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Fundamentals of Microfabrication: The Science of Miniaturization, Second Edition,9780849308260
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Fundamentals of Microfabrication: The Science of Miniaturization, Second Edition

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780849308260

ISBN10:
0849308267
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/13/2002
Publisher(s):
CRC Press
List Price: $139.95

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This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 3/13/2002.
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Summary

MEMS technology and applications have grown at a tremendous pace, while structural dimensions have grown smaller and smaller, reaching down even to the molecular level. With this movement have come new types of applications and rapid advances in the technologies and techniques needed to fabricate the increasingly miniature devices that are literally changing our world.A bestseller in its first edition, Fundamentals of Microfabrication, Second Edition reflects the many developments in methods, materials, and applications that have emerged recently. Renowned author Marc Madou has added exercise sets to each chapter, thus answering the need for a textbook in this field.Fundamentals of Microfabrication, Second Edition offers unique, in-depth coverage of the science of miniaturization, its methods, and materials. From the fundamentals of lithography through bonding and packaging to quantum structures and molecular engineering, it provides the background, tools, and directions you need to confidently choose fabrication methods and materials for a particular miniaturization problem.New in the Second Edition· Revised chapters that reflect the many recent advances in the field· Updated and enhanced discussions of topics including DNA arrays, microfluidics, micromolding techniques, and nanotechnology· In-depth coverage of bio-MEMs, RF-MEMs, high-temperature, and optical MEMs.· Many more links to the Web· Problem sets in each chapter

Table of Contents

Lithography
1(77)
Introduction
1(1)
Historical Note: Lithography's Origins
1(1)
Photolithography Overview
2(12)
Introduction
2(1)
Masks
3(1)
Spinning Resist and Soft Baking
3(1)
Exposure and Postexposure Treatment
4(1)
Development
5(1)
De-scumming and Postbaking
6(1)
Resists
6(4)
Wafer Priming
10(1)
Wafer Cleaning and Contaminants: The Clean Room
10(3)
Resist Stripping
13(1)
Critical Dimension, Overall Resolution, Line Width
14(1)
Lithographic Sensitivity and Intrinsic Resist Sensitivity (Photochemical Quantum Efficiency)
14(2)
Lithographic Sensitivity
14(1)
Intrinsic Sensitivity of a Resist (Photochemical Quantum Efficiency)
15(1)
Resist Profiles
16(3)
Overview of Profile Types
16(2)
Lift-Off Profile
18(1)
Contrast and Experimental Determination of Lithographic Sensitivity
19(2)
Resolution in Photolithography
21(11)
Introduction
21(1)
Resolution in Contact and Proximity Printing (Shadow Printing)
21(1)
Projection Printing
22(9)
Planarization
31(1)
Photolithography Resolution Enhancement Technology
32(12)
Introduction
32(1)
Strategies for Improved Resolution through Improved Resist Performance
33(8)
Strategies for Improved Resolution through Improved Mask Technology
41(3)
Beyond Moore's Law
44(4)
Introduction
44(1)
Moore's Law
44(2)
Kurzweil
46(2)
Next-Generation Lithographies
48(10)
Introduction
48(1)
Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography
48(1)
X-Ray Lithography
49(3)
Charged-Particle-Beam Lithography
52(6)
Emerging Lithography Technologies
58(10)
Introduction
58(1)
Scanning probe Lithography
58(3)
Very Thin Resist Layers
61(2)
Soft Lithography
63(2)
3D Lithography Methods
65(3)
Examples
68(2)
Protein Patterning
68(1)
Inclined LIGA Walls
69(1)
PDMS-Based CDs
69(1)
Problems
70(1)
References
71(6)
Pattern Transfer with Dry Etching Techniques
77(46)
Introduction
77(1)
Dry Etching: Definitions and Jargon
78(1)
Plasmas or Discharges
79(9)
Physics of DC Plasmas
79(4)
Spatial Zones in the Glow Discharge
83(1)
Paschen's Law
84(1)
Physics of RF Plasmas
85(3)
Physical Etching: Ion Etching or Sputtering and Ion-Beam Milling
88(5)
Introduction
88(1)
Sputtering or Ion Etching
88(1)
Ion-Beam Etching or Ion-Beam Milling
89(2)
Etching Profiles in Physical Etching
91(2)
Plasma Etching (Radical Etching)
93(4)
Introduction
93(1)
Reactor Configurations
93(1)
Reaction Mechanism
94(1)
Loading Effects-Uniformity and Nonuniformity
95(1)
Atmospheric Downstream Plasma Etching or Plasma Jet Etching
95(2)
Ion Energy vs. Pressure Relationship in a Plasma
97(1)
Physical/Chemical Etching
97(7)
Introduction
97(1)
Energy-Driven Anisotropy
97(2)
Inhibitor-Driven Anisotropy
99(1)
Dopant-Driven Anisotropy
100(1)
Gas Compositions in Dry Etching
101(1)
Simplifying Rules
101(3)
Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE)
104(3)
Introduction
104(1)
New Plasma Sources
104(2)
Common Problems Associated with DRIE
106(1)
Vapor-Phase Etching without Plasma (XeF2)
107(1)
Dry Etching Models-In Situ Monitoring
108(2)
Comparing Wet and Dry Etching
110(1)
Examples
110(6)
Via Etching in Si
110(1)
Single-Crystal Reactive Etching and Metallization (SCREAM)
111(3)
Post-CMOS Processing for High-Aspect-Ratio Integrated Silicon Microstructures
114(1)
Dry Etching of polymeric Materials
114(1)
Combination Wet and Dry Etching
115(1)
Problems
116(2)
References
118(5)
Pattern Transfer with Additive Techniques
123(60)
Introduction
123(2)
Silicon Growth
125(2)
Doping of Si
127(4)
Introduction
127(1)
Conductivity of Semiconductors
128(1)
Si Doping by Diffusion
128(2)
Doping by Implantation
130(1)
Oxidation of Silicon
131(3)
Kinetics
131(2)
Orientation Dependence of Oxidation Kinetics
133(1)
Properties of Thermal SiO2
133(1)
Physical Vapor Deposition
134(10)
Introduction
134(1)
Thermal Evaporation
135(3)
Sputtering
138(2)
Molecular Beam Epitaxy
140(1)
Laser Sputter Deposition or Ablation Deposition
141(2)
Ion Plating
143(1)
Cluster Beam Technology
143(1)
Chemical Vapor Deposition
144(10)
Introduction
144(1)
Reaction Mechanisms
144(2)
Step Coverage
146(1)
Energy Sources for CVD Processes
147(1)
Overview of CVD Process Types
148(4)
Epitaxy
152(2)
CVD Equipment
154(1)
Silk-Screening or Screen Printing
154(2)
Introduction
154(1)
How It Works
155(1)
Types of Inks
155(1)
Sol-Gel Deposition Technique
156(1)
Doctor's Blade or Tape Casting
157(1)
Plasma Spraying
157(2)
Introduction
157(1)
How It Works
157(2)
Deposition and Arraying Methods of Organic Layers in BIOMEMS
159(9)
Introduction
159(1)
Deposition Methods for Organic Materials
159(2)
Patterning of Organic Materials
161(7)
Thin vs. Thick Film Deposition
168(2)
Selection Criteria for Deposition Method
170(1)
Examples
170(4)
Spray Pyrolysis
170(2)
Plasma-Beam Deposition
172(2)
Proposed Scenario for Continuous Manufacture of polymer/Metal Based Biosensors-Beyond Batch
174(1)
Problems
174(4)
References
178(5)
Wet Bulk Micromachining
183(76)
Introduction
183(1)
Historical Note
184(1)
Silicon Crystallography
185(8)
Introduction
185(1)
Miller Indices
185(1)
Crystal Structure of Silicon
186(1)
Geometric Relationships between Some Important Planes in the Silicon Lattice
187(6)
Silicon as Substrate
193(2)
Silicon as a Mechanical Element in MEMS
195(9)
Introduction
195(1)
Stress-Strain Curve and Elasticity Constants
195(3)
Residual Stress in Si
198(1)
Yield, Tensile Strength, Hardness, and Creep
199(1)
Piezoresistivity in Silicon
200(3)
Bending of Thin Si Plates
203(1)
Silicon as a Mechanical MEMS Material: Summary
204(1)
Other Si Sensor Properties
204(2)
Thermal Properties of Silicon
204(1)
Silicon Optical Properties
205(1)
Wet Isotropic and Anisotropic Etching
206(22)
Introduction
206(2)
Isotropic Etching
208(4)
Anisotropic Etching
212(8)
Chemical Etching Models
220(8)
Etching with Bias and/or Illumination of the Semiconductor
228(4)
Introduction
228(1)
Electropolishing and Microporous Silicon
229(3)
Etch-Stop Techniques
232(7)
Introduction
232(1)
Boron Etch Stop
233(2)
Electrochemical Etch Stop
235(2)
Photo-Assisted Electrochemical Etch Stop (for n-Type Silicon)
237(1)
Photo-Induced Preferential Anodization (for p-Type Silicon)
238(1)
Etch Stop at Thin Insoluble Films
239(1)
Issues in Wet Bulk Micromachining
239(6)
Introduction
239(1)
Extensive Real Estate Consumption
239(1)
Corner Compensation
240(5)
Computer Simulation Software
245(1)
Examples
245(5)
Dissolved Wafer Process
245(1)
An Electrochemical Sensor Array Measuring pH, CO2, and O2 in a Dual Lumen Catheter
246(1)
Disposable Electrochemical Valves
247(2)
Self Aligned Vertical Mirrors and V-Grooves for a Magnetic Micro-Optical Matrix Switch
249(1)
Problems
250(1)
References
251(8)
Surface Micromachining
259(66)
Introduction
259(1)
Historical Note
260(1)
Mechanical Properties of Thin Films
261(11)
Introduction
261(1)
Adhesion
262(1)
Stress in Thin Films
262(3)
Stress-Measuring Techniques
265(7)
Strength of Thin Films
272(1)
Surface Micromachining Processes
272(11)
Basic Process Sequence
272(1)
Fabrication Step Details
273(4)
Control of Film Stress
277(2)
Dimensional Uncertainties
279(1)
Sealing Processes in Surface Micromachining
279(1)
IC Compatibility
280(3)
Poly-Si Surface Micromachining Modifications
283(4)
Porous Poly-Si
283(1)
Hinged Polysilicon
283(2)
Thick Polysilicon
285(1)
Milli-Scale Molded Polysilicon Structures
285(2)
Surface Micromachinig Modifications Not Involving Polysilicon
287(5)
SOI Surface Micromachining
287(4)
Resists as Structural Elements and Molds m Surface Micromachining
291(1)
Comparison of Bulk Micromachining with Surface Micromachining
292(1)
Materials Case Studies
293(13)
Introduction
293(1)
Polysilicon Deposition and Material Structure
294(4)
Amorphous and Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon
298(1)
Silicon Nitride
299(2)
CVD Silicon Dioxides
301(2)
Metals in Surface Micromachining
303(1)
Polycrystalline Diamond and SiC Films
303(2)
GaAs
305(1)
Examples
306(7)
Analog Devices Accelerometer
306(2)
TI Micromirrors
308(2)
Design of SOI-Based High-Sensitivity Piezoresistive Cantilevers for Label-Less Sensing
310(3)
Problems
313(2)
References
315(10)
LIGA and Micromolding
325(54)
Introduction
325(1)
LIGA-Background
325(5)
History
325(2)
Synchrotron Orbital Radiation (SOR)
327(3)
Access to the Technology
330(1)
LIGA and LIGA-Like Process Steps
330(39)
X-Ray Masks
330(5)
Choice of primary Substrate
335(1)
Resist Requirements
335(1)
Methods of Resist Application
336(3)
Exposure
339(2)
Development
341(1)
Comparison of Master Micromold Fabrication Methods
342(2)
Metal Deposition
344(13)
Molding
357(10)
Demolding
367(1)
Sarcificial Layers
367(1)
Alternative Materials m LIGA
368(1)
Examples
369(2)
Electromagnetic Micromotor
369(1)
LIGA Spinneret Nozzles
369(1)
LIGA Fiber-Chip Coupling
370(1)
Problems
371(2)
References
373(6)
A Comparison of Miniaturization Techniques: Top-Down and Bottom-Up Manufacturing
379(88)
Introduction
379(1)
Absolute and Relative Tolerance in Manufacturing
380(1)
Historical Note: Human Manufacturing
381(4)
Section I: Top-Down Manufacturing Methods
385(38)
Introduction
385(1)
Chemical Microfabrication
385(5)
Electrochemical Machining
390(5)
Wet vs. Dry Microfabrication
395(3)
Electrothermal Processes
398(15)
Mechanical Processes
413(6)
Comparison of Top-Down Micromachining Techniques
419(4)
Section II: Bottom-Up Approaches
423(33)
Introduction
424(1)
Nature's Engineering Feats
425(18)
How to Apply Nature's Tools-Merging of Biotechnology with Nanofabrication
443(13)
Examples
456(2)
An Electrochemical Immunosensor
456(1)
An Optical Immunosensor
457(1)
Problems
458(2)
References
460(7)
Modeling, Brains, Packaging, Sample Preparation, and Substrate Choice
467(68)
Introduction
467(1)
Modeling
468(5)
Introduction
468(1)
Finite Element Analysis
468(2)
CAD for MEMS
470(3)
Future of CAD for MEMS
473(1)
Brains in MEMS
473(5)
Introduction
473(1)
State of the Art in Computer Development
474(1)
Brains in Nature
474(1)
Artificial Intelligence
475(3)
Packaging
478(34)
Introduction
478(1)
Packaging in Integrated Circuits vs. in Mechanical Micromachines
478(3)
Dicing
481(1)
Cavity Sealing and Bonding
481(13)
Higher Levels of packaging-L2 to L5
494(1)
Stress Isolation and Thermal Management
494(1)
Multichip Packaging
495(1)
Connections between Layers (Vias)
496(1)
Partitioning
497(6)
Micro and Nano Assembly
503(5)
Biocompatibility
508(4)
Sample Preparation in Molecular Diagnostics
512(6)
Introduction
512(1)
Types of Samples
512(1)
Sample Preparation Protocols for Integrated DNA Analysis Devices
513(5)
Substrate Choice
518(4)
Introduction
518(1)
Quartz MEMS
519(1)
Micromachining and Surface Microstructuring of Ceramics
519(2)
Polyimide MEMS
521(1)
Examples
522(1)
Packaging of a Variable Entrance Slit for a Spectrophotometer
522(1)
A Miniature Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Sensor-Spreeta™
523(1)
Problems
523(1)
References
524(11)
Scaling, Actuators, and Power in Miniaturized Systems
535(80)
Introduction
535(1)
Scaling
536(11)
Introduction
536(1)
Micro Intuition and Nature as a Guide
536(1)
Scaling of Length, Surface Area, and Volume
537(1)
Scaling in Flying and Swimming
537(1)
Scaling and Surface Tension
538(1)
Scaling and Diffusion
539(1)
Scaling of Minimal Analytical Sample Size
540(1)
Scaling in Electrochemistry
540(1)
Scaling in Optics
540(2)
Scaling of Strength-to-Weight Ratio and Inertia
542(1)
Fundamental Frequency and Quality Factor
543(1)
Muscle, Flagellum, and Protein Motors
543(2)
Trimmer's Vertical Bracket Notation
545(2)
Actuators
547(32)
Introduction
547(1)
Electric Actuators
547(27)
Magnetic Actuators
574(5)
Fluidics
579(8)
Introduction
579(1)
Macroscale Laws for Fluid Flow
580(3)
Breakdown of Flow Continuum
583(1)
Capillary Forces
584(3)
Thermal Actuators
587(6)
Introduction
587(1)
Macroscale Laws in Heat Conduction
587(3)
Breakdown of Continuum in Heat Transfer
590(1)
Example Thermal Actuators
591(2)
Scaling in Analytical Separation Equipment
593(7)
Introduction
593(1)
Commonly Used Terms in Separation Chemistry
594(1)
Band Broadcasting in the Column
595(1)
Other Band Broadening Effects
596(4)
Other Actuators
600(1)
Power in MEMS
600(2)
Introduction
600(1)
MEMS Batteries and Capacitors
601(1)
Beam Energy to the MEMS
601(1)
Heat-Powered MEMS
602(1)
Kinetic Energy Driven MEMS
602(1)
Combustion Engines in MEMS
602(1)
Examples
602(3)
The Bead d Array Counter (BARC)
602(1)
The Nanogen Chip
602(1)
Field Ionization Sources
603(2)
Problems
605(1)
References
606(9)
Miniaturization Applications
615(54)
Introduction
615(1)
Definitions and Classification Method
616(5)
Introduction
616(1)
Definitions
616(2)
Classification Method
618(3)
Decision Tree
621(3)
Specifications
621(1)
Scaling Characteristics of Micromechanisms
622(1)
Checklist
622(2)
Overall Market for Micromachines
624(6)
Introduction
624(1)
Why Use Miniaturization Technology?
624(1)
From Perception to Realization
625(1)
Overall MEMS Market Size
626(3)
MEMS Market Characteristics
629(1)
MEMS in the Automotive Market
630(9)
Introduction
630(1)
Pressure
631(3)
Accelerometers
634(3)
Angular Rate Sensors and Gyroscopes
637(1)
Conclusions
638(1)
MEMS in Medical and Biomedical Markets
639(11)
Introduction
639(1)
Market Character
639(2)
In Vitro Diagnostics
641(3)
In Vivo MEMS Applications
644(2)
Miniaturization in Biomedical Instruments
646(4)
Environmental Monitoring
650(5)
Introduction
650(1)
MEMS and Solid State Gas Sensors and Solid State Gas Sensor Arrays
651(1)
Electrochemical Gas Sensors
652(1)
Optochemical Gas Sensor
652(1)
Instrumentation
652(3)
Industrial/Automation
655(3)
Introduction
656(1)
ISFETs
656(1)
Microhygrometer
657(1)
Valves
657(1)
IT/Peripheral
658(3)
Introduction
658(1)
Memory Read/Write Devices
658(2)
Ink-Jet Cartridges
660(1)
Other MEMS IT Applications
660(1)
Telecommunications
661(3)
Introduction
661(1)
Optical Communications
662(2)
Wireless Communications
664(1)
Problems
664(2)
References
666(3)
Appendix A Metrology Techniques for MEMS 669(2)
Appendix B Living Book 671(2)
Appendix C Si and SiO2 Etch Rates in KOH 673(2)
Appendix D Genetics 675(4)
The 20 Amino Acids Found in Biological Systems
675(2)
The Genetic Code
677(2)
Appendix E Suggested Further Reading 679(6)
Books on Top-Drum and Bottom-Up Miniaturization
679(3)
Journals and Periodicals on Micromachining and Sensors
682(1)
Series on Micromachining and Sensors
682(1)
Market Studies on Micromachining and Sensors
683(1)
Important Proceedings/Conferences on Micromachining and Sensors
683(2)
Hilton Head Conferences
683(1)
MEMS
683(1)
Chemical Sensors
684(1)
International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators (Transducers)
684(1)
International Society for Optical Engineers (SPIE)
684(1)
MicroTotalAnalysis Systems (μTAS)
684(1)
Nanotech
684(1)
Eurosensors
684(1)
Commercial conference planners
684(1)
Knowledge Foundation
684(1)
BBC
684(1)
CHI
684(1)
Appendix F MEMS Companies 685(2)
Appendix G Glossary 687(16)
Index 703


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