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Functional Assessment : Strategies to Prevent and Remediate Challenging Behavior in School Settings,9780130156754

Functional Assessment : Strategies to Prevent and Remediate Challenging Behavior in School Settings

by ;
ISBN13:

9780130156754

ISBN10:
0130156752
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $47.70
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Summary

This book is unique in its wide application to a number of settings. The comprehensive, practical treatment of functional assessment addresses preschool through high school levels, regular education and self-contained classroom settings, and special and regular student populations. Its strong use of vignettes and open-ended case studies promotes problem solving among readers as they identify the function of behavior, choose intervention options, and pinpoint typical functional assessment practices. Focuses on three functions of behavior-positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and sensory stimulation/sensory regulation. Covers specific interventions by function, with coverage of intervention techniques. Encourages positive, team-based approaches to the prevention and remediation of challenging behavior. Provides practical solutions, instructing readers on how to conduct functional assessment in the classroom as well as other school settings and how to choose and apply interventions based on functional assessment.

Table of Contents

PART ONE Introduction to Challenging Behavior and the Functional Assessment and Intervention Model 1(40)
The Importance of Identifying and Addressing Challenging Behavior
3(10)
Summary
12(1)
Identifying Why Challenging Behavior Occurs
13(12)
The Bad Child
14(2)
The Disability
16(2)
The Bad Family or Poor Parenting and Discipline
18(2)
The Bad Home Situation
20(2)
Previous Trauma and Experience
22(2)
Summary
24(1)
Assumptions and Goals of Functional Assessment
25(16)
Challenging Behavior and Appropriate Behavior Are Supported by the Current Environment
25(2)
Behavior Serves a Function
27(7)
Positive Reinforcement Function
27(1)
Negative Reinforcement Function
28(3)
Sensory Regulation/Sensory Stimulation Function
31(3)
Challenging Behavior Can Be Changed Using Positive Intervention Strategies That Address the Function of Behavior
34(2)
Functional Assessment Should Be a Team-Based Process
36(1)
The Goals of Functional Assessment
37(1)
Summary
38(3)
PART TWO Conducting a Functional Assessment 41(42)
Assessing the Current Environment
43(22)
Collecting Information Through Referral and Interview
43(7)
Collecting Information Through Direct Observation
50(12)
Antecedents
52(1)
Consequences
53(2)
Setting Events
55(7)
Summary
62(3)
Identifying the Function of Challenging and Appropriate Behaviors
65(18)
Obtains Something Positive (Positive Reinforcement)
68(2)
Avoids/Escapes Something Aversive (Negative Reinforcement)
70(1)
Sensory Regulation/Sensory Stimulation
71(2)
Identifying and Verifying the Function of Behavior
73(7)
Summary
80(3)
PART THREE Selecting and Implementing Function-Based Interventions 83(130)
Selecting Setting Event, Antecedent, and Consequence Strategies and Appropriate Replacement Behaviors
85(16)
Setting Event and Antecedent-Based Intervention Strategies
86(1)
Consequence-Based Intervention Strategies
87(3)
Selecting Intervention Strategies and Appropriate Replacement Behaviors
90(10)
Intervention Must Address the Function of Challenging Behavior
91(1)
Employ Natural Stimuli
92(1)
Intervention Strategies Must Be Feasible and Acceptable
93(1)
Select Normative Intervention Strategies
94(1)
Select Strategies That Can be Applied Class-Wide
95(1)
Select Educational or Functional Replacement Behaviors
96(1)
Select Normative Behaviors
97(1)
Select Acceptable Replacement Behaviors
97(1)
Select Efficient Replacement Behaviors
98(1)
Select Appropriate Behaviors That Are Incompatible with Challenging Behavior
99(1)
Summary
100(1)
Intervention Strategies Related to the Positive Reinforcement Function
101(20)
Positive Reinforcement Intervention Strategies
102(11)
Use the Reinforcer That the Student Currently Obtains for Challenging Behavior to Reinforce Appropriate Replacement Behavior
102(2)
Stop Providing, or Prevent the Delivery of the Reinforcer That the Student Currently Obtains for Challenging Behavior
104(1)
Use Differential Reinforcement to Increase Appropriate Behaviors
105(4)
Provide More Reinforcement for Appropriate Behavior Than the Student Currently Receives for Challenging Behavior
109(1)
Provide Positive Reinforcement to Peers Who Engage in the Appropriate Replacement Behavior
110(1)
Identify Appropriate Behavior: Tell the Student What to Do versus What Not To Do
110(1)
Redirect the Student to the Appropriate Replacement Behavior
111(1)
Teach Students Appropriate Methods to Request Reinforcement
111(1)
Provide Presignals and Safety Signals
112(1)
Tips for Using Positive Reinforcement
113(6)
Provide Reinforcers Immediately and Consistently Following Behavior
113(1)
Provide Reinforcers Contingent on Appropriate Behavior
114(1)
Vary Reinforcers
115(1)
Individualize Reinforcers
115(1)
Employ Natural Reinforcers
116(1)
Employ Acceptable Reinforcers
117(1)
Do Not Interrupt Appropriate Behavior When Delivering Reinforcers
117(1)
Provide Effective Social Reinforcement
118(1)
Summary
119(2)
Intervention Strategies Related to the Negative Reinforcement Function
121(30)
Teach Appropriate Behaviors That Result in Escape or Avoidance
123(3)
Teach Students Appropriate Methods to Indicate That They Do Not Want to Begin or Participate in an Activity, Use Materials, or Interact With Peers
123(1)
Teach Students Appropriate Methods to Request Alternative Activities, Tasks, Materials, People, or Locations
123(2)
Teach Students Appropriate Methods to Request Breaks from Aversive Tasks or Activities
125(1)
Teach Students Appropriate Methods to Request an End to Activities, Interactions, or Tasks
126(1)
Strategies to Change the Function
126(1)
Category One: Change the Task, Activity, Materials, and Peers
127(7)
Reduce the Difficulty: Make the Instructions Easier to Understand, Make the Task or Activity Easier to Do, and Make the Materials Easier to Use
127(2)
Reduce or Change Task Demands or Expectations or Shorten the Duration of the Activity or Task
129(1)
Provide Choice of Tasks, Activities, Materials, and Peers
130(2)
Make the Task, Activity, or Materials More Interesting
132(2)
Category Two: Arrange for Incremental and Continued Success in Performing the Task or Using the Materials
134(7)
Provide Assistance During the Task or Activity
135(1)
Provide Positive Corrective Feedback During the Task or Activity
136(1)
Model Task-Related Behavior and Appropriate Behavior
136(1)
Provide Prompts and Cues Prior to the Task or Activity
137(1)
Reinforce Partial Task Completion
137(1)
Reinforce Participation and Successive Approximations Toward the Behavioral Objective
138(1)
Teach the Student Appropriate Ways to Request Assistance
139(1)
Use Small Cooperative Groups or Peer Tutoring
140(1)
Category Three: Intersperse Activities, Tasks, and Materials
141(4)
Alternate Tasks, Activities, and Materials
141(1)
Use Behavioral Momentum
142(1)
Use Preferred Activities or Tasks to Reinforce Participation in Nonpreferred Activities and Tasks
143(1)
Provide Breaks During the Activity or Task
144(1)
Category Four: Other General Strategies
145(4)
Provide Presignals and Safety Signals to Increase Self-Control
145(1)
Ignore Challenging Behavior
146(1)
End the Task or Activity on a Positive, Successful Note
147(2)
Summary
149(2)
General Intervention Strategies Related to the Sensory Regulation/Sensory Stimulation Function
151(16)
General Sensory Regulation/Sensory Stimulation Strategies
153(13)
Alternate Active, Highly Stimulating Tasks with Passive, Less Stimulating Tasks
153(2)
Provide Multisensory Stimuli and Individualize Types of Sensory Stimuli
155(1)
Redirect the Student to an Appropriate Activity That Provides Required Levels or Forms of Stimulation
156(1)
Provide Presignals and Safety Signals
157(1)
Teach the Student to Request a Change in Stimulation or a Break From Stimulation
158(2)
Teach Appropriate Behaviors That Result in Desired Levels and Types of Sensory Stimulation
160(3)
Teach Self-Control and Tolerance
163(2)
Increase Your Tolerance for the Types of Stimulation That Students Require
165(1)
Summary
166(1)
Specific Intervention Strategies Related to the Increase and Decrease Sensory Regulation/Sensory Stimulation Functions
167(24)
Strategies That Match the Increase Sensory Regulation/Sensory Stimulation Function
167(13)
Provide Stimulating Activities and Materials During and Between Activities and Tasks
169(3)
Develop Effective and Efficient Transitions
172(1)
Reduce Waiting
173(2)
Add Movement to Activities and Movement Breaks
175(1)
Increase the Pace of Instruction and Interaction
176(1)
Provide Variety in Instruction, Materials, and Student Response
177(1)
Use Stimulating Social Reinforcement
178(1)
Conduct Calming Activities at the End of Stimulating Activities
179(1)
Strategies That Match the Decrease Sensory Regulation/Sensory Stimulation Function
180(8)
Develop Areas That Provide Low Levels of Stimulation
181(1)
Decrease the Level of Sensory Input and Stimulation
182(1)
Structure the Environment and Provide Predictable Schedules
183(3)
Reduce the Pace of Instruction and Interaction
186(1)
Use Reinforcement That Provides Low Levels of Stimulation
186(1)
Conduct Arousal or Jump-Start Activities at the Beginning of Stimulating Activities
187(1)
Summary
188(3)
Prevention Strategies and Strategies to Promote Generalization and Maintenance of Behavior
191(22)
Generalization and Maintenance
191(2)
Strategies to Promote Generalization and Maintenance
193(7)
Select and Teach Functional Target Behaviors
193(1)
Employ Common and Natural Stimuli and Consequences
194(2)
Train Loosely
196(1)
Provide Sufficient Exemplars
196(1)
Use Indiscriminable and Intermittent Contingencies
197(1)
Teach Mediation Strategies
198(1)
Specify a Fluency Criterion
198(1)
Employ Sequential Modification
199(1)
Implementing Strategies to Promote Generalization and Maintenance
200(1)
Prevention Strategies
201(10)
Summary
211(2)
PART FOUR Functional Assessment Within School Settings 213(58)
Guidelines for Program Implementation and Consultation
215(26)
Guidelines for Conducting Functional Assessment and Implementing Interventions
216(9)
Learn How to Respond During a Crisis
216(2)
Involve the Family
218(2)
Be Patient
220(1)
Expect Increases in Challenging Behavior and Periodic Regressions of Behavior
221(1)
View Intervention as a Dynamic and Evolving Process
222(2)
Apply Intervention and Prevention Strategies Class-Wide
224(1)
Frequent Objections to Intervention or Reasons for Resistance
225(6)
Students Should Be Self-Motivated
227(1)
I Don't Have Time to Do This
228(1)
It is Not My Job
228(1)
It is Not Fair to Treat Students Differently
229(1)
It is Not My Fault
230(1)
It Won't Work or I Tried That Already and it Didn't Work
230(1)
Tips for Providing Functional Assessment Consultation
231(8)
Begin with One Teacher Who is Willing to Participate and Spread the Word about Success
231(1)
Reduce Jargon
232(2)
Emphasize That the Functional Assessment/Intervention Model is One of Many Tools
234(1)
Do Not Blame or Criticize
235(1)
Acknowledge the Expertise and Skills of Educators with Whom You are Consulting
235(1)
Demonstrate Understanding of the Variables That Affect Staff
235(1)
Anticipate and Be Prepared to Respond to Resistance Issues
236(1)
Brainstorm with Staff versus Telling Them What to Do
236(1)
Directly Administer and Monitor Intervention Strategies
237(1)
Teach Others How to Do Functional Assessment
238(1)
Summary
239(2)
Problem-Solving Case Studies
241(30)
Case Studies Set One: Is This Challenging Behavior? Should This Behavior Be Changed?
241(5)
Cheeri
241(2)
Leonard
243(3)
Case Studies Set Two: What is the Function of the Student's Challenging Behavior?
246(9)
Ani
246(2)
Miles
248(3)
Ruben
251(2)
ShariLynn
253(2)
Case Studies Set Three: Developing Interventions
255(14)
Roland
255(4)
Matt
259(3)
Carter
262(3)
Casi
265(4)
Case Study Four: Reducing Resistance
269(2)
References 271(18)
Name Index 289(8)
Subject Index 297

Excerpts

We have conducted workshops, university courses, and in-service training in functional assessment for more than 15 years. We also have extensive experience conducting functional assessment in a variety of settings, across a variety of ages of students, and with students with and without disabilities. We wrote this book because we needed a practical and easily understood model of functional assessment that dealt specifically with school-aged populations and settings. When we conducted workshops and taught courses in functional assessment, students and participants often asked if there was something published that they could give to other educators, parents, or administrators or that they could read as they tried to apply functional assessment. This book is a result of their requests. This book turns theory and research into practical applications in school settings and situations. We present a comprehensive and positive approach to the prevention and remediation of challenging behavior using functional assessment. The book is written for special and regular educators and consultants who work in school settings. This book is divided into four sections that take the reader through the process of conducting functional assessment and implementing interventions based on the function of behavior: Part One (Chapters I to 3) provides an introduction to challenging behavior and functional assessment. It presents the rationale for addressing challenging behavior, common misconceptions about the causes of challenging behavior, and it provides a rationale for using functional assessment and describes the assumptions and goals of functional assessment. Part Two (Chapters 4 and 5) describes the process of conducting functional assessment in school settings and identifying the function of behavior. Part Three (Chapters 6 to 11) presents suggestions and tips for selecting and implementing function-based interventions. It also presents specific intervention strategies by behavior function: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and sensory regulation/sensory stimulation increase and decrease. Finally, it provides suggestions for implementing strategies to prevent the development of challenging behavior. Part Four (Chapters 12 and 13) provides guidelines for program implementation and consultation. It discusses common problems encountered in conducting functional assessment and in providing consultation to educators. It then provides strategies to prevent and remediate those problems. Part Four also includes problem-solving case studies. These case studies allow the reader to practice functional assessment and to develop intervention plans to address challenging behavior. This book contains numerous examples of functional assessment as it is employed in school settings. Examples cover all ages of students (preschool through high school), both regular and self-contained special education settings as well as other school and home settings, a variety of challenging behaviors, and students with and without disabilities. The examples also include a variety of team members who conduct the assessment and implement intervention strategies.


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