9780195396652

On the Frontlines Gender, War, and the Post-Conflict Process

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780195396652

  • ISBN10:

    0195396650

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-11-16
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

Gender oppression has been a feature of war and conflict throughout human history, yet until fairly recently, little attention was devoted to addressing the consequences of violence and discrimination experienced by women in post-conflict states. Thankfully, that is changing. Today, in a variety of post-conflict settings--the former Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, Colombia, Northern Ireland --international advocates for women's rights have focused bringing issues of sexual violence, discrimination and exclusion into peace-making processes. InOn the Frontlines,Fionnuala Ní Aoláin, Dina Francesca Haynes, and Naomi Cahn consider such policies in a range of cases and assess the extent to which they have had success in improving women's lives. They argue that there has been too little success, and that this is in part a product of a focus on schematic policies like straightforward political incorporation rather than a broader and deeper attempt to alter the cultures and societies that are at the root of much of the violence and exclusions experienced by women. They contend that this broader approach would not just benefit women, however. Gender mainstreaming and increased gender equality has a direct correlation with state stability and functions to preclude further conflict. If we are to have any success in stabilizing failing states, gender needs to move to fore of our efforts. With this in mind, they examine the efforts of transnational organizations, states and civil society in multiple jurisdictions to place gender at the forefront of all post-conflict processes. They offer concrete analysis and practical solutions to ensuring gender centrality in all aspects of peace making and peace enforcement.

Author Biography

Fionnuala N Aolin is Dorsey Whitney Chair in Law at the University of Minnesota Law, and School Professor Associate Director of the Transitional Justice Institute at the University of Ulster. Dina Francesca Haynes is Professor of Law and Director of the Human Rights and Immigration Law Project at New England Law, Boston. Naomi Cahn is John Theodore Fey Research Professor of Law at George Washington University Law School.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsp. xi
Introductionp. 3
Key Threads and Themesp. 7
Gender Centralityp. 10
Relevant International Normsp. 15
Conflict and Its Dynamics
Before, During, and After Conflict: The Connections for Womenp. 27
Mapping the Status of Women Prior to Conflictp. 28
Some Relevant Measuresp. 31
Gender, Law, and Social Capitalp. 34
A Practical Assessment of the Before and Afterp. 36
Gender and the Forms and Experiences of Conflictp. 40
Women as Political and Military Actorsp. 42
Violence, Women, and Victimizationp. 45
Masculinities and Conflictp. 49
Conclusionp. 55
Toward Peace
The Significance of Security: Realizing Peacep. 59
Is Gender Central to Security?p. 61
Security Reform and Transitionp. 62
Critique of Mainstream Approaches to the Concept of Post-Conflict Securityp. 66
Is Security the Same for Men and Women?p. 67
Security Reform Meets Pervasive Violence and Discriminationp. 70
A New Paradigm of Gendered Securityp. 74
Conclusionp. 79
Engendering International Interventionp. 81
International Interventionsp. 83
Types and Phases of Post-Conflict Intervention and Their Potential Gender Impactp. 85
The Actorsp. 89
Toward Gender-Positive Interventionp. 95
Capturing and Retaining Gender Equity Achieved During Warp. 101
Conclusionp. 102
Peacekeepingp. 105
Parameters and Status of Peacekeeping Missionsp. 106
Identifying the Peacekeepersp. 108
Masculinities of Peacekeepingp. 109
Positive and Negative Lessons Learned from Peacekeeping Missionsp. 112
Positives and Negatives of Employment and Economic Stimulusp. 113
Positives and Negatives Associated with Gender-Cultural Interactionsp. 114
Sexual Violence and Peacekeeping Missionsp. 115
What Would Gender-Positive Peacekeeping Encompass?p. 117
Legal Accountabilityp. 118
Training for Peacekeepersp. 122
Codes of Conductp. 125
Added Gender Roles in Peacekeepingp. 127
Conclusionp. 129
Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) Programsp. 131
DDR Programs: What Happens?p. 132
The Power of Gender and DDRp. 133
Deconstructing DDR Programsp. 136
Reconstructing DDR Programsp. 138
Special Accommodations for Women and Girlsp. 142
Attention to Masculinitiesp. 144
The Ways Forwardp. 148
Conclusionp. 150
International and Local Criminal Accountability for Gendered Violencep. 152
Sex-Based Violence and Accountability in International Lawp. 153
The Legal Journey to Codify Gendered Crimes in Armed Conflictsp. 156
Evidentiary Rules and Sexual Violencep. 164
Other Accountability Mechanisms-Restorative Justice and Other Practicesp. 168
Conclusionp. 172
Remediesp. 175
Truth Processesp. 176
The Gendered Dimensions of Truth Recoveryp. 179
How Can Truth Recovery Mechanisms Centralize Gender?p. 185
Reparationsp. 186
Lustration, Vetting, and Genderp. 192
Conclusionp. 195
Law Reform, Constitutional Design, and Genderp. 197
Gender and the Rule of Law in Post-Conflict Societiesp. 199
Constitutional Transformation and Post-Conflict Processesp. 204
Process: Peace Agreements as Constitutional Documentsp. 205
Peace Agreements, Constitutions, and Customary Lawp. 210
Gendered Dimensions of Constitution Drafting in Implementation Agreementsp. 212
Constitutional Gender Centrality-Substance and Exportp. 215
Reproductive Rightsp. 219
Conclusionp. 222
Reconstruction and Development
Gender and Governancep. 229
Post-Conflict Governancep. 231
The Gendered Components of Post-Conflict Governance Programsp. 232
Institution Buildingp. 241
Governance Conflated with Economic Reconstruction and Democratizationp. 244
Gendering Governancep. 249
Conclusionp. 253
Development Infrastructure: Economics, Health, and Educationp. 254
The Differing Directions of Post-Conflict and Development Fieldsp. 256
Gender Centrality in Developmentp. 259
Social Services Justice as the Integration of Post-Conflict Processes and Developmentp. 262
Long-Term Developmentp. 267
Conclusionp. 271
Notesp. 273
Indexp. 347
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