PREFACE 

xi  


1  (22) 


1  (4) 

1.2 Elements of an Electrical Communication System 


5  (7) 

1.2.1 Digital Communication System, 


7  (3) 

1.2.2 Early Work in Digital Communications, 


10  (2) 

1.3 Communication Channels and Their Characteristics 


12  (7) 

1.4 Mathematical Models for Communication Channels 


19  (3) 


22  (1) 

2 SIGNALS AND LINEAR SYSTEMS 


23  (101) 


23  (23) 

2.1.1 Basic Operations on Signals, 


24  (1) 

2.1.2 Classification of Signals, 


25  (8) 

2.1.3 Some Important Signals and Their Properties, 


33  (7) 

2.1.4 Classification of Systems, 


40  (4) 

2.1.5 Analysis of LTI Systems in the Time Domain, 


44  (2) 


46  (15) 

2.2.1 Fourier Series and Its Properties, 


46  (10) 

2.2.2 Response of LTI Systems to Periodic Signals, 


56  (3) 

2.2.3 Parseval's Relation, 


59  (2) 


61  (27) 

2.3.1 From Fourier Series to Fourier Transforms, 


61  (6) 

2.3.2 Basic Properties of the Fourier Transform, 


67  (14) 

2.3.3 Fourier Transform for Periodic Signals, 


81  (3) 

2.3.4 Transmission over LTI Systems, 


84  (4) 


88  (4) 


92  (7) 

2.5.1 EnergyType Signals, 


93  (3) 

2.5.2 PowerType Signals, 


96  (3) 

2.6 Hilbert Transform and Its Properties 


99  (3) 

2.7 Lowpass and Bandpass Signals 


102  (3) 


105  (1) 


105  (19) 


124  (45) 

3.1 Introduction to Modulation 


125  (1) 

3.2 Amplitude Modulation (AM) 


126  (18) 

3.2.1 DoubleSideband SuppressedCarrier AM, 


126  (8) 

3.2.2 Conventional Amplitude Modulation, 


134  (5) 

3.2.3 SingleSideband AM, 


139  (5) 

3.3 Implementation of AM Modulators and Demodulators 


144  (7) 


151  (3) 

3.4.1 FrequencyDivision Multiplexing, 


152  (1) 

3.4.2 QuadratureCarrier Multiplexing. 


153  (1) 

3.5 AMRadio Broadcasting 


154  (4) 

Appendix 3A: Derivation of the Expression for SSBAM Signals 


156  (2) 


158  (11) 


169  (41) 

4.1 Representation of FM and PM Signals 


170  (4) 

4.2 Spectral Characteristics of AngleModulated Signals 


174  (6) 

4.2.1 Angle Modulation by a Sinusoidal Signal, 


174  (5) 

4.2.2 Angle Modulation by an Arbitrary Message Signal, 


179  (1) 

4.3 Implementation of Angle Modulators and Demodulators 


180  (8) 

4.4 FMRadio and Television Broadcasting 


188  (12) 

4.4.1 FMRadio Broadcasting, 


188  (2) 

4.4.2 Television Broadcasting, 


190  (10) 

4.5 Mobile Wireless Telephone Systems 


200  (2) 


202  (1) 


202  (8) 

5 PROBABILITY AND RANDOM PROCESSES 


210  (63) 

5.1 Review of Probability and Random Variables 


210  (19) 

5.1.1 Sample Space, Events, and Probability, 


210  (1) 

5.1.2 Conditional Probability, 


211  (3) 


214  (7) 

5.1.4 Functions of a Random Variable, 


221  (3) 

5.1.5 Multiple Random Variables, 


224  (5) 

5.1.6 Sums of Random Variables, 


229  (1) 

5.2 Random Processes: Basic Concepts 


229  (16) 

5.2.1 Statistical Averages, 


233  (2) 

5.2.2 WideSense Stationary Processes, 


235  (1) 

5.2.3 Multiple Random Processes, 


236  (1) 

5.2.4 Random Processes and Linear Systems, 


237  (3) 

5.2.5 Power Spectral Density of Stationary Processes, 


240  (4) 

5.2.6 Power Spectral Density of a Sum Process, 


244  (1) 

5.3 Gaussian and White Processes 


245  (9) 

5.3.1 Gaussian Processes, 


245  (2) 


247  (2) 

5.3.3 Filtered Noise Processes, 


249  (5) 


254  (1) 


255  (18) 

6 EFFECT OF NOISE ON ANALOG COMMUNICATIONXS SYSTEMS 


273  (55) 

6.1 Effect of Noise on AmplitudeModulation Systems 


273  (9) 

6.1.1 Effect of Noise on a Baseband System, 


274  (1) 

6.1.2 Effect of Noise on DSBSC AM, 


274  (2) 

6.1.3 Effect of Noise on SSB AM, 


276  (2) 

6.1.4 Effect of Noise on Conventional AM, 


278  (4) 

6.2 Effect of Noise on Angle Modulation 


282  (15) 

6.2.1 Threshold Effect in Angle Modulation, 


291  (3) 

6.2.2 Preemphasis and Deemphasis Filtering, 


294  (3) 

6.3 Comparison of AnalogModulation Systems 


297  (2) 

6.4 CarrierPhase Estimation with a PhaseLocked Loop (PLL) 


299  (9) 

6.4.1 Effect of Additive Noise on Phase Estimation, 


303  (5) 

6.5 Effects of Transmission Losses and Noise in Analog Communication Systems 


308  (10) 

6.5.1 Characterization of Thermal Noise Sources, 


309  (1) 

6.5.2 Effective Noise Temperature and Noise Figure, 


310  (3) 

6.5.3 Transmission Losses, 


313  (2) 

6.5.4 Repeaters for Signal Transmission, 


315  (3) 

6.6 Further Reading 318 Problems 


318  (10) 

7 ANALOGTODIGITAL CONVERSION 


328  (51) 

7.1 Sampling of Signals and Signal Reconstruction from Samples 


329  (5) 

7.1.1 The Sampling Theorem, 


329  (5) 


334  (10) 

7.2.1 Scalar Quantization, 


334  (8) 

7.2.2 Vector Quantization, 


342  (2) 


344  (1) 


345  (10) 

7.4.1 Pulse Code Modulation (PCM), 


346  (4) 

7.4.2 Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM), 


350  (2) 

7.4.3 Delta Modulation (DM), 


352  (3) 

7.5 AnalysisSynthesis Techniques 


355  

7.6 Digital Audio Transmission and Digital Audio Recording 


353  (12) 

7.6.1 Digital Audio in Telephone Transmission Systems, 


359  (2) 

7.6.2 Digital Audio Recording, 


361  (4) 

7.7 The JPEG ImageCoding Standard 


365  (4) 


369  (1) 


369  (10) 

8 DIGITAL MODULATION IN AN ADDITIVE WHITE GAUSSIAN NOISE BASEBAND CHANNEL 


379  (96) 

8.1 Geometric Representation of Signal Waveforms 


380  (4) 

8.2 Binary Pulse Modulation 


384  (5) 

8.2.1 Binary Pulse Amplitude Modulation, 


384  (2) 

8.2.2 Binary Pulse Position Modulation, 


386  (3) 

8.3 Optimum Receiver for Binary Modulated Signals in Additive White Gaussian Noise 


389  (18) 

8.3.1 CorrelationType Demodulator, 


391  (6) 

8.3.2 MatchedFilterType Demodulator, 


397  (8) 

8.3.3 The Performance of the Optimum Detector for Binary Signals, 


405  (2) 

8.4 Mary Pulse Modulation 


407  (24) 

8.4.1 Mary Pulse Amplitude Modulation, 


409  (2) 

8.4.2 Mary Orthogonal Signals, 


411  (2) 

8.4.3 Biorthogonal Signals, 


413  (3) 

8.4.4 Simplex Signal Waveforms, 


416  (1) 

8.4.5 BinaryCoded Signal Waveforms, 


417  (3) 

8.4.6 The Optimum Receiver for Mary Signals in AWGN, 


420  (11) 

8.5 Probability of Error for Mary Pulse Modulation 


431  (14) 

8.5.1 Probability of Error for Mary Pulse Amplitude Modulation, 


431  (4) 

8.5.2 Probability of Error for Mary Orthogonal Signals, 


435  (2) 

8.5.3 A Union Bound on the Probability of Error, 


437  (4) 

8.5.4 Probability of Error for Mary Biorthogonal Signals, 


441  (1) 

8.5.5 Probability of Error for Mary Simplex Signals, 


442  (2) 

8.5.6 Probability of Error for BinaryCoded Signals, 


444  (1) 

8.5.7 Comparison of Digital Pulse Modulation Methods, 


444  (1) 

8.6 Symbol Synchronization 


445  (9) 

8.6.1 EarlyLate Gate Synchronizers, 


446  (2) 

8.6.2 Minimum MeanSquareError Method, 


448  (2) 

8.6.3 MaximumLikelihood Method, 


450  (1) 

8.6.4 SpectralLine Method, 


451  (3) 


454  (1) 


454  (21) 

9 DIGITAL TRANSMISSION THROUGH BANDLIMITED AWGN CHANNELS 


475  (66) 

9.1 Digital Transmission through Bandlimited Channels 


475  (7) 

9.1.1 Digital PAM Transmission through Bandlimited Baseband Channels, 


480  (2) 

9.2 Signal Design for Bandlimited Channels 


482  (11) 

9.2.1 Design of Bandlimited Signals for Zero ISIThe Nyquist Criterion, 


484  (6) 

9.2.2 Design of Bandlimited Signals with Controlled ISIPartial Response Signals, 


490  (3) 

9.3 Probability of Error for Detection of Digital PAM 


493  (10) 

9.3.1 Probability of Error for Detection of Digital PAM with Zero ISI, 


493  (1) 

9.3.2 SymbolbySymbol Detection of Data with Controlled ISI, 


494  (4) 

9.3.3 Probability of Error, for SymbolbySymbol Detection of Partial Response Signals, 


498  (3) 

9.3.4 MaximumLikelihood Sequence Detection of Partial Response Signals, 


501  (2) 

9.4 System Design in the Presence of Channel Distortion 


503  (23) 

9.4.1 Design of Transmitting and Receiving Filters for a Known Channel, 


505  (2) 

9.4.2 Channel Equalization, 


507  (19) 

9.5 Further Reading 525 Problems 


526  (15) 
10 TRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION VIA CARRIER MODULATION 

541  (82) 

10.1 AmplitudeModulated Digital Signals 


541  (7) 

10.1.1 Demodulation and Detection of AmplitudeModulated Signals, 


545  (3) 

10.2 PhaseModulated Digital Signals 


548  (19) 

10.2.1 Demodulation and Detection of PhaseModulated Signals, 


553  (5) 

10.2.2 DifferentialPhase Modulation and Demodulation, 


558  (2) 

10.2.3 Probability of Error for PhaseCoherent PSK Modulation, 


560  (5) 

10.2.4 Probability of Error, for DPSK, 


565  (2) 

10.3 Quadrature AmplitudeModulated Digital Signals 


567  (12) 

10.3.1 Demodulation and Detection of QuadratureAmplitude Modulated Signals, 


571  (3) 

10.3.2 Probability of Error for QAM, 


574  (5) 

10.4 FrequencyModulated Digital Signals 


579  (23) 

10.4.1 Demodulation and Detection of FrequencyModulated Signal 


581  (7) 

10.4.2 Probability of Error for Noncotzerent Detection of FSK, 


588  (3) 

10.4.3 ContinuousPhase FSK (CPFSK), 


591  (11) 

10.5 Comparison of Modulation Methods 


602  (4) 

10.6 Symbol Synchronization for CarrierModulated Signals 


606  (1) 


606  (1) 


607  (16) 
11 SELECTED TOPICS IN DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS 

623  (79) 

11.1 Digital Transmission in Fading Multipath Channels 


623  (16) 

11.1.1 Channel Models for TimeVariant Muitipath Channels 


624  (4) 

11.1.2 Performance of Binary Modulation in Frequency Nonselective Rayleigh Fading Channels 


628  (3) 

11.1.3 Performance Improvement through Signal Diversity, 


631  (4) 

11.1.4 Frequency Selective Channels and the RAKE Demodulator, 


635  (4) 

11.2 Multicarrier Modulation and OFDM 


639  (13) 

11.2.1 Modulation and Demodulation in an OFDM System, 


641  (2) 

11.2.2 An OFDM System Implemented via the FFT Algorithm, 


643  (3) 

11.2.3 Spectral Characteristics of OFDM Signals, 


646  (1) 

11.2.4 PeaktoAverage Power Ratio in OFDM Systems, 


647  (2) 

11.2.5 Applications of OFDM, 


649  (3) 

11.3 SpreadSpectrum Communication Systems 


652  (21) 

11.3.1 Model of a SpreadSpectrum Digital Communication System, 


653  (1) 

11.3.2 Direct Sequence SpreadSpectrum Systems, 


654  (9) 

11.3.3 Some Applications of DS SpreadSpectrum Signals, 


663  (4) 

11.3.4 Generation of PN Sequences, 


667  (3) 

11.3.5 FrequencyHopped Spread Spectrum, 


670  (3) 

11.4 Digital Cellular Communication Systems 


673  (9) 


673  (4) 

11.4.2 CDMA System Based on IS95, 


677  (4) 

11.4.3 Third Generation Cellular Communication Systems, 


681  (1) 

11.5 Performance Analysis for Wireline and Radio Communication Channels 


682  (6) 

11.5.1 Regenerative Repeaters, 


683  (1) 

11.5.2 Link Budget Analysis for Radio Channels, 


684  (4) 


688  (1) 


689  (13) 
12 AN INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION THEORY 

702  (49) 

12.2 Modeling Information Sources 


703  (10) 

12.1.1 Measure of Information, 


705  (3) 

12.1.2 Joint and Conditional Entropy, 


708  (3) 

12.1.3 Mutual Information, 


711  (1) 

12.1.4 Differential Entropy, 


711  (2) 

12.2 The Source Coding Theorem 


713  (3) 

12.3 Source Coding Algorithms 


716  (7) 

12.3.1 The Huffman Source Coding Algorithm, 


716  (5) 

12.3.2 The LempelZiv Source Coding Algorithm, 


721  (2) 

12.4 Modeling of Communication Channels 


723  (2) 


725  (8) 

12.5.1 Gaussian Channel Capacity, 


730  (3) 

12.6 Bounds on Communication 


733  (4) 


737  (1) 


737  (14) 
13 CODING FOR RELIABLE COMMUNICATIONS 

751  (80) 

13.1 The Promise of Coding 


751  (6) 


757  (16) 

13.2.1 Decoding and Performance of Linear Block Codes, 


762  (9) 

13.2.2 Some Important Linear Block Codes, 


771  

13.2.3 Error Detection versus Error Correction, 


770  (2) 

13.2.4 BurstErrorCorrecting Codes, 


772  (1) 


773  (16) 

13.3.1 Basic Properties of Convolutional Codes, 


775  (5) 

13.3.2 Maximum Likelihood Decoding of Convolutional CodesThe Viterbi Algorithm, 


780  (5) 

13.3.3 Other Decoding Algorithms for Convolutional Codes, 


785  (1) 

13.3.4 Bounds on the Error Probability of Convolutional Codes, 


785  (4) 

13.4 Good Codes Based on a Combination of Simple Codes 


789  (10) 


790  (1) 

13.4.2 Concatenated Codes, 


791  (1) 


792  (2) 

13.4.4 The BCJR Algorithm, 


794  (3) 

13.4.5 Performance of Turbo Codes, 


797  (2) 

13.5 LowDensity Parity Check Codes 


799  (3) 

13.6 Coding for BandwidthConstrained Channels 


802  (9) 

13.6.1 Combined Coding and Modulation, 


802  (2) 

13.6.2 TrellisCoded Modulation, 


804  (7) 

13.7 Coding and Diversity for Fading Channels: 


811  (4) 

13.8 Practical Applications of Coding 


815  (4) 

13.8.1 Coding for DeepSpace Communications, 


817  (1) 

13.8.2 Coding for "TelephoneLine Modems, 


818  (1) 


819  (1) 


819  (12) 
REFERENCES 

831  (10) 
INDEX 

841  