577(4)
Alternate Forms: Limits of Agreement
581(3)
Commentary: Know Your Reliability Coefficient
584(3)
Multivariate Analysis
587(34)
Partial Correlation
587(2)
Multiple Regression
589(8)
Logistic Regression
597(6)
Discriminant Analysis
603(4)
Factor Analysis
607(8)
Multivariate Analysis of Variance
615(3)
Commentary: Can We Keep It Simple?
618(3)
Data Management
621(10)
Recording Data
621(1)
Data Coding
622(1)
Data Entry
623(3)
Data Modification
626(2)
Data Management
628(1)
Commentary: ``Anyone can analyze data, but to really mess things up takes a computer.''
629(2)
PART V: COMMUNICATION 631(108)
Writing a Research Proposal
633(12)
Components of the Research Plan
635(4)
Plan for Administrative Support
639(3)
Presentation of the Proposal
642(1)
Commentary: Review, Revise, Edit, Revise, Review
642(3)
Reporting the Results of Clinical Research
645(18)
The Journal Article
645(11)
The Poster Presentation
656(2)
The Oral Presentation
658(3)
Commentary: Taking the Final Step
661(2)
Evaluating Research Reports
663(76)
Analyzing Content of an Article
663(8)
Commentary: The Reader's View
671(2)
APPENDICES
Appendix A Statistical Tables
673(26)
Appendix B Summary of Statistical Procedures
699(6)
Appendix C Power and Sample Size
705(26)
The Effect Size Index
705(2)
Power Analysis for the t-Test
707(3)
Power Analysis for the Analysis of Variance
710(4)
Power Analysis for Correlation
714(1)
Power Analysis for Regression
715(2)
Power Analysis for Chi-square
717(14)
Appendix D Transformation of Data
731(4)
Appendix E Sample Informed Consent Form
735(4)
Glossary of Statistical Symbols and Abbreviations 739(4)
Index 743


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