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Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry (with CD-ROM and InfoTrac),9780030355233

Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry (with CD-ROM and InfoTrac)

by ; ; ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780030355233

ISBN10:
0030355230
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/7/2003
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $382.32

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Summary

FUNDAMENTALS OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, EIGHTH EDITION is known for its readability combined with a systematic, rigorous approach that characterizes this classic text. Extensive coverage of the principles and practices of quantitative chemistry ensures suitability for chemistry majors. These award-winning authors include applications throughout industry, medicine, and all the sciences. The text's new design and wealth of new photographs by renowned chemistry photographer Charlie Winters serve to reinforce student learning through dynamic visuals. Reflecting the increased emphasis of spreadsheets as a tool in analytical chemistry, this new edition adds an additional chapter, new problems and a new supplement, EXCEL? APPLICATIONS FOR ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, that integrate this important aspect of the study of analytical chemistry into its already rich pedagogy. In addition, the INTERACTIVE ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY CD-ROM, packaged FREE with every new text, enhances conceptual understanding through hands-on integrated multimedia interactivity.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 The Nature of Analytical Chemistry 2(15)
1A The Role of Analytical Chemistry
3(1)
1B Quantitative Analytical Methods
4(1)
1C A Typical Quantitative Analysis
5(5)
1D An Integral Role for Chemical Analysis: Feedback Control Systems
10(2)
Feature 1-1 Deer Kill: A Case Study Illustrating the Use of Analytical Chemistry to Solve a Problem in Toxicology
12(5)
PART I Tools of Analytical Chemistry 17(208)
A Conversation with Richard N. Zare
18(208)
Chapter 2 Chemicals, Apparatus, and Unit Operations of Analytical Chemistry
20(34)
2A Selecting and Handling Reagents and Other Chemicals
21(1)
2B Cleaning and Marking of Laboratory Ware
22(1)
2C Evaporating Liquids
23(1)
2D Measuring Mass
23(7)
2E Equipment and Manipulations Associated with Weighing
30(3)
2F Filtration and Ignition of Solids
33(6)
2G Measuring Volume
39(9)
2H Calibrating Volumetric Glassware
48(3)
2I The Laboratory Notebook
51(1)
2J Safety in the Laboratory
52(2)
Chapter 3 Using Spreadsheets in Analytical Chemistry
54(17)
3A Keeping Records and Making Calculations: Spreadsheet Exercise 1
55(5)
3B Calculating Molar Masses Using Excel: Spreadsheet Exercise 2
60(11)
Chapter 4 Calculations Used in Analytical Chemistry
71(19)
4A Some Important Units of Measurement
71(2)
Feature 4-1 Atomic Mass Units and the Mole
73(3)
4B Solutions and Their Concentrations
76(7)
4C Chemical Stoichiometry
83(7)
Chapter 5 Errors in Chemical Analyses
90(15)
5A Some Important Terms
92(3)
5B Systematic Errors
95(10)
Chapter 6 Random Errors in Chemical Analysis
105(37)
6A The Nature of Random Errors
105(4)
Feature 6-1 Flipping Coins: A Student Activity to Illustrate a Normal Distribution
109(1)
6B Statistical Treatment of Random Error
110(3)
Feature 6-2 Calculating the Areas under the Gaussian Curve
113(3)
Feature 6-3 The Significance of the Number of Degrees of Freedom
116(8)
Feature 6-4 Equation for Calculating the Pooled Standard Deviation
124(3)
6C Standard Deviation of Calculated Results
127(6)
6D Reporting Computed Data
133(9)
Chapter 7 Statistical Data Treatment and Evaluation
142(33)
7A Confidence Intervals
143(5)
Feature 7-1 Breath Alcohol Analyzers
148(1)
7B Statistical Aids to Hypothesis Testing
149(11)
7C Analysis of Variance
160(7)
7D Detection of Gross Errors
167(8)
Chapter 8 Sampling, Standardization, and Calibration
175(53)
8A Analytical Samples and Methods
175(3)
8B Sampling and Sample Handling
178(13)
Feature 8-1 Lab-on-a-Chip
191(1)
8C Standardization and Calibration
192(1)
Feature 8-2 A Comparison Method for Aflatoxins
192(16)
Feature 8-3 Multivariate Calibration
208(6)
8D Figures of Merit for Analytical Methods
214(11)
PART II Chemical Equilibria 225(86)
A Conversation with Sylvia Daunert
226(86)
Chapter 9 Aqueous Solutions and Chemical Equilibria
228(39)
9A The Chemical Compositions of Aqueous Solutions
228(5)
9B Chemical Equilibrium
233(3)
Feature 9-1 Stepwise and Overall Formation Constants for Complex Ions
236(1)
Feature 9-2 Why [H20] Does Not Appear in Equilibrium Constant Expressions for Aqueous Solutions
237(7)
Feature 9-3 Relative Strengths of Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs
244(4)
Feature 9-4 The Method of Successive Approximations
248(3)
9C Buffer Solutions
251(1)
Feature 9-5 The Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
252(7)
Feature 9-6 Acid Rain and the Buffer Capacity of Lakes
259(8)
Chapter 10 Effect of Electrolytes on Chemical Equilibria
267(14)
10A The Effect of Electrolytes on Chemical Equilibria
267(4)
10B Activity Coefficients
271(3)
Feature 10-1 Mean Activity Coefficients
274(7)
Chapter 11 Solving Equilibrium Calculations for Complex Systems
281(33)
11A Solving Multiple-Equilibrium Problems by a Systematic Method
282(5)
11B Calculating Solubilities by the Systematic Method
287(7)
Feature 11-1 Algebraic Expressions Needed to Calculate the Solubility of CaC204 in Water
294(6)
11C Separation of Ions by Control of the Concentration of the Precipitating Agent
300(4)
Feature 11-2 Immunoassay: Equilibria in the Specific Determination of Drugs
304(7)
PART III Classical Methods of Analysis 311(176)
A Conversation with Larry R. Faulkner
312(176)
Chapter 12 Gravimetric Methods of Analysis
314(23)
12A Precipitation Gravimetry
315(7)
Feature 12-1 Specific Surface Area of Colloids
322(4)
12B Calculation of Results from Gravimetric Data
326(3)
12C Applications of Gravimetric Methods
329(8)
Chapter 13 Titrimetric Methods; Precipitation Titrimetry
337(31)
13A Some Terms Used in Volumeric Titrimetry
338(2)
13B Standard Solutions
340(1)
13C Volumetric Calculations
341(5)
Feature 13-1 Another Approach to Example 13-6(a)
346(1)
Feature 13-2 Rounding the Answer to Example 13-7
347(2)
13D Gravimetric Titrimetry
349(1)
13E Titration Curves in Titrimetric Methods
350(3)
13F Precipitation Titrimetry
353(8)
Feature 13-3 Calculating the Concentration of Indicator Solutions
361(7)
Chapter 14 Principles of Neutralization Titrations
368(27)
14A Solutions and Indicators for Acid/Base Titrations
368(4)
14B Titration of Strong Acids and Strong Bases
372(3)
Feature 14-1 Using the Charge-Balance Equation to Construct Titration Curves
375(3)
Feature 14-2 How Many Significant Figures Should We Retain in Titration Curve Calculations?
378(1)
14C Titration Curves for Weak Acids
378(3)
Feature 14-3 Determining Dissociation Constants for Weak Acids and Bases
381(2)
14D Titration Curves for Weak Bases
383(2)
Feature 14-4 Determining the pK Values for Amino Acids
385(2)
14E The Composition of Solutions During Acid/Base Titrations
387(1)
Feature 14-5 Locating Titration End Points from pH Measurements
388(7)
Chapter 15 Titration Curves for Complex Acid/Base Systems
395(33)
15A Mixtures of Strong and Weak Acids or Strong and Weak Bases
398(1)
15B Polyfunctional Acids and Bases
399(2)
15C Buffer Solutions Involving Polyprotic Acids
401(2)
15D Calculation of the pH of Solutions of NaHA
403(4)
15E Titration Curves for Polyfunctional Acids
407(8)
Feature 15-1 The Dissociation of Sulfuric Acid
415(1)
15F Titration Curves for Polyfunctional Bases
416(1)
15G Titration Curves for Amphiprotic Species
417(1)
Feature 15-2 Acid/Base Behavior of Amino Acids
418(1)
15H The Composition of Solutions of a Polyprotic Acid as a Function of pH
419(1)
Feature 15-3 A General Expression for Alpha Values
420(2)
Feature 15-4 Logarithmic Concentration Diagrams
422(6)
Chapter 16 Applications of Neutralization Titrations
428(21)
16A Reagents for Neutralization Titrations
429(6)
16B Typical Applications of Neutralization Titrations
435(1)
Feature 16-1 Determining Total Serum Protein
435(1)
Feature 16-2 Other Methods for Determining Organic Nitrogen
436(6)
Feature 16-3 Equivalent Weights of Acids and Bases
442(7)
Chapter 17 Complexation Reactions and Titrations
449(41)
17A The Formation of Complexes
449(3)
Feature 17-1 Calculation of Alpha Values for Metal Complexes
452(3)
17B Titrations with Inorganic Complexing Agents
455(1)
Feature 17-2 Determination of Hydrogen Cyanide in Acrylonitrile Plant Streams
456(1)
17C Organic Complexing Agents
457(1)
17D Aminocarboxylic Acid Titrations
458(1)
Feature 17-3 Species Present in a Solution of EDTA
459(3)
Feature 17-4 EDTA as a Preservative
462(11)
Feature 17-5 EDTA Titration Curves When a Complexing Agent Is Present
473(7)
Feature 17-6 How Masking and Demasking Agents Can Be Used to Enhance the Selectivity of EDTA Titrations
480(2)
Feature 17-7 Test Kits for Water Hardness
482(5)
PART IV Electrochemical Methods 487(220)
A Conversation with Allen J. Bard
488(220)
Chapter 18 Introduction to Electrochemistry
490(33)
18A Characterizing Oxidation/Reduction Reactions
490(2)
Feature 18-1 Balancing Redox Equations
492(2)
18B Electrochemical Cells
494(4)
Feature 18-2 The Daniell Gravity Cell
498(1)
18C Electrode Potentials
499(5)
Feature 18-3 Why We Cannot Measure Absolute Electrode Potentials
504(9)
Feature 18-4 Sign Conventions in the Older Literature
513(2)
Feature 18-5 Why Are There Two Electrode Potentials for Br2 in Table 18-1?
515(8)
Chapter 19 Applications of Standard Electrode Potentials
523(37)
19A Calculating Potentials of Electrochemical Cells
523(7)
19B Determining Standard Potentials Experimentally
530(2)
19C Calculating Redox Equilibrium Constants
532(1)
Feature 19-1 Biological Redox Systems
532(5)
Feature 19-2 A General Expression for Calculating Equilibrium Constants from Standard Potentials
537(1)
19D Constructing Redox Titration Curves
538(9)
Feature 19-3 The Inverse Master Equation Approach for Redox Titration Curves
547(5)
Feature 19-4 Reaction Rates and Electrode Potentials
552(1)
19E Oxidation/Reduction Indicators
552(3)
19F Potentiometric End Points
555(5)
Chapter 20 Applications of Oxidation/Reduction Titrations
560(28)
20A Auxiliary Oxidizing and Reducing Reagents
560(2)
20B Applying Standard Reducing Agents
562(4)
20C Applying Standard Oxidizing Agents
566(2)
Feature 20-1 Determination of Chromium Species in Water Samples
568(5)
Feature 20-2 Antioxidants
573(15)
Chapter 21 Potentiometry
588(45)
21A General Principles
589(1)
21B Reference Electrodes
590(2)
21C Liquid-Junction Potentials
592(1)
21D Indicator Electrodes
593(13)
Feature 21-1 An Easily Constructed Liquid-Membrane Ion-Selective Electrode
606(2)
Feature 21-2 The Structure and Performance of Ion Selective Field Effect Transistors
608(4)
Feature 21-3 Point-of-Care Testing: Blood Gases and Blood Electrolytes with Portable Instrumentation
612(2)
21E Instruments for Measuring Cell Potential
614(1)
Feature 21-4 The Loading Error in Potential Measurements
614(1)
Feature 21-5 Operational Amplifier Voltage Measurements
615(1)
21F Direct Potentiometry
616(7)
21G Potentiometric Titrations
623(4)
21H Potentiometric Determination of Equilibrium Constants
627(6)
Chapter 22 Bulk Electrolysis: Electrogravimetry and Coulometry
633(32)
22A The Effect of Current on Cell Potential
634(7)
Feature 22-1 Overvoltage and the Lead/Acid Battery
641(1)
22B The Selectivity of Electrolytic Methods
641(2)
22C Electrogravimetric Methods
643(6)
22D Coulometric Methods
649(9)
Feature 22-2 Coulometric Titration of Chloride in Biological Fluids
658(7)
Chapter 23 Voltammetry
665(45)
23A Excitation Signals
666(1)
23B Linear Sweep Voltammetry
667(22)
23C Pulse Polarographic and Voltammetric Methods
689
Feature 23-1 Voltammetric Instruments Based on Operational Amplifiers
668(26)
23D Cyclic Voltammetry
694(3)
Feature 23-2 Modified Electrodes
697(2)
23E Stripping Methods
699(4)
23F Voltammetry with Microelectrodes
703(4)
PART V Spectrocherical Methods 707(168)
A Conversation with Gary M. Hieftje
708(168)
Chapter 24 Introduction to Spectrochemical Methods
710(34)
24A Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation
711(3)
24B Interaction of Radiation and Matter
714(3)
Feature 24-1 Spectroscopy and the Discovery of Elements
717(1)
24C Radiation Absorption
718(2)
Feature 24-2 Deriving Beer's Law
720(5)
Feature 24-3 Why Is a Red Solution Red?
725(9)
24D Emission of Electromagnetic Radiation
734(10)
Chapter 25 Instruments for Optical Spectrometry
744(40)
25A Instrument Components
744(4)
Feature 25-1 Laser Sources: The Light Fantastic
748(6)
Feature 25-2 Derivation of Equation 25-1
754(2)
Feature 25-3 Ruling Gratings
756(3)
Feature 25-4 Deriving Equation 25-2
759(2)
Feature 25-5 Signals, Noise, and the Signal-to-Noise Ratio
761(8)
Feature 25-6 Measuring Photocurrents with Operational Amplifiers
769(2)
25B Ultraviolet-Visible Photometers and Spectrophotometers
771(5)
25C Infrared Spectrophotometers
Feature 25-7 How Does a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer Work?
776(8)
Chapter 26 Molecular Absorption Spectrometry
784(41)
26A Ultraviolet and Visible Molecular Absorption Spectroscopy
784(23)
26B Automated Photometric and Spectrophotometric Methods
807(4)
26C Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy
811(7)
Feature 26-1 Using The Fourier Transform To Produce Infrared Spectra
818(7)
Chapter 27 Molecular Fluorescence Spectroscopy
825(14)
27A Theory of Molecular Fluorescence
825(4)
27B Effect of Concentration On Fluorescence Intensity
829(1)
27C Fluorescence Instruments
830(1)
27D Applications of Fluorescence Methods
831(1)
Feature 27-1 Use of Fluorescence Probes in Neurobiology: Probing the Enlightened Mind
832(2)
27E Molecular Phosphorescence Spectroscopy
834(1)
27F Chemiluminescence Methods
835(4)
Chapter 28 Atomic Spectroscopy
839(39)
28A Origins of Atomic Spectra
840(3)
28B Production of Atoms and Ions
843(11)
28C Atomic Emission Spectrometry
854(4)
28D Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
858(7)
Feature 28-1 Determining Mercury by Cold-Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
865(3)
28E Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry
868(1)
28F Atomic Mass Spectrometry
868(7)
PART VI Kinetics and Separations 875(146)
A Conversation with Isiah M. Warner
876(146)
Chapter 29 Kinetic Methods of Analysis
878(28)
29A Rates of Chemical Reactions
879(7)
Feature 29-1 Enzymes
886(6)
29B Determining Reaction Rates
892(1)
Feature 29-2 Fast Reactions and Stopped-Flow Mixing
892(8)
29C Applications of Kinetic Methods
900(1)
Feature 29-3 The Enzymatic Determination of Urea
901(5)
Chapter 30 Introduction to Analytical Separations
906(41)
30A Separation by Precipitation
907(4)
30B Separation of Species by Distillation
911(1)
30C Separation by Extraction
911(2)
Feature 30-1 Derivation of Equation 30-3
913(3)
30D Separating Ions by Ion Exchange
916(3)
Feature 30-2 Home Water Softeners
919(1)
30E Chromatographic Separations
920(10)
Feature 30-3 What is the Source of the Terms Plate and Plate Height?
930(17)
Chapter 31 Gas Chromatography
947(26)
31A Instruments for Gas-Liquid Chromatography
948(10)
31B Gas Chromatography Columns and Stationary Phases
958(5)
31C Applications of Gas-Liquid Chromatography
963(2)
Feature 31-1 Use of GCIMS to identify a Drug Metabolite in Blood
965(4)
Feature 31-2 High-Speed Gas Chromatography
969(1)
31D Gas-Solid Chromatography
970(3)
Chapter 32 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
973(23)
32A Instrumentation
974(6)
Feature 32-1 Liquid Chromatography (LC)/Mass Spectrometry (MS) and LC/MS/NS
980(2)
32B High-Performance Partition Chromatography
982(4)
32C High-Performance Adsorption Chromatography
986(1)
32D Ion-Exchange Chromatography
986(2)
32E Size-Exclusion Chromatography
988(1)
Feature 32-2 Buckyballs: The Chromatographic Separation of Fullerenes
989(2)
32F Affinity Chromatography
991(1)
32G Chiral Chromatography
991(1)
32H Comparison of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography
992(4)
Chapter 33 Miscellaneous Separation Methods
996(28)
33A Supercritical-Fluid Chromatography
996(4)
33B Planar Chromatography
1000(3)
33C Capillary Electrophoresis
1003(7)
Feature 33-1 Capillary Array Electrophoresis in DNA Sequencing
1010(1)
33D Capillary Electrochromatography
1011(2)
33E Field-Flow Fractionation
1013(8)
PART VII Practical Aspects of Chemical Analysis 1021
A Conversation with Julie Leary
1022
Chapter 34 Analysis of Real Samples
1024(10)
34A Real Samples
1024(2)
34B Choice of Analytical Method
1026(5)
34C Accuracy in the Analysis of Complex Materials
1031(3)
Chapter 35 Preparing Samples for Analysis
1034(7)
35A Preparing Laboratory Samples
1034(2)
35B Moisture in Samples
1036(3)
35C Determining Water in Samples
1039(2)
Chapter 36 Decomposing and Dissolving the Sample
1041
36A Sources of Error in Decomposition and Dissolution
1042(1)
36B Decomposing Samples With Inorganic Acids in Open Vessels
1042(2)
36C Microwave Decompositions
1044(3)
36D Combustion Methods for Decomposing Organic Samples
1047(2)
36E Decomposition of Inorganic Materials by Fluxes
1049(543648336)
Chapter 37 Selected Methods of Analysis
This chapter is only available as an Adobe Acrobat° PDF file on the Analytical Chemistry CD-ROM enclosed in this book or on our Web site at http://chemistry.brookscole.comlskoogfacl.
37A An Introductory Experiment
37B Gravimetric Methods of Analysis
37C Neutralization Titrations
37D Precipitation Titrations
37E Complex-Formation Titrations with EDTA
37F Titrations with Potassium Permanganate
37G Titrations with Iodine
37H Titrations with Sodium Thiosulfate
37I Titrations with Potassium Bromate
37J Potentiometric Methods
37K Electrogravimetric Methods
37L Coulometric Titrations
37M Voltammetry
37N Methods Based on the Absorption of Radiation
37O Molecular Fluorescence
37P Atomic Spectroscopy
37Q Application of Ion Exchange Resins
37R Gas-Liquid Chromatography
Glossary G-1
APPENDIX 1 The Literature of Analytical Chemistry A-1
APPENDIX 2 Solubility Product Constants at 25°C A-6
APPENDIX 3 Acid Dissociation Constants at 25°C A-8
APPENDIX 4 Formation Constants at 25°C A-10
APPENDIX 5 Standard and Formal Electrode Potentials A-12
APPENDIX 6 Use of Exponential Numbers and Logarithms A-15
APPENDIX 7 Volumetric Calculations Using Normality and Equivalent Weight A-19
APPENDIX 8 Compounds Recommended for the Preparation of Standard Solutions of Some Common Elements A-27
APPENDIX 9 Derivation of Error Propagation Equations A-29
Answers to Selected Questions and Problems A-34
Index I-1


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