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Four-in-One : Rhetoric, Reader, Research Guide, and Handbook,9780321091031
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Four-in-One : Rhetoric, Reader, Research Guide, and Handbook

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780321091031

ISBN10:
0321091035
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div
List Price: $73.80
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Summary

This rhetoric, reader, research paper guide, and brief handbook is the first writing text to fully explain the how's and why's of critical thinking. Four-in-One places the acts of writing and reading in a framework of critical thinking; a theme which is sustained throughout the chapters on the writing process and the patterns of organization. The discussion of critical thinking is integrated into the chapters on the writing process and the patterns of organization. Through this unique approach, students learn how to use reflective and critical thinking in writing and reading. The book is designed for maximum flexibility-each part of the book is self-contained. The readings section of the book is organized alphabetically so instructors are not locked into approaching any one reading from the perspective of a single rhetorical pattern. The text also features an ESL section in its handbook, a unique chapter on using the Internet for research, and individual and collaborative exercises throughout. > For those interested in developing their reading, writing and critical thinking skills.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
PART I Getting Started 1(16)
Introduction: Thinking, Reading, and Writing
3(14)
Critical Thinking and Writing
3(1)
Critical Reading and Writing
4(2)
Critical Reading Phases
6(11)
PART II Writing College Essays 17(120)
Preparing to Write an Essay
19(13)
Writing and Thinking
19(2)
Writing Sharpens Critical Thinking
19(1)
Writing Provides a Record of Thinking
20(1)
Levels of Thinking
20(1)
Assess the Writing Situation
21(5)
Determine an Assignment's Length and Time Limit
21(1)
Clarify the Purpose of the Assignment
21(3)
Use Common Information Sources
24(1)
Picture a Reader
24(2)
Employ Common Essay Conventions
26(6)
Have a Dominant Purpose
26(1)
Use a Consistent Essay Strategy
27(1)
Use Consistent Paragraph Strategies
28(1)
Activities
28(4)
The Composing Process: Prewriting and Informal Planning
32(21)
A Student's Composing Process
33(5)
Assessment of the Writing Situation
36(2)
Use Prewriting Techniques to Explore an Assignment
38(4)
Listing
38(1)
Freewriting
39(1)
Clustering
39(2)
Asking Questions
41(1)
Consulting
41(1)
Identify and Limit a Subject
42(1)
Compose a Purpose Statement
43(1)
A Student's Prewriting Activities
44(9)
Prewriting Activities at Work
44(4)
Formulating a Purpose Statement
48(1)
Developing an Informal Plan
48(2)
Activities
50(3)
Writing a Thesis Statement and a Formal Plan
53(11)
Write an Effective Thesis Statement
53(5)
Make a Promise
54(1)
Use Precise Language
55(1)
Imply a Method of Development
56(1)
Forecast a Development Pattern
57(1)
Develop a Formal Plan
58(6)
Plan with a Reader in Mind
58(1)
Formal Outlines
58(2)
A Student's Outlining Process
60(1)
Activities
61(3)
Writing Paragraphs for the Rough Draft
64(24)
Write the Introduction
65(3)
A Student Roughs Out an Introduction
67(1)
Write the Discussion
68(13)
Organize Discussion Paragraphs
68(10)
A Student Roughs Out Discussion Paragraphs
78(3)
Write the Conclusion
81(2)
A Student Roughs Out a Conclusion
82(1)
Create the Title
83(1)
A Student Creates a Title
84(1)
Combine the Sections of the Rough Draft
84(4)
A Student Completes a Rough Draft
85(2)
Activities
87(1)
Responses to a Rough Draft: Instructor and Peer Comments
88(5)
Instructor Comments
88(1)
Peer Comments
89(4)
Peer Review Responsibilities
89(3)
Activities
92(1)
Revising a Rough Draft: Structure, Paragraphs, and Sentences
93(32)
Approach Revision Systematically
94(9)
Revise the Whole Essay
94(1)
Revise from the Reader's Perspective
94(1)
Revise to Add or Delete Content
95(1)
Revise the Organization for Unity
96(2)
Revise for Point of View
98(2)
Revise the Paragraphs
100(1)
Revise the Sentences
101(2)
Guidelines for Revision
103(22)
Cut Unnecessary Words
103(2)
Cut Intensifiers
105(2)
Select Specific and Concrete Words
107(3)
Replace Weak Verbs with Strong Verbs
110(2)
Make Passive Sentences Active
112(1)
Eliminate Sexist Language
113(1)
Consider the Denotations and Connotations of Words
114(1)
Use Figurative Language with Care
114(2)
Revise Sentences for Proper Coordination
116(2)
Revise Sentences for Proper Subordination
118(1)
Place Modifiers with Care
119(1)
Correct Faulty Pronoun References
120(1)
Eliminate Inconsistencies
121(2)
Complete Incomplete Sentences
123(1)
Maintain Parallelism
123(1)
Activities
124(1)
Preparing to Submit an Submit
125(12)
Proofread Your Revised Draft
125(6)
Proofread for Consistent Diction
125(1)
Proofread for Sentence Flow and Variety
126(1)
A Student Proofreads Her Revised Draft
127(4)
Prepare the Final Draft Using Standard Manuscript Form
131(6)
Materials
131(1)
Margins
131(1)
Indentation
132(1)
Pagination
132(1)
Identification
132(1)
Title
132(1)
A Student's Final Draft
132(4)
Activities
136(1)
PART III Development Patterns 137(160)
Description: Rendering Experience
139(17)
Thinking by Description
139(1)
A Student Essay Developed by Description
140(3)
Writing an Essay Developed by Description
143(8)
Provide Descriptive Detail
144(2)
Distinguish Objective from Subjective Description
146(2)
Create a Dominant Impression
148(1)
Consider Arrangement of Details
149(1)
Use Transitions
150(1)
Revising Descriptive Paragraphs
151(5)
Guidelines for Writing Descriptive Essays
152(1)
Suggestions for Descriptive Essays
152(4)
Narration: Connecting Events
156(18)
Thinking by Narration
156(2)
A Student Essay Developed by Narration
158(4)
Writing an Essay Developed by Narration
162(8)
Create a Narrative Effect
162(2)
Follow a Narrative Structure
164(1)
Use Scene and Summary
165(2)
Establish Point of View
167(1)
Follow Chronological or Psychological Time
168(2)
Use Transitions
170(1)
Revising Narrative Paragraphs
170(4)
Guidelines for Writing Narrative Essays
171(1)
Suggestions for Narrative Essays
171(3)
Examples: Illustrating Experience
174(16)
Thinking by Examples
174(1)
A Student Essay Developed by Examples
175(4)
Writing an Essay Developed by Examples
179(6)
Use a Variety of Examples
179(1)
Select Examples with Care
180(1)
Use Examples with Purpose
180(5)
Use Transitions
185(1)
Revising Examples Paragraphs
185(5)
Guidelines for Writing Examples Essays
187(1)
Suggestions for Examples Essays
187(3)
Comparison: Showing Similarities and Differences
190(13)
Thinking by Comparison
190(1)
A Student Essay Developed by Comparison
190(3)
Writing an Essay Developed by Comparison
193(5)
Select Appropriate Subjects for Comparison
194(1)
Establish the Comparison Early
195(1)
Decide on the Appropriate Arrangement
196(2)
Use Transitions
198(5)
Revising Comparison Paragraphs
199(1)
Guidelines for Writing Comparison Essays
200(1)
Suggestions for Comparison Essays
200(3)
Cause and Effect: Exploring Reasons and Results
203(19)
Thinking by Cause and Effect
203(1)
A Student Essay Developed by Cause and Effect
204(12)
Writing an Essay Developed by Cause and Effect
207(2)
Avoid Reasoning Errors
209(1)
Distinguish Causes and Effects
210(5)
Use Transitions
215(1)
Revising Cause and Effect Paragraphs
216(6)
Guidelines for Writing Cause and Effect Essays
217(1)
Suggestions for Cause and Effect Essays
217(5)
Process Analysis: Explaining Step by Step
222(13)
Thinking by Process Analysis
222(1)
A Student Essay Developed by Process Analysis
223(2)
Writing an Essay Developed by Process Analysis
225(5)
Determine the Appropriate Type of Analysis
226(3)
Consider the Reader's Level of Knowledge
229(1)
Use Transitions
229(1)
Revising Process Analysis Paragraphs
230(5)
Guidelines for Writing Process Analysis Essays
231(1)
Suggestions for Process Analysis Essays
231(4)
Classification and Division: Analyzing and Arranging Experience
235(13)
Thinking by Classification and Division
235(2)
A Student Essay Developed by Classification and Division
237(3)
Writing an Essay Developed by Classification and Division
240(3)
Create Categories
240(1)
Arrange and Label Categories
241(2)
Use Transitions
243(1)
Revising Classification and Division paragraphs
243(5)
Guidelines for Writing Classification and Division Essays
245(1)
Suggestions for Classification and Division Essays
245(3)
Definition: Creating Impressions
248(16)
Thinking by Definition
248(2)
A Student Essay Developed by Definition
250(3)
Writing an Essay Developed by Definition
253(6)
Determine the Appropriate Type of Definition
253(4)
Use Extended Definition with Other Development Patterns
257(2)
Use Transitions
259(1)
Revising Definition Paragraphs
259(5)
Guidelines for Writing Definition Essays
260(1)
Suggestions for Extended Definition Essays
261(3)
Reading and Writing an Argument
264(33)
Thinking by Argument
264(1)
Reading an Argument
265(12)
Identify the Elements of an Argument
265(1)
Distinguish Fact from Opinion
266(1)
Evaluate Information
267(1)
Examine Language
268(1)
Identify Patterns of Reasoning
269(1)
Inductive Reasoning
269(2)
Deductive Reasoning
271(3)
Identify Logical Fallacies
274(3)
Writing an Essay Developed byArgument
277(20)
A Student Essay Developed by Argument
278(4)
Establish an Assertion and Provide Evidence
282(2)
Arrange the Argument Logically
284(1)
Recognize the Reader
284(1)
Examine the Argument
285(1)
Structure Argument Paragraphs
286(3)
Revising Argument Paragraphs
289(2)
Guidelines for Writing Argument Essays
291(1)
Suggestions for Argument Essays
292(5)
PART IV The Research Essay 297(130)
Finding and Researching a Topic
299(27)
What is a Research Essay?
299(3)
Length
300(1)
Organization
300(1)
Including Your Own Ideas
301(1)
Getting Started: Find and Narrow a Suitable Topic
302(8)
Frame a Research Question
302(1)
Start with a Topic That Interests You
303(1)
Select a Topic That Allows for Discussion
304(1)
Use Library Resources to Find and Narrow a Topic
304(4)
Look for a Topic Online
308(2)
Gather Information on the Research Topic
310(5)
Consult Bibliographies
311(1)
Use Book, Magazine, and Journal Indexes
312(1)
Use Newspaper Indexes
313(2)
Prepare a Working Bibliography
315(1)
Take Notes on Your Research
316(10)
Take Notes Strategically
316(1)
Take Notes with a Purpose in Mind
316(2)
Use Effective Notetaking Methods
318(4)
Avoid Plagiarism
322(1)
Work with a Preliminary Thesis
322(2)
Research Exercises
324(2)
Researching on the Internet
326(24)
Accessing the Internet: Online is Onboard
326(2)
Using Internet Addresses
326(2)
Researching with URLs
328(1)
Overview of Internet Systems
328(16)
The World Wide Web: Worlds within a World
328(2)
Search Engines: Workhorses of the Web
330(4)
A Sample Search: Locating Internet Sources to Narrow a Topic
334(5)
E-Mail: Electronic Letters
339(3)
Listservs and Mailing Lists: Group E-Mail
342(1)
Usenet/Newsgroups: Posting Information
343(1)
Evaluating Internet Resources: Whom Can You Trust?
344(6)
The Range of Internet Content
345(2)
A Reliability Checklist for Internet Sources
347(1)
Research Activities
348(2)
Writing Your Research Essay: From Planning to Typing the Final Draft
350(29)
Planning Your Essay
350(3)
Use Your Research Notes
350(1)
Review Your Research Question
351(1)
Review Your Preliminary Thesis Statement
351(1)
Devise a Final (Working) Thesis Statement
352(1)
Develop an Outline
352(1)
Use Other Planning Strategies, as Needed
353(1)
Writing Your Essay
353(4)
Write an Effective Introduction
353(1)
Develop a Discussion of the Topic
354(2)
Write a Concluding Paragraph
356(1)
Revise, Edit, and Proofread
357(2)
Revise to Improve Global Qualities
357(1)
Edit for Clarity and Correctness
357(1)
Proofread to Make Minor Corrections
358(1)
Guidelines for Typing Your Research Essay
359(2)
A Student's Research Essay
361(18)
Research Exercises
378(1)
Documenting Sources in Your Research Essay
379(48)
MLA-Style Documentation
380(28)
Parenthetical Citation
380(6)
Content Notes
386(1)
Preparing the Works Cited Page
387(21)
Sample Works Cited Page
408(1)
APA-Style Documentation
408(19)
Abstracts and Headings
409(1)
Parenthetical Citation
409(6)
Preparing the References Page
415(9)
Sample References Page
424(1)
Research Exercises
424(3)
PART V Writing for Other Purposes 427(38)
Writing about Literature
429(14)
Read to Respond to the Work
429(1)
Take Notes as You Read
429(1)
List Your Ideas as You Read
430(1)
Formulate a Thesis Statement about the Work
430(1)
Write an Effective Introduction to Your Essay
431(1)
Develop Your Discussion of the Literary Work
432(1)
Write an Effective Conclusion to Your Essay
433(1)
Identify Your Sources
433(2)
Use Parenthetical Citation
434(1)
Follow Other Standard Practices for Writing about Literature
435(2)
Mention Authors' Names
435(1)
Write in the Present Tense
436(1)
Avoid Using Excessive Summary
436(1)
Create an Accurate Title
436(1)
A Sample Essay on a Literary Work
437(4)
Glossary of Literary Terms and Concepts
441(2)
Activities
442(1)
Writing for an Essay Exam
443(9)
Preparing for an Essay Exam
443(3)
Review Major Course Concepts
443(1)
Use Direction Words to Write Practice Questions
444(1)
Prepare a List or Outline
445(1)
Write a Practice Response
445(1)
Make a Spelling List
446(1)
Prepare Yourself for the Exam
446(1)
Writing the Essay Exam
446(3)
Read and Understand the Question
446(1)
Plan Your Time
447(1)
Plan Your Answer
447(1)
Write Your Response
447(2)
Revise and Proofread
449(1)
A Sample Essay Exam Response
449(3)
Activities
451(1)
Writing for Business: Letters, Resumes, Memos, Faxes, and E-Mail
452(13)
Writing a Business Letter
452(5)
Formats of Business Letters
452(2)
Elements of Business Letters
454(3)
Writing a Resume and Cover Letter
457(2)
Creating a Resume
457(2)
Writing a Cover Letter
459(1)
Writing a Memo
459(2)
Memo Form
461(1)
Writing a Fax and an E-Mail
461(4)
Sending a Fax
461(2)
Sending an E-Mail
463(1)
Activities
464(1)
PART VI Readings for Writers 465(138)
Finishing School
467(5)
Maya Angelou
I Want a Wife
472(3)
Judy Brady
Why Don't We Complain?
475(5)
William F. Buckley Jr.
Entropy
480(3)
K. C. Cole
Marginal Men
483(4)
Barbara Ehrenreich
about Men
487(3)
Gretel Ehrlich
The Ways We Lie
490(5)
Stephanie Ericsson
How Urban Myths Reveal Society's Fears
495(7)
Neal Gabler
The Revolt of the Black Bourgeoisie
502(4)
Leonce Gaiter
Why Men Marry
506(3)
George Gilder
Becoming Desensitized to Hate Words
509(3)
Ellen Goodman
Crack and the Box
512(5)
Pete Hamill
Why We Crave Horror Movies
517(3)
Stephen King
The Case for Torture
520(3)
Michael Levin
Doublespeak
523(5)
William Lutz
Gifts and Honor: An Exchange
528(6)
William Ian Miller
A Hanging
534(5)
George Orwell
Future Shlock
539(7)
Neil Postman
Gossip
546(3)
Francine Prose
Animal Rights, Human Wrongs
549(5)
Tom Regan
Proud to Be a Speciesist
554(5)
Stephen Rose
The War Room at Bellevue
559(5)
George Simpson
Black Men and Public Space
564(4)
Brent Staples
A Modest Proposal
568(5)
Jonathan Swift
Mother Tongue
573(7)
Amy Tan
Being a Man
580(3)
Paul Theroux
On Natural Death
583(3)
Lewis Thomas
The Damned Human Race
586(7)
Mark Twain
Once More to the Lake
593(6)
E. B. White
TV Addiction
599(4)
Marie Winn
PART VII Handbook 603(38)
Sentence Errors
605(1)
Sentence Fragments
605(3)
Run-On Sentences
608(2)
Subject/Verb Agreement
610(5)
Verb Tense
615(1)
Pronoun Case
616(5)
Pronoun/Antecedent Agreement
621(2)
Pronoun Reference
623(2)
Gender-Neutral Language
625(2)
Reminders for ESL Writers
627(14)
Punctuation 641(23)
Commas
641(8)
Semicolons
649(1)
Colons
650(2)
Dashes
652(1)
Apostrophes
653(2)
Quotation Marks
655(4)
Ellipses
659(1)
Parentheses
660(1)
Brackets
661(1)
Slashes
661(1)
End Punctuation Marks
662(2)
Mechanics 664(15)
Capitalization
664(2)
Underlining
666(2)
Numbers
668(1)
Abbreviations
668(2)
Hyphens
670(1)
Spelling
671(8)
Author Biographies 679(16)
Indexes
Rhetorical Index
681(2)
Thematic Index
683(2)
General Index
685(10)
Credits 695


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