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Fundamentals of Music,9780131120938
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Fundamentals of Music

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780131120938

ISBN10:
013112093X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $95.60
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Summary

For instructors who include basic musicianship skills in the fundamentals course, the (recorded) ear-training drills and keyboard studies, together with a variety of sight-singing excerpts will provide ample material. Fundamentals of Music, Fourth Edition, presents a complete introduction to music fundamentals and basic musicianship. In this popular text/CD package, the author employs a fresh, student-centered style to introduce and explain traditional topics such as notation, meter, scales, triads, and chords. The text informs, guides, and encourages students with basic theoretical information that is balanced with helpful suggestions for study, copious exercise material, introductory aural skills training, and self-tests with answers. The revised compact disc is more fully integrated as a text supplement and features seventy easily accessible tracks of professional performances designed to help students associate the sounds of music with their symbols.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
PART I NOTATION
Introduction: The Language and Traditions of Western Music
1(4)
The Notation of Rhythm
5(24)
Notation
5(1)
The Notation of Rhythm
6(23)
Note Values
6(2)
Measures
8(3)
Lesser Rhythmic Values
11(3)
Rests
14(3)
The Dot
17(1)
The Tie
18(3)
Beams and Flags
21(2)
Self-Test
23(2)
Supplementary Studies
25(4)
The Notation of Pitch
29(24)
The Staff
29(2)
The Clef
31(5)
The Octave
36(1)
Ledger Lines
37(3)
The Grand Staff
40(6)
Self-Test
46(3)
Supplementary Studies
49(4)
The Keyboard
53(30)
The Keyboard
54(5)
Accidentals
59(11)
The Sharp
59(1)
The Flat
60(1)
The Natural Sign
60(5)
Double Sharps and Double Flats
65(1)
Enharmonic Equivalents
66(4)
Octave Designation
70(13)
Self-Test
77(2)
Supplementary Studies
79(2)
Unit Review
81(2)
PART II METER
Simple Meters
83(34)
Metric Accent
84(8)
Triple Meter
84(1)
Duple Meter
85(1)
Quadruple Meter
86(1)
Full Measures of Rest
87(1)
Adding Barlines
87(5)
Beat Division
92(7)
Beat Subdivision
96(3)
Simple Time Signatures
99(4)
Classification of Simple Meters
101(1)
Counting Rhythms
101(2)
Syncopation
103(14)
Self-Test
111(2)
Supplementary Studies
113(4)
Compound Meters
117(32)
Beat Division
117(3)
Beat Subdivision
120(1)
Note Values in Compound Meters
121(3)
Compound Time Signatures
124(6)
Counting in Compound Meters
130(2)
Borrowed Division
132(17)
Self-Test
143(2)
Supplementary Studies
145(2)
Unit Review
147(2)
PART III SCALES, INTERVALS, AND KEYS
Major Scales and Keys
149(30)
The Major Scale
149(6)
Scale Degrees
151(1)
Diatonic and Chromatic Half Steps
151(2)
The Major and Minor Modes
153(2)
Transposition
155(7)
Constructing Major Scales
158(4)
Major Keys
162(17)
Key Signatures
162(2)
Order of Sharps and Flats
164(2)
Major Key Signatures
166(7)
Self-Test
173(2)
Supplementary Studies
175(4)
Intervals
179(34)
Interval Type
180(4)
Interval Quality
184(15)
Perfect Intervals
184(1)
Perfect Invervals in the Major Scale
185(5)
Major/Minor Intervals
190(9)
Other Aspects of Interval Construction and Identification
199(4)
Enharmonic Spellings
199(1)
Simple and Compoung Intervals
199(1)
Problem Intervals
200(1)
The Circle of Fifths
201(2)
Interval Inversion
203(10)
Writing Intervals below a Given Pitch
205(1)
Self-Test
206(3)
Supplementary Studies
209(4)
Minor Scales and Keys
213(36)
The Minor Scales
214(3)
Variations in Minor
217(11)
Natural (Pure) Minor
217(1)
Harmonic Minor
218(2)
Melodic Minor
220(8)
Keys and Key Relationships
228(21)
Minor Key Signatures
228(2)
The Parallel Relationship
230(1)
The Relative Relationship
230(9)
Self-Test
239(2)
Supplementary Studies
241(4)
Unit Review
245(4)
PART IV TRIADS
Root-Position Triads
249(30)
Root Position
250(1)
Triad Quality
250(6)
Triad Identification: All Qualities
256(1)
Triads and Key Signatures
256(9)
Triads with Third or Fifth Given
265(3)
Arpeggiated Triads
268(1)
Self-Test
269(2)
Supplementary Studies
271(8)
Inverted Triads
279(28)
Inverted Triads
279(7)
First Inversion
280(1)
Second Inversion
280(1)
Open and Close Position
281(1)
Construction of Inverted Triads
281(2)
Triad Construction: Given Bass
283(3)
Triad Identification
286(21)
Doubling and Spacing
287(4)
Figured Bass
291(6)
Self-Test
297(2)
Supplementary Studies
299(6)
Unit Review
305(2)
PART V INTRODUCTION TO MUSIC THEORY
Diatonic Relationships
307(22)
Constructing Diatonic Triads
309(4)
Roman-Numeral Designations
313(1)
Triad Quality in Minor
314(3)
Inversions
317(6)
Self-Test
323(2)
Supplementary Studies
325(4)
Basic Concepts of Tonal Harmony
329(48)
Consonance and Dissonance
329(6)
The Dominant Seventh Chord
333(2)
Cadences
335(20)
Constructing Cadences: Two-Voice Texture
340(7)
Self-Test
347(2)
Supplementary Studies
349(4)
Unit Review
353(2)
APPENDIXES
A The Nature of Sound
355(4)
Acoustics and Psychoacoustics
355(1)
Sound Waves
355(1)
Amplitude and Intensity
356(1)
Timbre and Quality
356(1)
The Harmonic Series
357(1)
Duration and Length
358(1)
B Other Modes and Scales
359(4)
Church Modes
359(2)
Other Scales
361(1)
The Pentatonic Scale
361(1)
The Whole-Tone Scale
362(1)
The Chromatic Scale
362(1)
C Terms and Symbols of Tempo and Expression
363(2)
Tempo
363(1)
Dynamics
364(1)
Expression
364(1)
Glossary of Italian Terms
364(1)
D The C-Clefs
365(5)
E Answers to Self-Tests
370(7)
Glossary 377(8)
Index 385

Excerpts

Scholars speculate that sometime before the year 1000 C.E., an anonymous monk, hand-copying a music manuscript on dried parchment, decided to scratch a horizontal line across the page in an effort to represent pitches more precisely. Before that historic development, music was notated (written down) primarily as a memory aid. Notes were copied relatively higher or lower on the page, but only in anapproximate sense;performers still had to learn the music "by heart" and try to remember hundreds of compositions with only the most elementary of visual guidelines. From those humble beginnings, Western composers and performers gradually developed the staff, various clefs, and other components of a language of pitch notation that we continue to employ today with only minor improvements. In addition, by about 1300, composers had devised an effective means of portraying time values so that virtually any one tone could be represented in virtually any length. With the development of musical notation, Western composers no longer needed to rely on the performer's memory; the basic sounds and time values of, a composition could be illustrated graphically with a set of symbols. Those who knew this language of music--thefundamentals--might study, perform, arrange, or teach a piece of music as if they, themselves, had written it. Today, most o# us can sing, whistle, hum, or pick out a tune on the piano or the guitar, but only those who can read and write the language of Western music are able to share their accomplishments effectively with an audience of potential performers. In each era since our Medieval monk's experiment, musical style and vocabulary have continued to evolve. Along with each stylistic change, the musical language of notation has accommodated innovative sounds with new symbols to represent them on paper. At the same time, however, precise notation has had its price. Succeeding generations of music professionals, fluent in the language of traditional music, have consistently rejected new instruments, combinations of tones, and innovative styles if their notation would require wholesale changes in the system. In short, since about 1550 when the language of traditional Western notation began its final stage of evolution, the fundamentals of music have changed very little. Fundamentals of Musicfamiliarizes you with the notation and performance of Western music. Whether you are preparing for a career in music or desire simply to develop an appreciation of the musician's language, you will learn the terms, symbols, practices, and conventions that make our music sound the way it does. For some, performance as well as theoretical knowledge will be a course goal. To that end, in addition to fundamental musical materials in theory, you will find numerous musical excerpts (many recorded on the companion compact disc), performance exercises, and creative activities that will address those needs. USING THE TEXT The fourth edition ofFundamentals of Musicis especially easy to use. In addition to prose text and examples from traditional "classical" music, you will find exercises and examples that center on musical theater, jazz, and rock styles. Alongside the traditional excerpts by male composers of yesterday and today, there is music by women composers of various historical eras. Boxed text in most chapters gives you an additional perspective, offers a method of study, or provides a shortcut. Each chapter centers on four areas: text, skill exercises, a self-test with answers, and supplementary studies. Begin each chapter with a look at the "Essential Terms," which are listed alphabetically. You will need to know these terms and their definitions to master the chapter material, and more likely than not, they will be essential in later studies as well. TheSkill Exercisesthroughout each chapter vary from simple objective questions to performance activ


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