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What is law? What is deviance? What is justice? How is justice achieved through law, punishment, and criminal justice agencies? Foundations of Criminal Justice, Second Edition, uses a unique approach that provides students with the framework and the intellectual tools that they will need in order to critically analyze and evaluate the nature, sources, scope, purposes, and practical limitations of the criminal justice system. This is the only introductory survey text that moves beyond a description of the criminal justice system, helping students understand the role of criminal justice in their lives as criminal justice practitioners and as active citizens.
Stephen S. Owen is Professor and Chair of Criminal Justice at Radford University.
Henry F. Fradella is Professor of Law, Criminal Justice, and Forensic Studies at California State University, Long Beach.
Tod W. Burke is Professor of Criminal Justice at Radford University and Associate Dean for the College of Humanities and Behavioral Sciences.
Jerry W. Joplin is Professor of Justice and Policy Studies at Guilford College.
1. Introducing Crime and Criminal Justice Case Study: How Would You Spend $10 Million? Introducing Criminal Justice Perspectives on Criminal Justice --Criminal Justice as System --Criminal Justice as Profession --Criminal Justice as Bureaucracy --Criminal Justice as Moral Agent --Criminal Justice as Academic Discipline --Applying the Five Perspectives: Police Use of Deadly Force Defining Crime --What Crime Is --What Crime Is Not The Extent of Crime --Official Crime Data --Other Sources of Crime Data --Crime Data: Tradeoffs and Politics Looking Ahead Conclusion Criminal Justice Problem Solving: DNA Evidence Appendix: The Criminal Justice System
Unit I: Perspectives on Law Photo Essay: Morality and the Law
2. Concepts of Law and Morality Case Study: Justice on Lover's Lane Criminal Justice and Society Criminal Justice Strategies and Tactics --Strategies --Tactics --Criminal Justice: Popular Conceptions Versus Academic Scholarship Morality and Justice Studies --Kohlberg's Moral Stages Three Tendencies of Idealists and Pragmatists --Harmony --Truth --The Mind/Body Relationship Five Concepts of Morality --Knowledge --Self --The Nature of a Deity --Universe --Death --Applying Philosophy and Morality to Criminal Justice Conclusion Criminal Justice Problem-Solving: Alcohol Policy
3. Concepts of Legal Philosophy Case Study: Working the Corner Studying Approaches to the Law --Principles and Rules in Criminal Justice Analyzing the Law Patrick Devlin's Legal Moralism --Devlin and the Six Concepts of Law H.L.A. Hart's Legal Positivism --Hart and the Six Concepts of Law Other Schools of Legal Philosophy --Theories of Legal Idealism Legal Naturalism --Rights and Interpretative Jurisprudence --Critical Theories of Law --Legal Paternalism --Theories of Legal Pragmatism --Legal Realism --Everyday Pragmatism Conclusion Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Nudist Camps
Unit II: Perspectives on Deviance and Crime Photo Essay: What Behaviors Are Deviant?
4. Deviance and Social Control Case Study: A Crime of Fantasy? An Overview of Deviance --Norms --Socialization The Social Control of Deviance --Informal vs. Formal Social Control --Agents of Social Control Styles of Social Control The Medicalization of Deviance --Medicalization and Criminal Responsibility --Consequences of Medicalization Therapeutic Social Control and Public Policy --Vindication and Putative Backlash --Other Consequences of Shifts in the Style of Social Control Conclusion Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Gun Control and Mental Illness
5. Deviance and Criminal Behavior Case Study: The Case of Carl Panzram Conceptualizing Deviance --Crime, Sin, and Taste as a Form of Deviance --Deviance in Society Some Explanations of Criminal Deviance --Historical Perspectives on Criminology --Modern Biological perspectives on Crime and Criminality --The Classical School of Criminology Psychological Theories of Crime and Criminality --Psychodynamic Theories --Differential Association --Techniques of Neutralization --Personality and Crime Sociocultural Theories of Crime and Criminality --Social Disorganization Theory --Strain Theory --Delinquent Subcultures --Social Control Theory --Labeling Theory --Conflict Criminology The Study of Deviance in Criminal Justice Conclusion Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Youth Gangs
Unit III: Perspectives on Justice Photo essay: Justice, Privacy, and Enforcement
6. Concepts of Justice Case Study: Sexting Justice: Fact or Fiction The Justice in Criminal Justice --Vigilante Justice --Transitional Justice --Ideological Justice --Discourse Perspective Justice Postmodern Justice A Focus on Distributive Justice --A Classic Approach: Aristotle's Commutative Justice --An Economic Approach: Bentham's Utilitarian Justice --A Belief in Punishment: Retributive Justice --Everyone Is Due Something: Restorative Justice --But Is It Fair? Rawls on Justice Individual and Community Interests in Distributive Justice --Mechanical Criminal Justice --Authoritarian Criminal Justice --Compassionate Criminal Justice --Participatory Criminal Justice --Toward Justice Conclusion Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Justice Reinvestment
7. Concepts of Justice Policy Case Study: The Quagmire of State Marijuana Policy Criminal Justice and Civil Justice --Criminal Justice --Civil Justice Social Justice and American Values --American Political Culture The Development of Criminal Justice Policy --Stability and Change in Public Policy --Federalism --State and Federal Policy --Separation of Powers --hemes in American Criminal Justice Policy Development Forces Shaping Criminal Justice Policy --Mass Media --Interest Groups --Politics and Politicians --Bureaucrats Conclusion Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Preschool Crime Prevention
8. Concepts of Criminal Procedure Case Study: When Are Dog Sniffs"Searches"? Concepts of Procedural Justice --Three Philosophical Models of Procedural Justice --Social Psychological Factors Two Models of the Criminal Process Procedural Justice in the Original U.S. Constitution --Habeas Corpus --Bills of Attainder --Ex Post Facto Laws --Trial by Jury --Trial for Treason Procedural Justice in the Amendments to the U.S. Constitution --The Fourth Amendment --The Fifth Amendment --The Sixth Amendment --The Fourteenth Amendment --The Exclusionary Rule Conclusion Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Surveillance and Technology
Unit IV: Penal Social Control Photo Essay: Bullying
9. Criminal Law Case Study: Copyright Infringement The History of Criminal Law --Criminal Law in Ancient Civilizations --Criminal Law in Ancient Greece and Rome --Criminal Law Changes in Early Christendom --Criminal Law in Early England --From English Common Law to Modern Penal Laws Common Elements of Modern Criminal Law --Actus Reus --Mens Rea --Attendant Circumstances --Causation of Result Types of Crimes Defenses to Crimes Constitutional Limitations on Criminalization --The First Amendment --The Second Amendment --The Fourteenth Amendment: Due Process and Equal Protection Concerns Conclusion Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Zero-Tolerance Policies
10. Criminal Punishment Case Study: Three-Strikes Laws Conceptualizing Punishment Justifications for Criminal Punishement --Retribution --Deterrence --Incapacitation --Rehabilitation --Restitution and Restoration --Competing Philosophies The Politics of Whom We Punish Limitations on Criminal Punishment --Culpability: A Fairness Principle Requiring Blameworthiness --Notice and the Principle of Legality --Proportionality and the Eighth Amendment The Future of Punishment Conclusion Criminal Justice Problem Solving: The Death Penalty
Unit V: Overview of Criminal Justice Institutions Photo Essay: Toward the Future of Criminal Justice
11. Core Concepts of U.S. Policing Case Study: Policing a Housing Development Philosophies of Policing --Policing in England --The Political Era (1830s-Early 1900s) -- The Professional Era (1930s-1970s) --The Community Problem-Solving Era (1970s-Present) --The Police and Homeland Security: A New Era? --Developmental Theories of Policing The Culture of Policing --Wilson's Styles of Police Behavior --Police Officer Personalities The Structure of American Law Enforcement --Local Police Agencies --State Police Agencies --Federal Agencies Ethical Issues in Policing --Levels of Corruption --Ethical Questions in Policing --The Dirty Harry Problem --Controlling Unethical Behavior Policing Strategies --Myths About Policing --Team Policing --Community-Oriented Policing --Problem-Oriented Policing --An Example of Problem-Oriented Policing: Richmond's Sector 213 Conclusion Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Focused Deterrence
12. Core Concepts of U.S. Court Systems Case Study: Shipwreck The Structure of the U.S. Court System --Hierarchical Jurisdiction --Other Forms of Jurisdiction The Courtroom Workgroup --Judges --Prosecutors --Defense Attorneys --Other Courtroom Workgroup Members Criminal Pretrial Processes --Initial Appearance --Charging --Arraignment --Discovery --Plea Bargaining --Pretrial Motions Criminal Trial Processes --Jury Selection --Presumptions and Evidence --Trial --Sentencing --Postconviction Review Judicial Review Legal Reasoning --Philosophies of Legal Reasoning --The Process of Legal Reasoning Conclusion Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Problem-Solving Courts
13. Core Concepts of U.S. Correctional Theory and Practice Case Study: Weightlifting in Prison The Scope and Purpose of American Corrections Four Essential Tensions Underlying Correctional Philosophy and Policy --The Essential Tension of Finance --The Essential Tension of Research --The Essential Tension of Discretion --The Essential Tension of Invisibility --Summary of the Concept of Essential Tensions History and Practice of Institutional Corrections --A Historical Survey of Correctional Institutions --Current Practice in Correctional Institutions --Theoretical Perspectives on Prison Life History and Practice of Community Corrections --A History of Community Corrections --Current Practice in Community Corrections Conclusion Criminal Justice Problem Solving: Voting Rights