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Fundamentals of Music Rudiments, Musicianship, and Composition,9780205118335
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Fundamentals of Music Rudiments, Musicianship, and Composition

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Mastering Fundamentals in a Musical Context Fundamentals of Musicprovides a clear and comprehensive approach to mastering the language of music. The authors invite students to create composition projects, develop aural skills through listening exercises, and analyze musical examples from various styles and genres. With two new authors, this text has been thoroughly revised and expanded, yet maintains the intent of its original author Earl Henry. The optional MySearchLab with eText powered by Exposition Music provides opportunities for students to practice their skills and receive immediate feedback. Each chapter has a pretest, post-test, and chapter review. Separate drills are included for ear training. These assessments feature more than the usual multiple-choice questions, allowing a student to drag and drop notation on a musical staff. This provides opportunities to demonstrate the mastery of concepts and reach a variety of learning styles. A better teaching and learning experience This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience- for you and your students. Here's how: Personalize Learning- The new MySearchLab with eText delivers proven results in helping students succeed, provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, and comes from a trusted partner with educational expertise and a deep commitment to helping students and instructors achieve their goals. Improve Critical Thinking- Each of the 13 chapters divide into five main areas allowing students to learn terms and symbols and expand their listening skills. Exercises encourage students to apply concepts to a piece of music at the conclusion of each chapter. Engage Students- Each chapter concludes with a number of creative exercises and projects allowing students to learn interactively. With the audio CD and MySearchLab powered by Exposition Music, students can polish their aural skills using the drills designed specifically to accompany the text. Support Instructors- A full Instructor's Manual is available for this text. Additional assessment is made available through Exposition Music. Note:MySearchLab with eText does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MySearchLab with eText, please visitwww.mysearchlab.comor you can purchase a ValuePack of the text + MySearchLab with eText: ValuePack ISBN 10: 0205885896 / ValuePack ISBN-13: 9780205885893.

Author Biography

Susan Piagentini, Ph.D.

Northwestern University


Susan Piagentini, Charles Deering McCormick University Distinguished Lecturer, is Coordinator of the first-year core curriculum at Northwestern University where she teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in music theory, aural skills and music theory pedagogy. In her role as coordinator, she mentors the teaching assistants and instructors that provide instruction in the core courses.   Dr. Piagentini received her B.M. in Instrumental Music Education from Augustana College and her M.M. and Ph.D. in Music Theory from the Northwestern University.  Her Ph.D. research was the first dissertation in Music Cognition at Northwestern, and blended her interests in pedagogy, music cognition, technology, and music theory.   The study documented student-learning strategies in music analysis and resulted in a production system model of consistent strategies exhibited across the participants in the study.   The results continue to inform her teaching, focusing on the varied problem solving paths learners use to unfold the analysis of a musical score.  Her more current research on web-based music theory assessment can be found in TI:ME (Technology Institute for Music Educators) and the Journal of Technology in Music Learning.


Dr. Piagentini received numerous grants and awards to develop online tools to accompany the core courses at Northwestern. Funding from the Searle Center for Teaching Excellence, the Undergraduate Research Grants Committee, and the Alumni Foundation has paved the way to providing an extension of the classroom in the form of online, interactive skill building practice and assessment tools.  She has also received awards in relation to excellence in undergraduate education, including the Northwestern University Faculty Honor Roll, and the Charles Deering McCormick University Distinguished Lecturer Award.


Piagentini is the President of the Great Lakes regional chapter of the College Music Society.  In 2011, she was appointed conference chair for ATMI (Association for Technology in Music Instruction) and as a member of the National Programming Committee for the College Music Society.  Recently Piagentini was appointed to the CMS Advisory Committee for Music Theory.  She is a frequent presenter on the use of technology to enhance learning at national and regional conferences, including the Society for Music Theory, Association for Technology in Music Instruction, Technological Directions in Music Learning, TI:ME, and the College Music Society.  



Jennifer S. Snodgrass, Ph.D.

Appalachian State University


Jennifer Sterling Snodgrass is currently an associate professor of music theory and director of graduate studies in the Hayes School of Music at Appalachian State University, teaching both undergraduate and graduate courses in music theory, aural skills, and music theory pedagogy. Dr. Snodgrass received her B.M. in vocal performance from Meredith College and her M.M. in music theory from the University of Tennessee. In 2002, Snodgrass earned a Ph.D. from the University of Maryland where her research focused on computer-assisted instruction and pedagogy.


She has received numerous grants and awards in relation to technology and music instruction. In 2006, Snodgrass was awarded the Tablet PC Higher Education Award from the Microsoft Corporation for her integration of the Tablet PC into undergraduate theory courses.  Her research has been published in several journals including the Journal of Technology in Music Learning, The TI:MEs, Music Theory Online, Sacred Music, and the Music Educators Journal. She has also received numerous awards in relation to excellence in undergraduate education, including the National DyKnow Educator of the Month, the Plemmons Leadership Medallion, and the Hayes School of Music Outstanding Teaching Award.


Snodgrass is currently an officer in the Mid-Atlantic chapter of the College Music Society and is a member of research board for TI:ME.  In 2007, she was appointed as the National Conference Chair for ATMI (Association for Technology in Music Instruction) and a member of the National Programming Committee for the College Music Society.  She most recently was appointed to the editorial board for the Journal of Music Theory Pedagogy and is the co-chair of the Web Editorial Board for the JMTP.   


Besides her primary interest in music theory and technology, Dr. Snodgrass maintains an active vocal performance agenda.  She is active in solfege workshops and has served as a guest clinician for music educators across the southeast. 


Jennifer Snodgrass lives in western North Carolina with her husband, Greg and daughter, Katherine.  


Table of Contents

In this Section:

1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents



Chapter 1   Notating Rhythm

Chapter 2   Notating Pitch

Chapter 3   The Keyboard

Chapter 4   Simple Meters

Chapter 5   Major Scales and Keys

Chapter 6   Intervals

Chapter 7   Compound Meters

Chapter 8   Minor Scales and Keys

Chapter 9   Introduction to Form

Chapter 10 Triads

Chapter 11 Chords and Symbols

Chapter 12 Tonality

Chapter 13 Harmonization



Chapter 1 Notating Rhythm

Essential Terms and Symbols

Traditional Western Music


The Notation of Rhythm

Note Values

Rest Values


Time Signatures

Calligraphy: Note and Rest Values

Smaller Rhythmic Values

A Step Further: Larger and Smaller Note Values

Calligraphy: Eighths and Sixteenths

The Dot

The Tie

Flags and Beams

Building Skills

Creative Projects

Analysis in Context


Chapter 2 Notating Pitch

Essential Terms and Symbols

The Staff

The Clef

Stem Direction

Tricks of the Trade: Learning the “ABCs”

Ledger Lines

Calligraphy: Clefs and Ledger Lines

The Octave

The Grand Staff

Musicianship 2-1

Building Skills

Creative Projects

Analysis in Context


Chapter 3 The Keyboard

Essential Terms and Symbols

The Keyboard

Octave Designation

Musicianship 3-1


The Sharp

The Flat

The Natural Sign

Double Sharps and Double Flats

Enharmonic Equivalents

Diatonic Pitches

Diatonic and Chromatic Half Steps

Musicianship 3-2

Calligraphy: Notating Accidentals

Building Skills

Creative Projects

Analysis in Context


Chapter 4 Simple Meters

Essential Terms and Symbols

Metric Accent

Triple Meter

Duple Meter

Quadruple Meter

Rest Notation

Tricks of the Trade: Using Counting Syllables

Musicianship 4-1

Beat Division and Subdivision

Meters with an Eighth-Note Beat

Alla Breve and Common Time

A Step Further: Conducting


Calligraphy: Beaming

Tricks of the Trade: Counting Syllables

Equivalent Meters

Musicianship 4-2

Building Skills

Creative Projects

Analysis in Context


Chapter 5 Major Scales and Keys

Essential Terms and Symbols

The Major Scales

Scale Degrees

Musicianship 5-1

Transposing Major Scales

Musicianship 5-2

Major Keys

Key Signature

Order of Sharps and Flats

Major Key Signatures

The Circle of Fifths

Tricks of the Trade: Learning Key Signatures

Musicianship 5-3

Building Skills

Creative Projects

Analysis in Context


Chapter 6 Intervals

Essential Terms

Interval Size

Musicianship 6-1

Interval Quality

Perfect Intervals

Understanding Quality by Major-Scale Comparison

Musicianship 6-2

A Step Further: Doubly Augmented and Diminished Intervals

Major/Minor Intervals

Guidelines for Interval Construction and Identification

Musicianship 6-3

Interval Inversion

Writing Intervals Below a Given Pitch

Building Skills

Creative Projects

Analysis in Context


Chapter 7 Compound Meters

Essential Terms and Symbols

Note Values in Compound Meters

Compound Time Signatures

Beat Subdivision

Tricks of the Trade: Meter Signatures

Calligraphy: Beaming in Compound Meters

Tricks of the Trade: Counting in Compound Meters

Musicianship 7-1

Borrowed Division

Tricks of the Trade: Counting the Borrowed Division

Musicianship 7-2

Building Skills

Creative Projects

Analysis in Context


Chapter 8 Minor Scales and Keys

Essential Terms

Major and Minor Modes

Minor Scales

The Parallel Relationship

Minor Key Signatures

The Relative Relationship

Tricks of the Trade: Parallel Major and Minor Keys

Musicianship 8-1

Variations in Minor

Natural Minor

Harmonic Minor

Melodic Minor

Musicianship 8-2

Musicianship 8-3

Building Skills

Creative Projects

Analysis in Context


Chapter 9 Introduction to Form

Essential Terms and Symbols

Building Phrases

Unifying and Extending Phrases





The Period

Phrase Group

Double Period

Other Forms

Verse and Refrain

Thirty-Two Bar Song Form

Building Skills

Creative Projects

Analysis in Context


Chapter 10 Triads

Essential Terms

Triad Quality

Major and Minor Triads

Musicianship 10-1

Diminished and Augmented Triads

Identifying and Constructing Triads

Triads and Stability

Musicianship 10-2

Inverted Triads

First and Second Inversions

Musicianship 10-3

Constructing Triads with Given Third or Fifth

Triads with Given Third

Triads with Given Fifth

Musicianship 10-4

Building Skills

Creative Projects

Analysis in Context


Chapter 11 Chords and Symbols

Essential Terms and Symbols

Triad and Chord Identification


Identifying Chords


Musicianship 11-1

Chord Symbols

Roman-Numeral Analysis

Diatonic Triads in Major Keys

Figured-Bass Symbols

Musicianship 11-2

Diatonic Triads in Minor Keys

Building Skills

Creative Projects

Analysis in Context


Chapter 12 Tonality

Essential Terms



A Step Further: Improvisation


Melodic Tendency

Musicianship 12-1

Harmonic Function

Tonic, Predominant, and Dominant Functions

Harmonic Dissonance

Seventh Chords

Other Types of Seventh Chords and Symbols

Musicianship 12-2

Building Skills

Creative Projects

Analysis in Context


Chapter 13 Harmonization

Essential Terms


Harmonic Cadences

Planning Cadences in a Melody

Harmonic Rhythm

Planning Harmonic Rhythm in a Harmonization

Harmonizing a Melody

Nonchord Tones

Vocal Ranges

Keys and Transposition

Planning the Harmony

Issues in Jazz and Popular Styles

A Step Further: Copyright

Musicianship 13-1

Building Skills

Creative Projects

Analysis in Context



Appendix A: The Nature of Sound

Essential Terms

Sound Waves

Amplitude and Intensity

Timbre and Quality

The Harmonic Series

Duration and Length

Appendix B: Terms and Symbols of Tempo and Expression

Essential Terms




Short Glossary of Italian Terms

Appendix C: The C Clefs

Essential Terms

Alto and Tenor Clefs

Building Skills

Appendix D: Answers to Ear Training Exercises

Appendix E: Modes and Other Scales

The Modes

Other Modes and Scales

Building Skills

Creative Projects

Appendix E can be found online at MySearchLab with


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