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Fundamentals of Communication Systems

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780131471351

ISBN10:
013147135X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
12/2/2004
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $203.99
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Summary

This book introduces the basic techniques used in modern communication systems and provides fundamental tools and methodologies used in the analysis and design of these systems. The authors emphasize digital communication systems - the backbone of modern communication systems - including new generations of wireless communication systems, satellite communications, and data transmission networks.Discusses traditional analog communication systems. Reviews the background material needed in two separate chapters at the end of the book. Provides computer problems in each chapter that require MATLAB to solve. Offers a large number of problems in varying levels of difficulty at the end of each chapter. Features many worked examples throughout. Includes two separate chapters on Information Theory and Coding to give sufficient emphasis to these key topics.A useful reference for practicing engineers.

Table of Contents

PREFACE xi
1 INTRODUCTION
1(22)
1.1 Historical Review
1(4)
1.2 Elements of an Electrical Communication System
5(7)
1.2.1 Digital Communication System,
7(3)
1.2.2 Early Work in Digital Communications,
10(2)
1.3 Communication Channels and Their Characteristics
12(7)
1.4 Mathematical Models for Communication Channels
19(3)
1.5 Further Reading
22(1)
2 SIGNALS AND LINEAR SYSTEMS
23(101)
2.1 Basic Concepts
23(23)
2.1.1 Basic Operations on Signals,
24(1)
2.1.2 Classification of Signals,
25(8)
2.1.3 Some Important Signals and Their Properties,
33(7)
2.1.4 Classification of Systems,
40(4)
2.1.5 Analysis of LTI Systems in the Time Domain,
44(2)
2.2 Fourier Series
46(15)
2.2.1 Fourier Series and Its Properties,
46(10)
2.2.2 Response of LTI Systems to Periodic Signals,
56(3)
2.2.3 Parseval's Relation,
59(2)
2.3 Fourier Transform
61(27)
2.3.1 From Fourier Series to Fourier Transforms,
61(6)
2.3.2 Basic Properties of the Fourier Transform,
67(14)
2.3.3 Fourier Transform for Periodic Signals,
81(3)
2.3.4 Transmission over LTI Systems,
84(4)
2.4 Filter Design
88(4)
2.5 Power and Energy
92(7)
2.5.1 Energy-Type Signals,
93(3)
2.5.2 Power-Type Signals,
96(3)
2.6 Hilbert Transform and Its Properties
99(3)
2.7 Lowpass and Bandpass Signals
102(3)
2.8 Further Reading
105(1)
Problems
105(19)
3 AMPLITUDE MODULATION
124(45)
3.1 Introduction to Modulation
125(1)
3.2 Amplitude Modulation (AM)
126(18)
3.2.1 Double-Sideband Suppressed-Carrier AM,
126(8)
3.2.2 Conventional Amplitude Modulation,
134(5)
3.2.3 Single-Sideband AM,
139(5)
3.3 Implementation of AM Modulators and Demodulators
144(7)
3.4 Signal Multiplexing
151(3)
3.4.1 Frequency-Division Multiplexing,
152(1)
3.4.2 Quadrature-Carrier Multiplexing.
153(1)
3.5 AM-Radio Broadcasting
154(4)
Appendix 3A: Derivation of the Expression for SSB-AM Signals
156(2)
Problems
158(11)
4 ANGLE MODULATION
169(41)
4.1 Representation of FM and PM Signals
170(4)
4.2 Spectral Characteristics of Angle-Modulated Signals
174(6)
4.2.1 Angle Modulation by a Sinusoidal Signal,
174(5)
4.2.2 Angle Modulation by an Arbitrary Message Signal,
179(1)
4.3 Implementation of Angle Modulators and Demodulators
180(8)
4.4 FM-Radio and Television Broadcasting
188(12)
4.4.1 FM-Radio Broadcasting,
188(2)
4.4.2 Television Broadcasting,
190(10)
4.5 Mobile Wireless Telephone Systems
200(2)
4.6 Further Reading
202(1)
Problems
202(8)
5 PROBABILITY AND RANDOM PROCESSES
210(63)
5.1 Review of Probability and Random Variables
210(19)
5.1.1 Sample Space, Events, and Probability,
210(1)
5.1.2 Conditional Probability,
211(3)
5.1.3 Random Variables,
214(7)
5.1.4 Functions of a Random Variable,
221(3)
5.1.5 Multiple Random Variables,
224(5)
5.1.6 Sums of Random Variables,
229(1)
5.2 Random Processes: Basic Concepts
229(16)
5.2.1 Statistical Averages,
233(2)
5.2.2 Wide-Sense Stationary Processes,
235(1)
5.2.3 Multiple Random Processes,
236(1)
5.2.4 Random Processes and Linear Systems,
237(3)
5.2.5 Power Spectral Density of Stationary Processes,
240(4)
5.2.6 Power Spectral Density of a Sum Process,
244(1)
5.3 Gaussian and White Processes
245(9)
5.3.1 Gaussian Processes,
245(2)
5.3.2 White Processes,
247(2)
5.3.3 Filtered Noise Processes,
249(5)
5.4 Further Reading
254(1)
Problems
255(18)
6 EFFECT OF NOISE ON ANALOG COMMUNICATIONXS SYSTEMS
273(55)
6.1 Effect of Noise on Amplitude-Modulation Systems
273(9)
6.1.1 Effect of Noise on a Baseband System,
274(1)
6.1.2 Effect of Noise on DSB-SC AM,
274(2)
6.1.3 Effect of Noise on SSB AM,
276(2)
6.1.4 Effect of Noise on Conventional AM,
278(4)
6.2 Effect of Noise on Angle Modulation
282(15)
6.2.1 Threshold Effect in Angle Modulation,
291(3)
6.2.2 Preemphasis and Deemphasis Filtering,
294(3)
6.3 Comparison of Analog-Modulation Systems
297(2)
6.4 Carrier-Phase Estimation with a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL)
299(9)
6.4.1 Effect of Additive Noise on Phase Estimation,
303(5)
6.5 Effects of Transmission Losses and Noise in Analog Communication Systems
308(10)
6.5.1 Characterization of Thermal Noise Sources,
309(1)
6.5.2 Effective Noise Temperature and Noise Figure,
310(3)
6.5.3 Transmission Losses,
313(2)
6.5.4 Repeaters for Signal Transmission,
315(3)
6.6 Further Reading 318 Problems
318(10)
7 ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION
328(51)
7.1 Sampling of Signals and Signal Reconstruction from Samples
329(5)
7.1.1 The Sampling Theorem,
329(5)
7.2 Quantization
334(10)
7.2.1 Scalar Quantization,
334(8)
7.2.2 Vector Quantization,
342(2)
7.3 Encoding
344(1)
7.4 Waveform Coding
345(10)
7.4.1 Pulse Code Modulation (PCM),
346(4)
7.4.2 Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM),
350(2)
7.4.3 Delta Modulation (DM),
352(3)
7.5 Analysis-Synthesis Techniques
355
7.6 Digital Audio Transmission and Digital Audio Recording
353(12)
7.6.1 Digital Audio in Telephone Transmission Systems,
359(2)
7.6.2 Digital Audio Recording,
361(4)
7.7 The JPEG Image-Coding Standard
365(4)
7.8 Further Reading
369(1)
Problems
369(10)
8 DIGITAL MODULATION IN AN ADDITIVE WHITE GAUSSIAN NOISE BASEBAND CHANNEL
379(96)
8.1 Geometric Representation of Signal Waveforms
380(4)
8.2 Binary Pulse Modulation
384(5)
8.2.1 Binary Pulse Amplitude Modulation,
384(2)
8.2.2 Binary Pulse Position Modulation,
386(3)
8.3 Optimum Receiver for Binary Modulated Signals in Additive White Gaussian Noise
389(18)
8.3.1 Correlation-Type Demodulator,
391(6)
8.3.2 Matched-Filter-Type Demodulator,
397(8)
8.3.3 The Performance of the Optimum Detector for Binary Signals,
405(2)
8.4 M-ary Pulse Modulation
407(24)
8.4.1 M-ary Pulse Amplitude Modulation,
409(2)
8.4.2 M-ary Orthogonal Signals,
411(2)
8.4.3 Biorthogonal Signals,
413(3)
8.4.4 Simplex Signal Waveforms,
416(1)
8.4.5 Binary-Coded Signal Waveforms,
417(3)
8.4.6 The Optimum Receiver for M-ary Signals in AWGN,
420(11)
8.5 Probability of Error for M-ary Pulse Modulation
431(14)
8.5.1 Probability of Error for M-ary Pulse Amplitude Modulation,
431(4)
8.5.2 Probability of Error for M-ary Orthogonal Signals,
435(2)
8.5.3 A Union Bound on the Probability of Error,
437(4)
8.5.4 Probability of Error for M-ary Biorthogonal Signals,
441(1)
8.5.5 Probability of Error for M-ary Simplex Signals,
442(2)
8.5.6 Probability of Error for Binary-Coded Signals,
444(1)
8.5.7 Comparison of Digital Pulse Modulation Methods,
444(1)
8.6 Symbol Synchronization
445(9)
8.6.1 Early-Late Gate Synchronizers,
446(2)
8.6.2 Minimum Mean-Square-Error Method,
448(2)
8.6.3 Maximum-Likelihood Method,
450(1)
8.6.4 Spectral-Line Method,
451(3)
8.7 Further Reading
454(1)
Problems
454(21)
9 DIGITAL TRANSMISSION THROUGH BANDLIMITED AWGN CHANNELS
475(66)
9.1 Digital Transmission through Bandlimited Channels
475(7)
9.1.1 Digital PAM Transmission through Bandlimited Baseband Channels,
480(2)
9.2 Signal Design for Bandlimited Channels
482(11)
9.2.1 Design of Bandlimited Signals for Zero ISI-The Nyquist Criterion,
484(6)
9.2.2 Design of Bandlimited Signals with Controlled ISI-Partial Response Signals,
490(3)
9.3 Probability of Error for Detection of Digital PAM
493(10)
9.3.1 Probability of Error for Detection of Digital PAM with Zero ISI,
493(1)
9.3.2 Symbol-by-Symbol Detection of Data with Controlled ISI,
494(4)
9.3.3 Probability of Error, for Symbol-by-Symbol Detection of Partial Response Signals,
498(3)
9.3.4 Maximum-Likelihood Sequence Detection of Partial Response Signals,
501(2)
9.4 System Design in the Presence of Channel Distortion
503(23)
9.4.1 Design of Transmitting and Receiving Filters for a Known Channel,
505(2)
9.4.2 Channel Equalization,
507(19)
9.5 Further Reading 525 Problems
526(15)
10 TRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION VIA CARRIER MODULATION 541(82)
10.1 Amplitude-Modulated Digital Signals
541(7)
10.1.1 Demodulation and Detection of Amplitude-Modulated Signals,
545(3)
10.2 Phase-Modulated Digital Signals
548(19)
10.2.1 Demodulation and Detection of Phase-Modulated Signals,
553(5)
10.2.2 Differential-Phase Modulation and Demodulation,
558(2)
10.2.3 Probability of Error for Phase-Coherent PSK Modulation,
560(5)
10.2.4 Probability of Error, for DPSK,
565(2)
10.3 Quadrature Amplitude-Modulated Digital Signals
567(12)
10.3.1 Demodulation and Detection of Quadrature-Amplitude Modulated Signals,
571(3)
10.3.2 Probability of Error for QAM,
574(5)
10.4 Frequency-Modulated Digital Signals
579(23)
10.4.1 Demodulation and Detection of Frequency-Modulated Signal
581(7)
10.4.2 Probability of Error for Noncotzerent Detection of FSK,
588(3)
10.4.3 Continuous-Phase FSK (CPFSK),
591(11)
10.5 Comparison of Modulation Methods
602(4)
10.6 Symbol Synchronization for Carrier-Modulated Signals
606(1)
10.7 Further Reading
606(1)
Problems
607(16)
11 SELECTED TOPICS IN DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS 623(79)
11.1 Digital Transmission in Fading Multipath Channels
623(16)
11.1.1 Channel Models for Time-Variant Muitipath Channels
624(4)
11.1.2 Performance of Binary Modulation in Frequency Nonselective Rayleigh Fading Channels
628(3)
11.1.3 Performance Improvement through Signal Diversity,
631(4)
11.1.4 Frequency Selective Channels and the RAKE Demodulator,
635(4)
11.2 Multicarrier Modulation and OFDM
639(13)
11.2.1 Modulation and Demodulation in an OFDM System,
641(2)
11.2.2 An OFDM System Implemented via the FFT Algorithm,
643(3)
11.2.3 Spectral Characteristics of OFDM Signals,
646(1)
11.2.4 Peak-to-Average Power Ratio in OFDM Systems,
647(2)
11.2.5 Applications of OFDM,
649(3)
11.3 Spread-Spectrum Communication Systems
652(21)
11.3.1 Model of a Spread-Spectrum Digital Communication System,
653(1)
11.3.2 Direct Sequence Spread-Spectrum Systems,
654(9)
11.3.3 Some Applications of DS Spread-Spectrum Signals,
663(4)
11.3.4 Generation of PN Sequences,
667(3)
11.3.5 Frequency-Hopped Spread Spectrum,
670(3)
11.4 Digital Cellular Communication Systems
673(9)
11.4.1 The GSM System,
673(4)
11.4.2 CDMA System Based on IS-95,
677(4)
11.4.3 Third Generation Cellular Communication Systems,
681(1)
11.5 Performance Analysis for Wireline and Radio Communication Channels
682(6)
11.5.1 Regenerative Repeaters,
683(1)
11.5.2 Link Budget Analysis for Radio Channels,
684(4)
11.6 Further Reading
688(1)
Problems
689(13)
12 AN INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION THEORY 702(49)
12.2 Modeling Information Sources
703(10)
12.1.1 Measure of Information,
705(3)
12.1.2 Joint and Conditional Entropy,
708(3)
12.1.3 Mutual Information,
711(1)
12.1.4 Differential Entropy,
711(2)
12.2 The Source Coding Theorem
713(3)
12.3 Source Coding Algorithms
716(7)
12.3.1 The Huffman Source Coding Algorithm,
716(5)
12.3.2 The Lempel-Ziv Source Coding Algorithm,
721(2)
12.4 Modeling of Communication Channels
723(2)
12.5 Channel Capacity
725(8)
12.5.1 Gaussian Channel Capacity,
730(3)
12.6 Bounds on Communication
733(4)
12.7 Further Reading
737(1)
Problems
737(14)
13 CODING FOR RELIABLE COMMUNICATIONS 751(80)
13.1 The Promise of Coding
751(6)
13.2 Linear Block Codes
757(16)
13.2.1 Decoding and Performance of Linear Block Codes,
762(9)
13.2.2 Some Important Linear Block Codes,
771
13.2.3 Error Detection versus Error Correction,
770(2)
13.2.4 Burst-Error-Correcting Codes,
772(1)
13.3 Convolutional Codes
773(16)
13.3.1 Basic Properties of Convolutional Codes,
775(5)
13.3.2 Maximum Likelihood Decoding of Convolutional Codes-The Viterbi Algorithm,
780(5)
13.3.3 Other Decoding Algorithms for Convolutional Codes,
785(1)
13.3.4 Bounds on the Error Probability of Convolutional Codes,
785(4)
13.4 Good Codes Based on a Combination of Simple Codes
789(10)
13.4.1 Product Codes,
790(1)
13.4.2 Concatenated Codes,
791(1)
13.4.3 Turbo Codes,
792(2)
13.4.4 The BCJR Algorithm,
794(3)
13.4.5 Performance of Turbo Codes,
797(2)
13.5 Low-Density Parity Check Codes
799(3)
13.6 Coding for Bandwidth-Constrained Channels
802(9)
13.6.1 Combined Coding and Modulation,
802(2)
13.6.2 Trellis-Coded Modulation,
804(7)
13.7 Coding and Diversity for Fading Channels:
811(4)
13.8 Practical Applications of Coding
815(4)
13.8.1 Coding for Deep-Space Communications,
817(1)
13.8.2 Coding for "Telephone-Line Modems,
818(1)
13.9 Further Reading
819(1)
Problems
819(12)
REFERENCES 831(10)
INDEX 841

Excerpts

This book is intended as a senior level undergraduate textbook on communication systems for Electrical Engineering majors. Its primary objective is to introduce the basic techniques used in modern communication systems and to provide fundamental tools and methodologies used in the analysis and design of these systems. Although the book is mainly written as an undergraduate level textbook, it can be equally be useful to the practicing engineer, or as a self study tool.The emphasis of the book is on digital communication systems, which are treated in detail in Chapters 7 through 13. These systems are the backbone of modern communication systems, including new generations of wireless communication systems, satellite communications, and data transmission networks. Traditional analog communication systems are also covered with due detail in Chapters 3, 4, and 6. In addition, the book provides detailed coverage of the background required for the course in two chapters, one on linear system analysis with emphasis on the frequency domain approach and Fourier techniques, and one on probability, random variables, and random processes. Although these topics are now covered in separate courses in the majority of electrical engineering colloquia, it is the experience of the authors that the students frequently need to review these topics in a course on communications, and therefore it is essential to have quick access the relevant material from these courses.It is assumed that the students taking this course have background in calculus, linear algebra, basic electronic circuits, linear system theory, and probability and random variables. These latter two topics are reviewed in two chapters of the book. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOKThe book starts with a brief review of communication systems in Chapter 1 followed by methods of signal representation and system analysis in both time and frequency domains in Chapter 2. Emphasis is placed on the Fourier series and the Fourier transform representation of signals and the use of transforms in linear systems analysis.Chapters 3 and 4 cover the modulation and demodulation of analog signals. In Chapter 3 amplitude modulation (AM), and in Chapter 4 frequency modulation (FM), and phase modulation (PM) are covered. Radio and television broadcasting and analog mobile radio cellular communication systems are also treated in these chapters.In Chapter 5, we present a review of the basic definitions and concepts in probability and random processes. Special emphasis is placed on Gaussian random processes, which provide mathematically tractable models for additive noise disturbances. Both time domain and frequency domain representations of random signals are presented.Chapter 6 covers the effects of additive noise in the demodulation of amplitude modulated (AM) and angle modulated (FM,PM) analog signals and a comparison of these analog signal modulations in terms of their signal-to-noise ratio performance. Also discussed in this chapter is the problem of estimating the carrier phase using a phase-locked loop (PLL). Finally, we describe the characterization of thermal noise and the effect of transmission losses in analog communication systems.Chapter 7 is devoted to analog-to-digital conversion. Sampling theorem and quantization techniques are treated first, followed by waveform encoding methods including PCM, DPCM, and DM. This chapter concludes with brief discussion of LPC speech coding and the JPEG standard for image compression.Chapter 8 treats modulation methods for baseband AWGN channels. Various types of binary and non-binary modulation methods are described based on a geometric representation of signals and their performance is evaluated in terms of the probability of error. The final topic of this chapter is focused on signal synchronization methods for digital communication systems.In Chapter 9, we consider the problem of digital com


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