Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics offers comprehensive topical coverage, with varied examples and problems, application of visual component of fluid mechanics, and strong focus on effective learning. The text enables the gradual development of confidence in problem solving. Each important concept is introduced in easy-to-understand terms before more complicated examples are discussed. Continuing this book's tradition of extensive real-world applications, this latest edition includes more Fluid in the News case study boxes in each chapter, new problem types, an increased number of real-world photos, and additional videos to augment the text material and help generate interest in the topic. Example problems have been updated and numerous new photographs, figures, and graphs have been included. In addition, there are 150 videos designed to aid and enhance comprehension, support visualization skill building and engage users more deeply with the material and concepts.

**1 Introduction 1**

Learning Objectives 1

1.1 Some Characteristics of Fluids 3

1.2 Dimensions, Dimensional Homogeneity, and Units 4

1.2.1 Systems of Units 7

1.3 Analysis of Fluid Behavior 11

1.4 Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight 11

1.4.1 Density 11

1.4.2 Specific Weight 12

1.4.3 Specific Gravity 12

1.5 Ideal Gas Law 12

1.6 Viscosity 14

1.7 Compressibility of Fluids 20

1.7.1 Bulk Modulus 20

1.7.2 Compression and Expansion of Gases 21

1.7.3 Speed of Sound 22

1.8 Vapor Pressure 23

1.9 Surface Tension 24

1.10 A Brief Look Back in History 27

1.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 29

References 30

Review Problems 31

Conceptual Questions 31

Problems 31

**2 Fluid Statics 40**

Learning Objectives 40

2.1 Pressure at a Point 40

2.2 Basic Equation for Pressure Field 42

2.3 Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest 43

2.3.1 Incompressible Fluid 44

2.3.2 Compressible Fluid 47

2.4 Standard Atmosphere 49

2.5 Measurement of Pressure 50

2.6 Manometry 52

2.6.1 Piezometer Tube 52

2.6.2 U-Tube Manometer 53

2.6.3 Inclined-Tube Manometer 56

2.7 Mechanical and Electronic Pressure-Measuring Devices 57

2.8 Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Surface 59

2.9 Pressure Prism 65

2.10 Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface 68

2.11 Buoyancy, Flotation, and Stability 70

2.11.1 Archimedes’ Principle 70

2.11.2 Stability 73

2.12 Pressure Variation in a Fluid with Rigid-Body Motion 74

2.12.1 Linear Motion 75

2.12.2 Rigid-Body Rotation 77

2.13 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 79

References 80

Review Problems 80

Conceptual Questions 81

Problems 81

**3 Elementary Fluid Dynamics—The Bernoulli Equation 101**

Learning Objectives 101

3.1 Newton’s Second Law 101

3.2 F ma along a Streamline 104

3.3 F ma Normal to a Streamline 108

3.4 Physical Interpretation 110

3.5 Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure 113

3.6 Examples of Use of the Bernoulli Equation 117

3.6.1 Free Jets 118

3.6.2 Confined Flows 120

3.6.3 Flowrate Measurement 126

3.7 The Energy Line and the Hydraulic Grade Line 131

3.8 Restrictions on Use of the Bernoulli Equation 134

3.8.1 Compressibility Effects 134

3.8.2 Unsteady Effects 136

3.8.3 Rotational Effects 138

3.8.4 Other Restrictions 139

3.9 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 139

References 141

Review Problems 141

Conceptual Questions 141

**4 Fluid Kinematics 157**

Learning Objectives 157

4.1 The Velocity Field 157

4.1.1 Eulerian and Lagrangian Flow Descriptions 160

4.1.2 One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Flows 161

4.1.3 Steady and Unsteady Flows 162

4.1.4 Streamlines, Streaklines, and Pathlines 162

4.2 The Acceleration Field 166

4.2.1 The Material Derivative 166

4.2.2 Unsteady Effects 169

4.2.3 Convective Effects 169

4.2.4 Streamline Coordinates 173

4.3 Control Volume and System Representations 175

4.4 The Reynolds Transport Theorem 176

4.4.1 Derivation of the Reynolds Transport Theorem 178

4.4.2 Physical Interpretation 183

4.4.3 Relationship to Material Derivative 183

4.4.4 Steady Effects 184

4.4.5 Unsteady Effects 184

4.4.6 Moving Control Volumes 186

4.4.7 Selection of a Control Volume 187

4.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 188

References 189

Review Problems 189

Conceptual Questions 189

Problems 190

**5 Finite Control Volume Analysis 199**

Learning Objectives 199

5.1 Conservation of Mass—The Continuity Equation 200

5.1.1 Derivation of the Continuity Equation 200

5.1.2 Fixed, Nondeforming Control Volume 202

5.1.3 Moving, Nondeforming Control Volume 208

5.1.4 Deforming Control Volume 210

5.2 Newton’s Second Law—The Linear Momentum and Moment-of-Momentum Equations 213

5.2.1 Derivation of the Linear Momentum Equation 213

5.2.2 Application of the Linear Momentum Equation 214

5.2.3 Derivation of the Moment-of-Momentum Equation 228

5.2.4 Application of the Moment-of-Momentum Equation 229

5.3 First Law of Thermodynamics—The Energy Equation 236

5.3.1 Derivation of the Energy Equation 236

5.3.2 Application of the Energy Equation 239

5.3.3 Comparison of the Energy Equation with the Bernoulli Equation 243

5.3.4 Application of the Energy Equation to Nonuniform Flows 249

5.3.5 Combination of the Energy Equation and the Moment-of-Momentum Equation 252

5.4 Second Law of Thermodynamics—Irreversible Flow 253

5.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 253

References 254

Review Problems 255

Conceptual Questions 255

Problems 255

**6 Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow 276**

Learning Objectives 276

6.1 Fluid Element Kinematics 277

6.1.1 Velocity and Acceleration Fields Revisited 278

6.1.2 Linear Motion and Deformation 278

6.1.3 Angular Motion and Deformation 279

6.2 Conservation of Mass 282

6.2.1 Differential Form of Continuity Equation 282

6.2.2 Cylindrical Polar Coordinates 285

6.2.3 The Stream Function 285

6.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum 288

6.3.1 Description of Forces Acting on the Differential Element 289

6.3.2 Equations of Motion 291

6.4 Inviscid Flow 292

6.4.1 Euler’s Equations of Motion 292

6.4.2 The Bernoulli Equation 292

6.4.3 Irrotational Flow 294

6.4.4 The Bernoulli Equation for Irrotational Flow 296

6.4.5 The Velocity Potential 296

6.5 Some Basic, Plane Potential Flows 286

6.5.1 Uniform Flow 300

6.5.2 Source and Sink 301

6.5.3 Vortex 303

6.5.4 Doublet 306

6.6 Superposition of Basic, Plane Potential Flows 308

6.6.1 Source in a Uniform Stream—Half-Body 308

6.6.2 Rankine Ovals 311

6.6.3 Flow around a Circular Cylinder 313

6.7 Other Aspects of Potential Flow Analysis 318

6.8 Viscous Flow 319

6.8.1 Stress-Deformation Relationships 319

6.8.2 The Navier–Stokes Equations 320

6.9 Some Simple Solutions for Viscous, Incompressible Fluids 321

6.9.1 Steady, Laminar Flow between Fixed Parallel Plates 322

6.9.2 Couette Flow 324

6.9.3 Steady, Laminar Flow in Circular Tubes 326

6.9.4 Steady, Axial, Laminar Flow in an Annulus 329

6.10 Other Aspects of Differential Analysis 331

6.10.1 Numerical Methods 331

6.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 332

References 333

Review Problems 334

Conceptual Questions 334

Problems 334

**7 Dimensional Analysis, Similitude, and Modeling 346**

Learning Objectives 346

7.1 Dimensional Analysis 347

7.2 Buckingham Pi Theorem 349

7.3 Determination of Pi Terms 350

7.4 Some Additional Comments about Dimensional Analysis 355

7.4.1 Selection of Variables 355

7.4.2 Determination of Reference Dimensions 356

7.4.3 Uniqueness of Pi Terms 358

7.5 Determination of Pi Terms by Inspection 359

7.6 Common Dimensionless Groups in Fluid Mechanics 360

7.7 Correlation of Experimental Data 364

7.7.1 Problems with One Pi Term 365

7.7.2 Problems with Two or More Pi Terms 366

7.8 Modeling and Similitude 368

7.8.1 Theory of Models 368

7.8.2 Model Scales 372

7.8.3 Practical Aspects of Using Models 372

7.9 Some Typical Model Studies 374

7.9.1 Flow through Closed Conduits 374

7.9.2 Flow around Immersed Bodies 377

7.9.3 Flow with a Free Surface 381

7.10 Similitude Based on Governing Differential Equations 384

7.11 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 387

References 388

Review Problems 388

Conceptual Questions 389

Problems 389

**8 Viscous Flow in Pipes 400**

Learning Objectives 400

8.1 General Characteristics of Pipe Flow 401

8.1.1 Laminar or Turbulent Flow 402

8.1.2 Entrance Region and Fully Developed Flow 405

8.1.3 Pressure and Shear Stress 406

8.2 Fully Developed Laminar Flow 407

8.2.1 From F ma Applied Directly to a Fluid Element 407

8.2.2 From the Navier–Stokes Equations 411

8.2.3 From Dimensional Analysis 413

8.2.4 Energy Considerations 414

8.3 Fully Developed Turbulent Flow 416

8.3.1 Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow 416

8.3.2 Turbulent Shear Stress 418

8.3.3 Turbulent Velocity Profile 422

8.3.4 Turbulence Modeling 426

8.3.5 Chaos and Turbulence 426

8.4 Dimensional Analysis of Pipe Flow 426

8.4.1 Major Losses 427

8.4.2 Minor Losses 432

8.4.3 Noncircular Conduits 442

8.5 Pipe Flow Examples 445

8.5.1 Single Pipes 445

8.5.2 Multiple Pipe Systems 455

8.6 Pipe Flowrate Measurement 459

8.6.1 Pipe Flowrate Meters 459

8.6.2 Volume Flowmeters 464

8.7 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 465

References 467

Review Problems 468

Conceptual Questions 468

Problems 468

**9 Flow Over Immersed Bodies 480**

Learning Objectives 480

9.1 General External Flow Characteristics 481

9.1.1 Lift and Drag Concepts 482

9.1.2 Characteristics of Flow Past an Object 485

9.2 Boundary Layer Characteristics 489

9.2.1 Boundary Layer Structure and Thickness on a Flat Plate 489

9.2.2 Prandtl/Blasius Boundary Layer Solution 493

9.2.3 Momentum Integral Boundary Layer Equation for a Flat Plate 497

9.2.4 Transition from Laminar to Turbulent Flow 502

9.2.5 Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow 504

9.2.6 Effects of Pressure Gradient 507

9.2.7 Momentum Integral Boundary Layer Equation with Nonzero Pressure Gradient 511

9.3 Drag 512

9.3.1 Friction Drag 513

9.3.2 Pressure Drag 514

9.3.3 Drag Coefficient Data and Examples 516

9.4 Lift 528

9.4.1 Surface Pressure Distribution 528

9.4.2 Circulation 537

9.5 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 541

References 542

Review Problems 543

Conceptual Questions 543

Problems 544

**10 Open-Channel Flow 554**

Learning Objectives 554

10.1 General Characteristics of Open-Channel Flow 555

10.2 Surface Waves 556

10.2.1 Wave Speed 556

10.2.2 Froude Number Effects 559

10.3 Energy Considerations 561

10.3.1 Specific Energy 562

10.3.2 Channel Depth Variations 565

10.4 Uniform Depth Channel Flow 566

10.4.1 Uniform Flow Approximations 566

10.4.2 The Chezy and Manning Equations 567

10.4.3 Uniform Depth Examples 570

10.5 Gradually Varied Flow 575

10.6 Rapidly Varied Flow 576

10.6.1 The Hydraulic Jump 577

10.6.2 Sharp-Crested Weirs 582

10.6.3 Broad-Crested Weirs 585

10.6.4 Underflow Gates 587

10.7 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 589

References 590

Review Problems 591

Conceptual Questions 591

Problems 591

**11 Compressible Flow 601**

Learning Objectives 601

11.1 Ideal Gas Relationships 602

11.2 Mach Number and Speed of Sound 607

11.3 Categories of Compressible Flow 610

11.4 Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas 614

11.4.1 Effect of Variations in Flow Cross-Sectional Area 615

11.4.2 Converging–Diverging Duct Flow 617

11.4.3 Constant Area Duct Flow 631

11.5 Nonisentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas 631

11.5.1 Adiabatic Constant Area Duct Flow with Friction (Fanno Flow) 631

11.5.2 Frictionless Constant Area Duct Flow with Heat Transfer (Rayleigh Flow) 642

11.5.3 Normal Shock Waves 648

11.6 Analogy between Compressible and Open-Channel Flows 655

11.7 Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow 657

11.8 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 658

References 661

Review Problems 662

Conceptual Questions 662

Problems 662

**12 Turbomachines 667**

Learning Objectives 667

12.1 Introduction 668

12.2 Basic Energy Considerations 669

12.3 Basic Angular Momentum Considerations 673

12.4 The Centrifugal Pump 675

12.4.1 Theoretical Considerations 676

12.4.2 Pump Performance Characteristics 680

12.4.3 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) 682

12.4.4 System Characteristics and Pump Selection 684

12.5 Dimensionless Parameters and Similarity Laws 688

12.5.1 Special Pump Scaling Laws 690

12.5.2 Specific Speed 691

12.5.3 Suction Specific Speed 692

12.6 Axial-Flow and Mixed-Flow Pumps 693

12.7 Fans 695

12.8 Turbines 695

12.8.1 Impulse Turbines 696

12.8.2 Reaction Turbines 704

12.9 Compressible Flow Turbomachines 707

12.9.1 Compressors 708

12.9.2 Compressible Flow Turbines 711

12.10 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 713

References 715

Review Problems 715

Conceptual Questions 715

Problems 716

A Computational Fluid Dynamics 725

B Physical Properties of Fluids 737

C Properties of the U.S. Standard Atmosphere 742

D Compressible Flow Graphs for an Ideal Gas (k 1.4) 744

E Comprehensive Table of Conversion Factors See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.

F CFD Problems and Tutorials See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.

G Review Problems See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.

H Lab Problems See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.

I CFD Driven Cavity Example See www.wiley.com/college/munson or WileyPLUS for this material.

Answers ANS-1

Index I-1

Video Index VI-1