Fundamentals of Database Systems combines clear explanations of theory and design, broad coverage of modeling and real systems, and excellent examples with up-to-date introduction to modern database technologies. Now in its Third Edition, this book has been revised and updated to reflect the latest technological and application development. The authors emphasize the relational model and include recent object-oriented developments such as ODMG and SQL3 as well as the object/relational approach to database management.
I. BASIC CONCEPTS.
1. Databases and Database Users.
Introduction. 2. Database System Concepts and Architecture.
Characteristics of the Database Approach.
Actors on the Scene.
Workers Behind the Scene.
Advantages of Using a DBMS.
Implications of the Database Approach.
When Not to Use a DBMS.
Data Models, Schemas, and Instances. 3. Data Modeling Using the Entity-Relationship Model.
DBMS Architecture and Data Independence.
Database Languages and Interfaces.
The Database System Environment.
Classification of Database Management Systems.
Using High-Level Conceptual Data Models for Database Design. 4. Enhanced Entity-Relationship Modeling and Object Modeling.
An Example Database Application.
Entity Types, Entity Sets, Attributes, and Keys.
Relationships, Relationship Types, Roles, and Structural Constraints.
Weak Entity Types.
Refining the ER Design for the COMPANY Database.
ER Diagrams, Naming Conventions, and Design Issues.
Subclasses, Superclasses, and Inheritance. 5. Record Storage and Primary File Organizations.
Specialization and Generalization.
Constraints and Characteristics of Specialization and Generalization.
Modeling of UNION Types Using Categories.
An Example UNIVERSITY EER Schema and Formal Definitions for the EER Model.
Conceptual Object Modeling Using UML Class Diagrams.
Relationship Types of Degree Higher Than Two.
Data Abstraction and Knowledge Representation Concepts.
Introduction. 6. Index Structures for Files.
Secondary Storage Devices.
Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology.
Buffering of Blocks.
Placing File Records on Disk.
Operations on Files.
Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files).
Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files).
Other Primary File Organizations.
Types of Single-Level Ordered Indexes.
Dynamic Multilevel Indexes Using B-Trees and B+Trees.
Indexes on Multiple Keys.
Other Types of Indexes.
II. RELATIONAL MODEL, LANGUAGES, AND SYSTEMS.
7. The Relational Data Model, Constraints, and Relational Algebra.
Relational Model Concepts. 8. SQL-The Relational Database Standard.
Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas.
Update Operations on Relations and Dealing with Constraint Violations.
Basic Relational Algebra Operations.
Additional Relational Operations.
Examples of Queries in the Relational Algebra.
Data Definition, Constraints, and Schema Changes in SQL2. 9. ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping, and Other Relational Languages.
Basic Queries in SQL.
More Complex SQL Queries.
Insert, Delete, and Update Statements in SQL.
Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL.
Specifying General Constraints as Assertions.
Additional Features of SQL.
Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping. 10. Examples of Relational Database Management Systems: Oracle and Microsoft Access.
Mapping EER Model Concepts to Relations.
The Tuple Relational Calculus.
The Domain Relational Calculus.
Overview of the QBE Language.
Relational Database Management Systems: A Historical Perspective.
The Basic Structure of the Oracle System.
Database Structure and Its Manipulation in Oracle.
Storage Organization in Oracle.
Programming Oracle Applications.
An Overview of Microsoft Access.
Features and Functionality of Access.
III. OBJECT-ORIENTED AND EXTENDED RELATIONAL DATABASE TECHNOLOGY.
11. Concepts for Object-Oriented Databases.
Overview of Object-Oriented Concepts. 12. Object Database Languages, Standards, Languages, and Design.
Object Identity, Object Structure, and Type Constructors.
Encapsulation of Operations, Methods, and Persistence.
Type Hierarchies and Inheritance.
Other Object-Oriented Concepts.
Overview of the Object Model of ODMG. 13. Object Relational and Extended Relational Databases.
The Object Definition Language.
The Object Query Language.
Overview of the C Language Binding.
Object Database Conceptual Design.
Example of ODBMSs.
Overview of the CORBA Standard for Distributed Objects.
Overview of the O2 System.
Overview of the ObjectStore System.
Evolution and Current Trends of Database Technology.
The Informix Universal Server.
Object-Relational Features of Oracle 8.
An Overview of SQL3.
Implementation and Related Issues for Extended Type Systems.
The Nested Relational Data Model.
IV. DATABASE DESIGN, THEORY, AND METHODOLOGY.
14. Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational Databases.
Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schemas. 15. Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies.
Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys.
General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms.
Boyce-Codd Normal Form.
Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design. 16. Practice of Database Design and Tuning.
Multivalued Dependencies and Fourth Normal Form.
Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form.
Other Dependencies and Normal Forms.
The Role of Information Systems in Organizations.
The Database Design Process.
Physical Database Design and its Tuning in Relational Databases.
An Overview of Database Tuning in Relational Systems.
Automated Design Tools.
V. SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION TECHNIQUES.
17. Database System Architecture and the System Catalog.
System Architectures for DBMSs. 18. Query Processing and Optimization.
Catalogs for Relational DBMSs.
System Catalog Information in ORACLE.
Other Catalog Information Accessed by DBMS Software Modules.
Data Dictionary and Data Repository Systems.
Translating SQL Queries into Relational Algebra. 19. Transaction Processing Concepts.
Basic Algorithms for Executing Query Operations.
Using Heuristics in Query Optimization.
Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization.
Overview of Query Optimization in ORACLE.
Semantic Query Optimization.
Introduction to Transaction Processing. 20. Concurrency Control Techniques.
Transaction and System Concepts.
Desirable Properties of Transactions.
Schedules and Recoverability.
Serializability of Schedules.
Transaction Support in SQL.
Locking Techniques for Concurrency Control. 21. Database Recovery Techniques.
Concurrency Control Based on Timestamp Ordering.
Multiversion Concurrency Control Techniques.
Validation (Optimistic) Concurrency Control Techniques.
Granularity of Data Items and Multiple Granularity Locking.
Using Locks for Concurrency Control in Indexes.
Some Other Concurrency Control Issues.
Recovery Concepts. 22. Database Security and Authorization.
Recovery Techniques Based on Deferred Update.
Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update.
The ARIES Recovery Algorithm.
Recovery in Multidatabase Systems.
Database Backup and Recovery from Catastrophic Failure.
Introduction to Database Security Issues.
Discretionary Access Control Based on Granting/Revoking of Privileges.
Mandatory Access Control for Multilevel Security.
Introduction to Statistical Database Security.
VI. ADVANCED DATABASE CONCEPTS AND EMERGING APPLICATIONS.
23. Enhanced Data Models for Advanced Applications.
Active Database Concepts. 24. Distributed Databases and Client-Server Architecture.
Temporal Database Concepts.
Spatial and Multimedia Databases.
Distributed Database Concepts. 25. Deductive Databases.
Data Fragmentation, Replication, and Allocation Techniques for Distributed Database Design.
Types of Distributed Database Systems.
Query Processing in Distributed Databases.
Overview of Concurrency Control and Recovery in Distributed Databases.
An Overview of Client-Server Architecture and Its Relationship to Distributed Databases.
Distributed Databases in Oracle.
Future Prospects of Client-Server Technology.
Introduction to Deductive Databases. 26. Data Warehousing and Data Mining.
Interpretation of Rules.
Basic Inference Mechanisms for Logic Programs.
Datalog Programs and Their Evaluation.
Deductive Database Systems.
Deductive Object-Oriented Databases.
Applications of Commercial Deductive Database Systems.
Data Warehousing. 27. Emerging Database Technologies and Applications.
Databases on the World Wide Web. Appendices.
Geographic Information Systems.
Genome Database Management.
A: Alternative Diagrammatic Notations.
B: Parameters of Disks.
C: An Overview of the Network Data Method.
D: An Overview of the Hierarchical Data Model.