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Foundations of Earth Science

by ; ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780131447509

ISBN10:
0131447505
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $110.60
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Summary

This highly visual, non-technical survey emphasizes broad, up-to-date coverage of basic topics and principles in geology, oceanography, meteorology, and astronomy, giving readers a sense of the observational techniques and reasoning processes that characterize the field of earth science. First-rate illustrations and a thoroughly revised narrative reflect the latest research and schools of thought.New introductory section explores the concept of Earth as a system composed of many interacting subsystems. Includes 100+ pieces of new or revised art, plus expanded discussions of minerals, stream erosion, causes of floods, landslides, glaciers, folds and faults, volcanic hazards, global warming, and severe storms. Also features n ew findings and revealing photos from the 2004 Spirit rover expedition.For anyone interested in learning more about earth science.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Introduction to Earth Science 1(1)
Focus on Learning
1(1)
What Is Earth Science?
2(1)
A View of Earth
3(2)
Hydrosphere
4(1)
Atmosphere
4(1)
Solid Earth
4(1)
Biosphere
5(1)
Earth as a System
5(2)
Resources and Environmental Issues
7(1)
Resources
7(1)
Environmental Problems
8(1)
The Nature of Scientific Inquiry
8(3)
Hypothesis
9(1)
Theory
10(1)
Scientific Methods
10(1)
Studying Earth Science
11(3)
The Chapter in Review
11(1)
Key Terms
12(1)
Questions for Review
12(1)
Online Study Guide
13(1)
UNIT I EARTH MATERIALS
14(46)
Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks
15(18)
Focus on Learning
15(1)
Minerals: The Building Blocks of Rocks
16(2)
Composition and Structure of Minerals
18(3)
How Atoms are Constructed
19(1)
How Atoms Bond
19(1)
Isotopes and Radioactive Decay
20(1)
Properties of Minerals
21(3)
Crustal Form
21(1)
Luster
22(1)
Color
22(1)
Streak
22(1)
Hardness
22(1)
Cleavage and Fracture
23(1)
Specific Gravity
23(1)
Other Properties of Minerals
24(1)
Mineral Groups
24(3)
Rock-Forming Silicates
25(1)
Important Nonsilicate Minerals
25(2)
Mineral Resources
27(6)
The Chapter in Review
29(1)
Key Terms
30(1)
Questions for Review
30(1)
Online Study Guide
31(2)
Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth
33(27)
Focus on Learning
33(1)
Earth as a System: The Rock Cycle
34(2)
The Basic Cycle
35(1)
Alternative Paths
36(1)
Igneous Rocks: ``Formed by Fire''
36(7)
Magma Crystallizes to Form Igneous Rocks
37(1)
Igneous Textures
38(1)
Igneous Compositions
39(2)
How Different Igneous Rocks Form
41(2)
Weathering of Rocks to Form Sediment
43(3)
Mechanical Weathering of Rocks
43(1)
Chemical Weathering of Rocks
44(2)
Sedimentary Rocks: Compacted and Cemented Sediment
46(7)
Classifying Sedimentary Rocks
47(4)
Lithification of Sediment
51(1)
Features of Sedimentary Rocks
52(1)
Metamorphic Rocks: New Rock from Old
53(7)
Agents of Metamorphism
54(1)
Metamorphic Textures
54(1)
Common Metamorphic Rocks
55(3)
The Chapter in Review
58(1)
Key Terms
59(1)
Questions for Review
59(1)
Online Study Guide
59(1)
UNIT II SCULPTURING EARTH'S SURFACE
60(60)
Landscapes Fashioned by Water
61(32)
Focus on Learning
61(1)
Earth's External Processes
62(1)
Mass Wasting: The Work of Gravity
62(3)
Mass Wasting and Landform Development
62(1)
Controls and Triggers of Mass Wasting
63(2)
The Water Cycle
65(1)
Running Water
66(2)
Streamflow
66(2)
Changes from Upstream to Downstream
68(1)
Base Level
68(1)
The Work of Streams
69(4)
Erosion
69(1)
Transportation
69(2)
Deposition
71(2)
Stream Valleys
73(2)
Narrow Valleys
73(1)
Wide Valleys
73(2)
Floods and Flood Control
75(2)
Causes of Floods
75(1)
Flood Control
75(2)
Drainage Basins and Patterns
77(1)
Water Beneath the Surface
78(2)
The Importance of Groundwater
78(1)
Groundwater's Geological Roles
79(1)
Distribution and Movement of Groundwater
80(2)
Distribution
80(1)
Movement
81(1)
Springs
82(1)
Hot Springs
82(1)
Geysers
82(1)
Wells
83(1)
Artesian Wells
83(1)
Environmental Problems of Groundwater
84(3)
Treating Groundwater as a Nonrenewable Resource
84(1)
Land Subsidence Caused by Groundwater Withdrawal
85(1)
Groundwater Contamination
85(2)
The Geologic Work of Groundwater
87(6)
Caverns
87(1)
Karst Topography
88(1)
The Chapter in Review
89(1)
Key Terms
90(1)
Questions for Review
91(1)
Online Study Guide
91(2)
Glacial and Arid Landscapes
93(27)
Focus on Learning
93(1)
Glaciers: A Part of Two Basic Cycles
94(1)
Valley (Alpine) Glaciers
94(1)
Ice Sheets
94(1)
Other Types of Glaciers
94(1)
How Glaciers Move
95(3)
Observing and Measuring Movement
95(1)
Accumulation and Wastage
96(2)
Glacial Erosion
98(3)
How Glaciers Erode
98(1)
Landforms Created by Glacial Erosion
99(2)
Glacial Deposits
101(4)
Types of Glacial Drift
101(1)
Moraines, Outwash Plains, and Kettles
102(2)
Drumlins, Eskers, and Kames
104(1)
Glaciers of the Ice Age
105(1)
Some Indirect Effects of Ice Age Glaciers
106(1)
Deserts
107(4)
Distribution and Causes of Dry Lands
107(1)
The Role of Water in Arid Climates
108(3)
Basin and Range: The Evolution of a Desert Landscape
111(1)
Wind Erosion
112(2)
Deflation, Blowouts, and Desert Pavement
113(1)
Wind Abrasion
114(1)
Wind Deposits
114(6)
Loess
114(1)
Sand Dunes
114(3)
The Chapter in Review
117(1)
Key Terms
118(1)
Questions for Review
118(1)
Online Study Guide
118(2)
UNIT III FORCES WITHIN
120(92)
Plate Tectonics: A Scientific Theory Unfolds
121(30)
Focus on Learning
121(1)
Continental Drift: An Idea Before Its Time
122(4)
Evidence: The Continental Jigsaw Puzzle
123(1)
Evidence: Fossils Match Across the Sea
123(2)
Evidence: Rock Types and Structures Match
125(1)
Evidence: Ancient Climates
125(1)
The Great Debate
126(1)
Plate Tectonics: A Modern Version of an Old Idea
126(4)
Earth's Major Plates
127(3)
Plate Boundaries
130(1)
Divergent Boundaries
130(2)
Oceanic Ridges and Seafloor Spreading
130(1)
Continental Rifting
131(1)
Convergent Boundaries
132(5)
Oceanic--Continental Convergence
134(1)
Oceanic--Oceanic Convergence
135(1)
Continental-Continental Convergence
135(2)
Transform Fault Boundaries
137(1)
Testing the Plate Tectonics Model
138(6)
Evidence: Ocean Drilling
138(1)
Evidence: Hot Spots
139(1)
Evidence: Paleomagnetism
140(4)
The Breakup of Pangaea
144(1)
What Drives Plate Motions?
145(6)
Forces that Drive Plate Motion
146(1)
Models of Plate-Mantle Convection
146(2)
The Chapter in Review
148(1)
Key Terms
148(1)
Questions for Review
149(1)
Online Study Guide
149(2)
Restless Earth: Earthquakes, Geologic Structures, and Mountain Building
151(42)
Focus on Learning
151(2)
What Is an Earthquake?
153(3)
Earthquakes and Faults
153(1)
Discovering the Cause of Earthquakes
154(1)
Foreshocks and Aftershocks
154(2)
Seismology: The Study of Earthquake Waves
156(2)
Locating an Earthquake
158(1)
Measuring the Size of Earthquakes
159(3)
Intensity Scales
159(1)
Magnitude Scales
160(2)
Destruction from Earthquakes
162(3)
Seismic Vibrations Damage Structures
162(1)
Tsunami
163(1)
Fire
164(1)
Landslides and Ground Subsidence
164(1)
Earth's Layered Structure
165(2)
Layers Defined by Composition
165(1)
Layers Defined by Physical Properties
166(1)
Geologic Structures
167(6)
Rock Deformation
167(1)
Folds
168(2)
Faults
170(3)
Mountain Building
173(1)
Mountain Building at Convergent Boundaries
174(19)
Convergence and Subducting Plates
174(2)
Continental Collisions
176(1)
Terranes and Mountain Building
176(3)
The Chapter in Review
179(1)
Key Terms
180(1)
Questions for Review
181(1)
Online Study Guide
181(12)
Fires Within: Igneous Activity
193(19)
Focus on Learning
183(2)
The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions
185(2)
Factors Affecting Viscosity
186(1)
Importance of Dissolved Gases in Magma
186(1)
What Is Extruded During Eruptions?
187(2)
Lava Flows
187(1)
Gases
188(1)
Pyroclastic Materials
189(1)
Volcanic Structures and Eruptive Styles
189(6)
Anatomy of a Volcano
189(2)
Shield Volcanoes
191(1)
Cinder Cones
192(2)
Composite Cones
194(1)
Living in the Shadow of a Composite Cone
195(2)
Nuee Ardente: A Deadly Pyroclastic Flow
195(1)
Lahars: Mudflows on Active and Inactive Cones
196(1)
Other Volcanic Landforms
197(3)
Calderas
197(2)
Fissure Eruptions and Lava Plateaus
199(1)
Volcanic Pipes and Necks
199(1)
Intrusive Igneous Activity
200(3)
Dikes
202(1)
Sills and Laccoliths
202(1)
Batholiths
202(1)
Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activity
203(9)
Igneous Activity at Convergent Plate Boundaries
204(1)
Igneous Activity at Divergent Plate Boundaries
205(1)
Intraplate Igneous Activity
205(4)
The Chapter in Review
209(1)
Key Terms
209(1)
Questions for Review
210(1)
Online Study Guide
211(1)
UNIT IV DECIPHERING EARTH'S HISTORY
212(22)
Geologic Time
213(21)
Focus on Learning
213(1)
Geology Needs a time Scale
214(1)
Some Historical Notes About Geology
215(1)
Catastrophism
215(1)
The Birth of Modern Geology
215(1)
Geology Today
215(1)
Relative Dating---Key Principles
216(4)
Law of Superposition
216(1)
Principle of Original Horizontality
217(1)
Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships
217(1)
Inclusions
217(1)
Unconformities
218(1)
Using Relative Dating Principles
219(1)
Correlation of Rock Layers
220(1)
Fossils: Evidence of Past Life
221(3)
Conditions Favoring Preservation
223(1)
Fossils and Correlation
223(1)
Dating with Radioactivity
224(5)
Reviewing Basic Atomic Structure
224(1)
Radioactivity
225(1)
Half-Life
226(1)
Radiometric Dating
226(3)
The Geologic Time Scale
229(1)
Structure of the Time Scale
229(1)
Precambrian Time
229(1)
Difficulties in Dating the Geologic Time Scale
230(4)
The Chapter in Review
231(1)
Key Terms
231(1)
Questions for Review
232(1)
Online Study Guide
233(1)
UNIT V THE GLOBAL OCEAN
234(46)
Oceans: The Last Frontier
235(20)
Focus on Learning
235(1)
The Vast World Ocean
236(1)
Geography of the Oceans
236(1)
Comparing the Oceans to the Continents
237(1)
Composition of Seawater
237(1)
Salinity
237(1)
Sources of Sea Salts
237(1)
Processes Affecting Seawater Salinity
238(1)
The Ocean's Layered Structure
238(1)
Mapping the Ocean Floor
239(2)
Bathymetric Techniques
239(1)
Viewing the Ocean Floor from Space
240(1)
Provinces of the Ocean Floor
241(1)
Continental Margins
241(5)
Passive Continental Margins
241(4)
Active Continental Margins
245(1)
Deep-Ocean Basin
246(1)
Deep-Ocean Trenches
246(1)
Abyssal Plains
246(1)
Seamounts and Guyots
246(1)
The Oceanic Ridge
247(1)
Seafloor Sediments
248(7)
Types of Seafloor Sediments
248(1)
Distribution of Seafloor Sediments
249(1)
Seafloor Sediments and Climate Change
250(1)
The Chapter in Review
251(1)
Key Terms
252(1)
Questions for Review
252(1)
Online Study Guide
253(2)
The Restless Ocean
255(25)
Focus on Learning
255(1)
Surface Circulation
256(3)
Ocean Circulation Patterns
256(2)
Ocean Currents and Climate
258(1)
Upwelling
259(1)
Deep-Ocean Circulation
259(1)
Waves
260(2)
Wave Characteristics
261(1)
Circular Orbital Motion
261(1)
Waves in the Surf Zone
262(1)
Beaches and Shoreline Processes
262(4)
Wave Erosion
263(1)
Wave Refraction
264(1)
Longshore Transport
265(1)
Shoreline Features
266(2)
Erosional Features
266(1)
Depositional Features
267(1)
The Evolving Shore
268(1)
Stabilizing the Shore
268(5)
Hard Stabilization
270(1)
Alternatives to Hard Stabilization
271(1)
Erosion Problems Along U.S. Coasts
272(1)
Coastal Classification
273(1)
Emergent Coasts
273(1)
Submergent Coasts
273(1)
Tides
274(6)
Causes of Tides
274(1)
Monthly Tidal Cycle
275(1)
Tidal Patterns
276(1)
Tidal Currents
276(1)
The Chapter in Review
277(1)
Key Terms
278(1)
Questions for Review
279(1)
Online Study Guide
279(1)
UNIT VI THE ATMOSPHERE
280(100)
Heating the Atmosphere
281(28)
Focus on Learning
281(1)
Weather and Climate
282(1)
Composition of the Atmosphere
283(2)
Major Components
283(1)
Variable Components
283(1)
Ozone Depletion---A Global Issue
284(1)
Height and Structure of the Atmosphere
285(1)
Pressure Changes
285(1)
Temperature Changes
285(1)
Earth-Sun Relationships
286(5)
Earth's Motions
287(1)
Seasons
287(1)
Earth's Orientation
288(1)
Solstices and Equinoxes
289(2)
Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
291(3)
Conduction
292(1)
Radiation
292(1)
Convection
292(2)
The Fate of Incoming Solar Radiation
294(2)
Reflection and Scattering
294(1)
Absorption
295(1)
Heating the Atmosphere: The Greenhouse Effect
296(1)
Global Warming
296(3)
CO2 Levels Are Rising
297(1)
The Atmosphere's Response
297(1)
Some Possible Consequences
297(2)
Temperature Measurement and Data
299(1)
Why Temperatures Vary: The Controls of Temperature
300(3)
Land and Water
300(1)
Altitude
301(1)
Geographic Position
301(1)
Cloud Cover and Albedo
302(1)
World Distribution of Temperature
303(6)
The Chapter in Review
305(1)
Key Terms
306(1)
Questions for Review
306(1)
Online Study Guide
307(2)
Clouds and Precipitation
309(28)
Focus on Learning
309(1)
Water's Changes of State
310(2)
Latent Heat
310(2)
Humidity: Water Vapor in the Air
312(4)
Saturation
312(1)
Mixing Ratio
312(1)
Relative Humidity
312(3)
Dew-Point Temperature
315(1)
Measuring Humidity
315(1)
The Basis of Cloud Formation: Adiabatic Cooling
316(1)
Fog and Dew vs. Cloud Formation
316(1)
Adiabatic Temperature Changes
316(1)
Adiabatic Cooling and Condensation
316(1)
Processes that Lift Air
316(3)
Orographic Lifting
317(1)
Frontal Wedging
317(1)
Convergence
317(2)
Localized Convective Lifting
319(1)
The Weathermaker: Atmospheric Stability
319(3)
Types of Stability
319(3)
Stability and Daily Weather
322(1)
Condensation and Cloud Formation
322(2)
Cloud Classification
323(1)
Fog
324(5)
Fogs Caused by Cooling
325(3)
Evaporation Fogs
328(1)
Precipitation
329(8)
How Precipitation Forms
329(1)
Forms of Precipitation
329(2)
Measuring Precipitation
331(2)
The Chapter in Review
333(1)
Key Terms
334(1)
Questions for Review
334(1)
Online Study Guide
335(2)
The Atmosphere in Motion
337(18)
Focus on Learning
337(1)
Understanding and Measuring Air Pressure
338(1)
Measuring Air Pressure
339(1)
Factors Affecting Wind
340(4)
Pressure Gradient Force
340(1)
Coriolis Effect
340(2)
Friction with Earth's Surface
342(2)
Highs and Lows
344(2)
Cyclonic and Anticyclonic Winds
344(1)
Weather Generalizations About Highs and Lows
344(2)
General Circulation of the Atmosphere
346(3)
Circulation on a Nonrotating Earth
346(1)
Idealized Global Circulation
347(1)
Influence of Continents
347(2)
The Westerlies
349(1)
Local Winds
349(2)
Land and Sea
349(1)
Mountain and Valley Breezes
349(1)
Chinook and Santa Ana Winds
350(1)
How Wind Is Measured
351(4)
The Chapter in Review
352(1)
Key Terms
352(1)
Questions for Review
353(1)
Online Study Guide
353(2)
Weather Patterns and Severe Weather
355(25)
Focus on Learning
355(1)
Air Masses
356(3)
What Is an Air Mass?
356(1)
Source Regions
357(1)
Weather Associated with Air Masses
357(2)
Fronts
359(2)
Warm Fronts
361(1)
Cold Fronts
361(1)
Stationary Fronts and Occluded Fronts
361(1)
The Middle-Latitude Cyclone
361(3)
Idealized Weather of a Middle-Latitude Cyclone
363(1)
The Role of Airflow Aloft
364(1)
Thunderstorms
364(3)
Thunderstorm Occurrence
365(1)
Stages of Thunderstorm Development
365(2)
Tornadoes
367(5)
Tornado Occurrence and Development
367(3)
Tornado Destruction
370(1)
Tornado Forecasting
371(1)
Hurricanes
372(8)
Profile of a Hurricane
372(1)
Hurricane Formation and Decay
373(2)
Hurricane Destruction
375(2)
The Chapter in Review
377(1)
Key Terms
378(1)
Questions for Review
378(1)
Online Study Guide
379(1)
UNIT VII EARTH'S PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE
380(57)
The Nature of the Solar System
381(34)
Focus on Learning
381(1)
Ancient Astronomy
382(2)
Early Greeks
382(1)
Ptolemy's Model
383(1)
The Birth of Modern Astronomy
384(6)
Nicolaus Copernicus
384(1)
Tycho Brahe
385(1)
Johannes Kepler
385(2)
Galileo Galilei
387(1)
Sir Isaac Newton
388(2)
The Planets: An Overview
390(3)
The Interiors of the Planets
391(1)
The Atmospheres of the Planets
392(1)
Origin of the Solar System
393(2)
Earth's Moon
395(2)
The Lunar Surface
395(2)
Impact Hypothesis for Moon's Origins
397(1)
The Planets: A Short Tour
397(10)
Mercury: Innermost, Hot, and Quick
397(1)
Venus: Veiled in Clouds
398(2)
Mars: The Red Planet
400(2)
Jupiter: Lord of the Heavens
402(1)
Saturn: The Elegant Planet
403(2)
Uranus and Neptune: The Twins
405(1)
Pluto: The Outermost Planet
406(1)
Minor Members of the Solar System
407(8)
Asteroids: Microplanets
407(1)
Comets: Dirty Snowballs
408(2)
Meteoroids: Visitors to Earth
410(1)
The Chapter in Review
411(1)
Key Terms
412(1)
Questions for Review
412(1)
Online Study Guide
413(2)
Beyond the Solar System
415(22)
Focus on Learning
415(1)
Properties of Stars
416(3)
Measuring Distances to the Stars
416(1)
Stellar Brightness
417(1)
Stellar Color and Temperature
418(1)
Binary Stars and Stellar Mass
418(1)
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
419(2)
Interstellar Matter
421(1)
Stellar Evolution
422(5)
Star Birth
423(1)
Protostar Stage
423(1)
Main-Sequence Stage
424(1)
Red Giant Stage
424(1)
Burnout and Death
424(2)
H-R Diagrams and Stellar Evolution
426(1)
Stellar Remnants
427(1)
White Dwarfs
427(1)
Neutron Stars
427(1)
Black Holes
428(1)
The Milky Way Galaxy
428(1)
Structure of the Milky Way Galaxy
429(1)
Galaxies
429(3)
Types of Galaxies
430(2)
Galactic Clusters
432(1)
Red Shifts
432(1)
Expanding Universe
432(1)
The Big Bang
433(4)
The Chapter in Review
434(1)
Key Terms
435(1)
Questions for Review
435(1)
Online Study Guide
436(1)
Appendix A Metric and English Units Compared 437(1)
Appendix B Mineral Identification Key 438(2)
Appendix C Relative Humidity and Dew-Point Tables 440(2)
Appendix D Earth's Grid System 442(3)
Glossary 445(10)
Index 455


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