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Fundamentals of Nursing : Standards and Practice,9781401859183
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Fundamentals of Nursing : Standards and Practice

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9781401859183

ISBN10:
1401859186
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/9/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $234.95
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Summary

Fundamentals of Nursing: Standards and Practice, third edition, highlights the core themes for the introductory nursing student, including nurse, person, health, and environment. This text provides comprehensive coverage of fundamental nursing concepts, skills, and standards of practice that challenge you to learn and apply critical thinking skills for culturally diverse populations in a variety of environments. Research, evidence-based practice, and emerging practice issues are highlighted to help you prepare for delivering care across a continuum of settings.

Table of Contents

Procedures xxvii
Contributors xxx
Reviewers xxxiii
Preface xxxvi
How to Use This Text xli
Acknowledgments xlv
About the Authors xlvi
Unit Nursing's Perspective: Past, Present, and Future
Evolution of Nursing and Nursing Education
Evolution of Nursing
4(14)
Origins of Nursing
4(3)
Religious Influences
7(1)
Demands of War
8(1)
Florence Nightingale (1820--1910)
8(1)
Nursing Pioneers and Leaders
9(4)
Nursing in the 20th Century
13(4)
Social Forces Affecting Nursing
17(1)
Nursing Education Overview
18(5)
Diploma Education
20(1)
Associate Degree Programs
20(1)
Baccalaureate Programs
21(1)
Master's Programs
21(1)
Doctoral Programs
22(1)
Staff Development and Continuing Education
22(1)
Preparing Nurses for Tomorrow's Challenges
23(5)
Differentiated Practice
23(1)
Accelerated Degree Programs
24(1)
Technology Changes in Nursing Education
25(1)
Work-Study Scholarship Program
25(1)
Service Learning
25(3)
Nursing Theory
Components of the Theoretical Foundation
28(1)
What Is a Concept?
28(1)
What Is a Proposition?
28(1)
What Is a Theory?
29(1)
Use of Theories from Other Disciplines
29(1)
Importance of Nursing Theories
29(1)
Scope of Theories
30(1)
Grand Theories
30(1)
Middle-Range Theories
30(1)
Micro-Range Theories
31(1)
Evolution of Nursing Theory
31(1)
Knowledge Development in Nursing
31(4)
Metaparadigm of Nursing
31(3)
Paradigms in Nursing
34(1)
Selected Nursing Theories
35(10)
Florence Nightingale
35(2)
Early Nursing Theories
37(1)
Contemporary Nursing Theories
38(5)
Theories for the New Worldview of Nursing
43(2)
Continuing Evolution of Nursing Theory
45(3)
Research and Evidence-Based Practice
Research: Substantiating the Science of Nursing
48(7)
Historical Development
48(2)
Framework
50(3)
Research Utilization
53(2)
Nursing Students
55(1)
Evidenced-Based Practice
55(5)
Evidence Reports
56(1)
Trends in Research and Evidence-Based Practice
57(3)
Health Care Delivery, Quality, and the Continuum of Care
Health Care Delivery: Organizational Frameworks
60(2)
Public Sector
60(1)
Private Sector
61(1)
Health Care Team
62(1)
Nurse: Roles and Functions
62(1)
Advanced Practice Nurse: Roles and Functions
62(1)
Reimbursement Methods
62(4)
Private Insurance
62(1)
Managed Care
62(3)
Government Plans
65(1)
Factors Influencing the Delivery of Health Care
66(2)
Cost
67(1)
Access
67(1)
Quality
67(1)
Nursing Supply and Demand
68(1)
Responses to Health Care Changes
68(2)
Nursing Agenda for Health Care Reform
68(1)
Public versus Private Programs
68(1)
Vulnerable Populations
69(1)
Community Nursing Organizations
70(1)
Continuum of Care
70(2)
Levels of Care
70(1)
Health Care Settings
71(1)
Fragmentation of Care
71(1)
Quality Management in Health Care
72(6)
Defining Quality
72(3)
Factors Influencing Quality in Health Care
75(1)
Quality and Health Care Economics
76(1)
Principles of Quality Improvement
77(1)
Customer Satisfaction
77(1)
Organizational Structure for Quality Management
78(1)
Leadership
78(1)
Teamwork
78(1)
Process Improvement
78(2)
Tools for Measuring Quality
78(2)
Nursing's Role in Quality Management
80(1)
Trends in Health Care Delivery
80(5)
Unit II Nursing Process: The Standard of Care
Critical Thinking, Decision Making, and the Nursing Process
Critical Thinking
85(4)
Components of Critical Thinking
85(1)
Development of Critical Thinking Skills
86(1)
Critical Thinking and Creativity
87(1)
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
88(1)
Critical Thinking and Decision Making
88(1)
The Nursing Process
89(7)
Historical Perspective
89(1)
Overview of the Nursing Process
89(1)
Assessment
90(1)
Diagnosis
91(2)
Outcome Identification and Planning
93(1)
Implementation
94(2)
Evaluation
96(1)
Critical Thinking Applied in Nursing
96(3)
Assessment
Purpose of Assessment
99(1)
Types of Assessment
99(1)
Comprehensive Assessment
99(1)
Focused Assessment
100(1)
Ongoing Assessment
100(1)
Data Collection
100(7)
Types of Data
101(1)
Sources of Data
101(1)
Methods of Data Collection
102(5)
Data Verification
107(1)
Data Organization
107(2)
Assessment Models
107(2)
Data Interpretation
109(1)
Data Documentation
109(11)
Types of Assessment Formats
109(11)
Nursing Diagnosis
What Is a Nursing Diagnosis?
120(2)
Comparison of Nursing and Medical Diagnoses
121(1)
Historical Perspective
122(1)
Research
122(1)
Purposes of Nursing Diagnoses
123(2)
Nursing Diagnoses and Diagnostic-Related Groups
124(1)
Nursing Diagnoses and Nursing Informatics
125(1)
Components of a Nursing Diagnosis
125(1)
The Two-Part Statement
126(1)
The Three-Part Statement
126(1)
Categories of Nursing Diagnoses
126(1)
Taxonomy of Nursing Diagnoses
127(1)
Clinical Judgment in Nursing: Developing Nursing Diagnoses
128(2)
Generating Cues
128(1)
Validating Cues
128(1)
Interpreting Cues
129(1)
Clustering Cues
129(1)
Using NANDA-Approved Nursing Diagnoses
129(1)
Writing the Nursing Diagnosis Statement
130(1)
Avoiding Errors in Development and Use of Nursing Diagnoses
130(1)
Assessment Errors
130(1)
Diagnostic Errors
130(1)
Limitations of Nursing Diagnosis
131(1)
Overcoming Barriers to Nursing Diagnosis
132(5)
Planning and Outcome Identification
Purposes of Planning and Outcome Identification
137(1)
Process of Planning and Outcome Identification
137(9)
Critical Thinking
137(1)
Establishing Priorities
138(1)
Establishing Goals and Expected Outcomes
139(3)
Problems Frequently Encountered in Planning
142(1)
Planning Nursing Interventions
143(3)
Evaluating Care
146(1)
Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC)
146(1)
Plan of Care
147(1)
Types of Care Plans
147(1)
Strategies for Effective Care Planning
148(4)
Implementation
Purposes of Implementation
152(1)
Requirements for Effective Implementation
152(1)
Cognitive Skills
152(1)
Psychomotor Skills
152(1)
Interpersonal Skills
153(1)
Implementation Activities
153(13)
Ongoing Assessment
153(1)
Establishment of Priorities
153(1)
Allocation of Resources
154(4)
Nursing Interventions
158(5)
Evaluating Interventions
163(1)
Documentation of Interventions
163(3)
Evaluation
Evaluation of Client Care
166(1)
Components of Evaluation
166(1)
Techniques
166(1)
Sources of Data
167(1)
Goals and Expected Outcomes
167(1)
Methods of Evaluation
167(1)
Establishing Standards
167(1)
Collecting Data
167(1)
Determining Goal Achievement
167(1)
Relating Nursing Actions to Client Status
167(1)
Judging the Value of Nursing Interventions
167(1)
Reassessing the Client's Status
168(1)
Modifying the Plan of Care
168(1)
Critical Thinking and Evaluation
168(1)
Evaluation and Quality of Care
168(3)
Elements in Evaluating the Quality of Care
169(1)
Nursing Audit
170(1)
Peer Evaluation
170(1)
Evaluation and Accountability
171(3)
Multidisciplinary Collaboration in Evaluation
174(3)
Unit III Professional Accountability
Leadership, Delegation, and Power
Professional Nursing Practice
177(3)
Criteria of a Profession
177(3)
Professional Accountability
180(5)
Elements of Professional Accountability
180(2)
Legislative Accountability
182(2)
Individual Accountability
184(1)
Student Accountability
185(1)
Advanced Practice Nursing
185(3)
Leadership in Nursing
188(7)
Managerial Functions
188(1)
Leadership Styles
188(1)
Leadership Characteristics
189(3)
Power
192(2)
Mentoring
194(1)
Networking
194(1)
Empowerment
194(1)
Politics of Nursing
195(3)
Legal and Ethical Responsibilities
Legal Foundations of Nursing
198(13)
Sources of Law
198(2)
The Judicial Process
200(1)
Legal Liability in Nursing
200(6)
Legal Responsibilities and Roles
206(1)
Legal Responsibilities of Students
207(1)
Legal Safeguards for Nursing Practice
207(1)
Legislation Affecting Nursing Practice
208(2)
Legal Issues Related to Death and Dying
210(1)
Ethical Foundations of Nursing
211(15)
Concept of Ethics
212(1)
Ethical Theories
213(1)
Ethical Principles
213(3)
Values and Ethics
216(1)
Ethical Codes
216(1)
Clients' Rights
217(1)
Ethical Dilemmas
218(3)
Ethical Roles and Responsibilities of Professional Nurses
221(1)
Ethical Decision Making
222(4)
Documentation and Informatics
Documentation as Communication
226(5)
Documentation Defined
226(1)
Purposes of Health Care Documentation
227(4)
Principles of Effective Documentation
231(4)
Elements of Effective Documentation
233(2)
Methods of Documentation
235(3)
Narrative Charting
235(1)
Source-Oriented Charting
235(1)
Problem-Oriented Charting
235(1)
PIE Charting
236(1)
Focus Charting
236(1)
Charting by Exception
236(1)
Case Management Process
237(1)
Forms for Recording Data
238(7)
Kardex
238(1)
Flow Sheets
238(1)
Nurses' Progress Notes
238(1)
Discharge Summary
238(1)
Computerized Documentation
238(7)
Electronic Medication Administration and Record
245(1)
Trends in Documentation
245(2)
Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS)
245(1)
Nursing Diagnoses
246(1)
Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC)
247(1)
Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC)
247(1)
Reporting
247(8)
Summary Reports
248(1)
Walking Rounds
248(1)
Telephone Reports and Orders
249(1)
Incident Reports
250(5)
Unit IV Promoting Client Health
Nursing, Healing, and Caring
Nursing's Therapeutic Value
255(1)
Definition of Nursing
255(1)
Nursing: A Blend of Art and Science
255(1)
Purposes of Nursing
255(1)
Nursing and Healing
256(1)
Theoretical Perspectives of Caring
256(2)
Care in the High-Technology Environment
258(1)
Nurse-Client Relationship
258(3)
Phases of Therapeutic Relationship
259(2)
Therapeutic Use of Self
261(1)
Caring and Communication
261(1)
Characteristics of Therapeutic Relationships
262(4)
Warmth
262(1)
Hope
262(1)
Rapport
263(1)
Trust
263(1)
Empathy
263(1)
Acceptance
264(1)
Active Listening
264(1)
Humor
264(1)
Compassion
265(1)
Self-Awareness
265(1)
Nonjudgmental Approach
266(1)
Flexibility
266(1)
Risk Taker
266(1)
Therapeutic Value of the Nursing Process
266(4)
Nursing Roles
266(4)
Communication
The Communication Process
270(4)
Components of the Communication Process
270(2)
Factors Influencing Communication
272(1)
Levels of Communication
272(2)
Modes of Communication
274(3)
Verbal Messages
274(1)
Nonverbal Messages
275(2)
Metacommunication
277(1)
Types of Communication
277(3)
Interdisciplinary Communication
277(1)
Therapeutic Communication
277(3)
Therapeutic Approaches with Clients
280(1)
Barriers to Therapeutic Interaction
280(3)
Language Differences
280(1)
Cultural Differences
280(1)
Gender
280(1)
Health Status
280(1)
Developmental Level
280(3)
Knowledge Differences
283(1)
Emotional Distance
283(1)
Emotions
283(1)
Daydreaming
283(1)
Use of Health Care Jargon
283(1)
Communication Blocks
283(2)
Communication, Critical Thinking, and Nursing Process
285(8)
Assessment
285(1)
Nursing Diagnosis
285(1)
Planning and Outcome Identification
286(1)
Implementation
286(2)
Evaluation
288(2)
Health and Wellness Promotion
Health, Illness, and Wellness
290(1)
Models of Health
290(2)
Illness Perspectives
292(1)
Wellness Perspectives
292(1)
Health Behaviors
293(2)
Variables Influencing Health Behaviors
293(2)
Health Promotion
295(3)
The Individual as a Holistic Being
298(1)
Needs and Health
298(2)
Physiological Dimension
299(1)
Psychological Dimension
299(1)
Sociocultural Dimension
300(1)
Intellectual Dimension
300(1)
Spiritual Dimension
300(1)
Promoting Sexual Health
300(7)
Development of Sexuality
300(1)
Gender Identity
301(1)
Needs
301(1)
Human Sexual Response
301(1)
Sexuality and Health
301(1)
Nursing Process and Sexuality
302(5)
Family and Community Health
Family Health
307(6)
Family Structure
307(1)
Family Roles and Functions
308(1)
Characteristics of Healthy Families
308(1)
Family Development Theories
309(1)
Threats to Family Integrity
310(3)
Community Health
313(4)
Public Health Nursing
313(1)
Disaster Preparedness
314(3)
The Life Cycle
Fundamental Concepts of Growth and Development
317(2)
Principles of Growth and Development
317(1)
Factors Influencing Growth and Development
318(1)
Theoretical Perspectives of Human Development
319(6)
Physiological Dimension
319(1)
Psychosocial Dimension
319(2)
Cognitive Dimension
321(2)
Moral Dimension
323(2)
Spiritual Dimension
325(1)
Holistic Framework for Nursing
325(1)
Stages of the Life Cycle
326(40)
Prenatal Period
326(3)
Neonatal Period
329(3)
Infancy
332(4)
Toddler
336(3)
Preschooler
339(2)
School-Age Child
341(2)
Preadolescent
343(3)
Adolescent
346(4)
Young Adult
350(4)
Middle-Aged Adult
354(4)
Older Adult
358(8)
The Older Client
Defining Old Age
366(2)
Theories of Aging
366(1)
Myths and Stereotypes of Aging
367(1)
Quality of Life among Older Adults
367(1)
Changes Associated with Aging
368(9)
Developmental Changes
368(1)
Physiological Changes
369(1)
Cardiovascular Changes
370(4)
Psychosocial Changes
374(3)
Medications and the Older Adult
377(1)
Responses to Medication
377(1)
Compliance
378(1)
Mistreatment of the Older Adult
378(1)
Nursing Process and the Older Adult
379(9)
Assessment
379(1)
Nursing Diagnosis
380(1)
Outcome Identification and Planning
380(1)
Implementation
380(5)
Evaluation
385(3)
Cultural Diversity
Concepts of Culture
388(2)
Culture
388(1)
Ethnicity and Race
388(1)
Labeling and Stereotyping
389(1)
Dominant Values in the United States
389(1)
Multiculturalismin the United States
390(1)
Value of Diversity
390(1)
Organizing Phenomena of Culture
391(6)
Communication
391(1)
Space
391(1)
Orientation to Time
391(5)
Social Organization
396(1)
Gender
396(1)
Lifestyle
396(1)
Religion
397(1)
Cultural Disparities in Health and Health Care Delivery
397(3)
Vulnerable Populations
398(2)
Environmental Control
400(1)
Folk Medicine
400(1)
Biologic Variations
400(1)
Transcultural Nursing
400(3)
Cultural Competence
403(1)
Cultural Competence and Nursing Process
403(7)
Assessment
404(1)
Nursing Diagnosis
404(1)
Planning and Outcome Identification
405(1)
Implementation
405(2)
Evaluation
407(3)
Client Education
The Teaching-Learning Process
410(3)
Purposes of Client Teaching
410(1)
Facilitators of Learning
411(1)
Barriers to Learning
412(1)
Domains of Learning
412(1)
Professional Responsibilities Related to Teaching
413(1)
Legal Aspects
413(1)
Documentation
413(1)
Learning Throughout the Life Cycle
414(5)
Children
414(1)
Adolescents
414(1)
Older Adults
414(5)
Teaching-Learning and the Nursing Process
419(12)
Assessment
419(3)
Nursing Diagnosis
422(1)
Planning and Outcome Identification
422(2)
Implementation
424(1)
Evaluation
425(1)
Evaluation of Learning
425(6)
Unit V Responding to Basic Psychosocial Needs
Self-Concept
Components of Self-Concept
431(2)
Identity
431(1)
Body Image
432(1)
Self-Esteem
432(1)
Role Performance
432(1)
Development of Self-Concept
433(2)
Childhood
433(1)
Adolescence
434(1)
Adulthood
434(1)
Factors Affecting Self-Concept
435(2)
Altered Health Status
435(1)
Developmental Transitions
436(1)
Experience
436(1)
Assessment
437(1)
Diagnosis
438(1)
Outcome Identification and Planning
438(1)
Implementation
439(2)
Initiate Therapeutic Interaction
439(1)
Support Healthy Defense Mechanisms
439(1)
Ensure Satisfaction of Needs
439(1)
Promote Positive Self-Esteem across the Life Span
440(1)
Evaluation
441(4)
Stress, Anxiety, Adaptation, and Change
Stress, Anxiety, and Adaptation
445(1)
Sources of Stress
445(1)
Responses to Stress
445(5)
Physiological Response to Stress
445(2)
Manifestations of Stress
447(1)
Outcomes of Stress
447(3)
Stress and Illness
450(2)
Impact of Illness and Treatment
450(2)
Stress and Change
452(3)
Types of Change
453(1)
Theories of Change
453(1)
Resistance to Change
454(1)
Changing Paradigms
454(1)
Nurse as Change Agent
455(1)
Assessment
455(1)
Nursing Diagnosis
456(1)
Outcome Identification and Planning
456(1)
Implementation
456(6)
Meeting Basic Needs
458(1)
Environmental Strategies
458(1)
Verbalization
458(1)
Involvement of Family and Significant Others
458(1)
Stress Management Techniques
459(2)
Crisis Intervention
461(1)
Evaluation
462(1)
Personal Stress Management Approaches for the Nurse
463(6)
Burnout and Nurses
463(6)
Spirituality
Spirituality Defined
469(1)
Nursing Process and Spirituality
470(11)
Assessment
474(1)
Diagnosis
474(1)
Planning and Outcome Identification
475(2)
Implementation
477(1)
Evaluation
478(3)
Loss and Grief
Loss
481(1)
Loss as Crisis
481(1)
Types of Loss
481(1)
Grief
482(11)
Theories of the Grieving Process
482(2)
Types of Grief
484(1)
Factors Affecting Grief
485(5)
Nursing Care of the Grieving Person
490(3)
Death
493(7)
End-of-Life (EOL) Care
493(1)
Stages of Death and Dying
493(2)
Ethical Implications
495(1)
Assessment
495(1)
Diagnosis
495(1)
Outcome Identification and Planning
495(1)
Implementation
496(4)
Care After Death
500(2)
Care of the Body
500(1)
Legal Aspects
500(2)
Care of the Family
502(1)
Nurse's Self-Care
502(4)
Unit VI Responding to Basic Physiological Needs
Vital Signs
Vital Signs
506(4)
Physiological Function
507(3)
Factors Influencing Vital Signs
510(4)
Age
511(1)
Gender
511(1)
Heredity
512(1)
Race
512(1)
Lifestyle
512(1)
Environment
512(1)
Medications
513(1)
Pain
513(1)
Other Factors
513(1)
Measuring Vital Signs
514(4)
Equipment
514(1)
Measurement of Height and Weight
514(4)
The Nursing Process and Vital Signs
518(30)
Nursing Process and Thermoregulation
519(4)
Pulse
523(2)
Respirations
525(1)
Blood Pressure
526(22)
Physical Assessment
Physical Examination
548(66)
Preparation
549(1)
General Survey
549(4)
Techniques
553(1)
Integument
554(1)
Head and Neck
555(20)
Thorax and Lungs
575(1)
Heart and Vascular System
576(7)
Breasts and Axillae
583(10)
Abdomen
593(1)
Female Genitalia, Anus, and Rectum
594(1)
Male Genitalia, Anus, and Rectum
594(4)
Musculoskeletal System
598(3)
Neurologic System
601(9)
Care of the Client after the Examination
610(1)
Data Documentation
610(4)
Diagnostic Testing
Overview of Noninvasive and Invasive Diagnostic Testing
614(6)
Nursing Care of the Client
614(6)
Laboratory Tests
620(20)
Specimen Collection
620(6)
Hematologic System
626(3)
Type and Crossmatch
629(1)
Blood Chemistry
630(7)
Urine Analysis
637(2)
Stool Analysis
639(1)
Culture and Sensitivity Tests
639(1)
Papanicolaou Test
640(1)
Radiologic Studies
640(4)
Contrast-Mediated Studies
641(1)
Plain Films
641(1)
Risks of Exposure to Radiation
641(1)
Mammography
641(2)
Angiography Studies
643(1)
Ultrasonography
644(1)
Echocardiograms
645(1)
Doppler Ultrasonography
645(1)
Non-Nuclear Scan Studies
645(1)
Computed Tomography
645(1)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
646(1)
Radioactive Studies
646(1)
Electrodiagnostic Studies
646(2)
Electrocardiography
646(2)
Electroencephalography
648(1)
Endoscopy
648(1)
Aspiration and Biopsy
648(21)
Amniocentesis
650(1)
Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy
650(1)
Paracentesis
650(1)
Thoracentesis
651(1)
Cerebrospinal Fluid Aspiration
651(18)
Safety, Infection Control, and Hygiene
Creating a Culture of Client Safety
669(5)
Factors Affecting Safety
671(1)
Types of Accidents
672(1)
Potential Occupational Hazards
673(1)
Infection Control Principles
674(6)
Pathogens, Infection, and Colonization
674(1)
Chain of Infection
675(1)
Normal Defense Mechanisms
676(2)
Stages of the Infectious Process
678(1)
Emerging Infections
679(1)
Nosocomial Infections
680(1)
Hygiene
680(2)
Factors Influencing Hygienic Practice
681(1)
Assessment
682(4)
Health History
682(1)
Physical Examination
683(1)
Diagnostic and Laboratory Data
684(2)
Nursing Diagnosis
686(1)
Risk for Injury
686(1)
Risk for Infection
686(1)
Self-Care Deficits
686(1)
Other Nursing Diagnoses
686(1)
Outcome Identification and Planning
687(2)
Implementation
689(24)
Raise Safety Awareness and Knowledge
689(1)
Prevent Falls
689(6)
Prevent Fire
695(1)
Ensure Safe Operation of Electrical Equipment
695(1)
Reduce Exposure to Radiation
696(1)
Prevent Poisoning
696(1)
Reduce Noise Pollution
696(1)
Ensure Asepsis
696(3)
Reduce or Eliminate Infectious Agents
699(2)
Practice Standard and Isolation Precautions
701(4)
Alternative Therapies
705(1)
Provide for Client Bathing Needs
706(1)
Provide Clean Bed Linens
707(1)
Provide Skin Care
707(1)
Back Rubs
708(1)
Provide Foot and Nail Care
708(1)
Provide Oral Care
709(1)
Provide Hair Care
709(2)
Provide Eye, Ear, and Nose Care
711(2)
Evaluation
713(60)
Medication Administration
Drug Standards and Legislation
773(2)
Standards
773(1)
Federal Legislation
774(1)
State and Local Legislation
774(1)
Health Care Institution Regulations
774(1)
Pharmacokinetics
775(2)
Absorption
775(1)
Distribution
776(1)
Metabolism
776(1)
Excretion
776(1)
Drug Nomenclature
777(1)
Drug Action
777(4)
Pharmacology
777(3)
Drug Interaction
780(1)
Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
780(1)
Factors Influencing Drug Action
781(1)
Professional Roles in Medication Administration
782(2)
Types of Medication Orders
783(1)
Parts of the Drug Order
784(1)
Systems of Weight and Measure
784(1)
Metric System
785(1)
Apothecary System
785(1)
Household System
785(1)
Approximate Dose Equivalents
785(2)
Converting Units of Weight and Volume
785(2)
Drug Dose Calculations
787(1)
Safe Drug Administration
787(6)
Guidelines for Medication Administration
788(2)
Documentation of Drug Administration
790(1)
Drug Supply and Storage
791(1)
Drug Abuse
792(1)
Medication Compliance
793(1)
Legal Aspects of Administering Medications
794(2)
Medication Errors
794(1)
Preventing Medication Errors
794(2)
Assessment
796(3)
Medical History
796(1)
Drug History
796(2)
Biographical Data
798(1)
Cultural Diversity
798(1)
Lifestyle and Beliefs
798(1)
Sensory and Cognitive Status
799(1)
Physical Examination
799(1)
Diagnostic and Laboratory Data
799(1)
Nursing Diagnosis
799(1)
Planning and Outcome Identification
799(1)
Implementation
800(17)
Medication Administration: Oral
801(1)
Medication Administration: Enteral
801(1)
Medication Administration: Parenteral
802(9)
Medication Administration: Topical
811(6)
Evaluation
817(48)
Complementary and Alternative Modalities
Historical Influences on Contemporary Practices
865(2)
From Ancient Tradition to Early Science
865(1)
Shamanistic Tradition
866(1)
Allopathic Medicine
867(1)
Contemporary Trends
867(1)
Mind-Body Medicine and Research
868(1)
Holism and Nursing Practice
868(1)
The Nature of Healing
869(1)
Complementary and Alternative Interventions
869(16)
Mind-Body: Self-Regulatory Techniques
869(2)
Body-Movement: Manipulation Strategies
871(1)
Energetic-Touch Healing
872(6)
Spiritual Therapies
878(1)
Nutritional Therapies
878(4)
Other CAM Methodologies
882(3)
Nursing and Complementary/Alternative Approaches
885(7)
Nurse as Instrument of Healing
886(6)
Oxygenation
Physiology of Oxygenation
892(5)
Ventilation
892(2)
Alveolar Gas Exchange
894(1)
Oxygen Transport and Delivery
894(3)
Cellular Respiration
897(1)
Factors Affecting Oxygenation
897(5)
Age
897(1)
Environmental and Lifestyle Factors
898(1)
Disease Processes
898(2)
Heart Failure
900(1)
Physiological Responses to Reduced Oxygenation
901(1)
Assessment
902(3)
Health History
902(1)
Physical Examination
903(1)
Diagnostic and Laboratory Data
904(1)
Nursing Diagnosis
905(4)
Ineffective Airway Clearance
905(1)
Ineffective Breathing Patterns
906(2)
Impaired Gas Exchange
908(1)
Decreased Cardiac Output
908(1)
Ineffective Tissue Perfusion
908(1)
Other Nursing Diagnoses
908(1)
Planning and Outcomes
909(1)
Collaboration
910(1)
Implementation
910(12)
Interventions to Promote Airway Clearance
910(4)
Interventions to Improve Breathing Patterns
914(1)
Interventions to Improve Oxygen Uptake and Delivery
914(2)
Interventions to Increase Cardiac Output and Tissue Perfusion
916(1)
Emergency Interventions
917(1)
Interventions to Address Associated Nursing Diagnoses
918(2)
Complementary Therapies
920(2)
Evaluation
922(34)
Fluids and Electrolytes
Physiology of Fluid and Acid-Base Balance
956(6)
Fluid Compartments
956(1)
Body Water Distribution
957(1)
Electrolytes
957(2)
Movement of Body Fluids
959(1)
Regulators of Fluid Balance
959(2)
Acid-Base Balance
961(1)
Regulators of Acid-Base Balance
962(1)
Factors Affecting Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
962(1)
Age
963(1)
Lifestyle
963(1)
Disturbances in Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance
963(12)
Electrolyte Disturbances
963(8)
Acid-Base Disturbances
971(4)
Assessment
975(4)
Health History
975(1)
Physical Examination
975(2)
Diagnostic and Laboratory Data
977(2)
Nursing Diagnosis
979(2)
Excess Fluid Volume
979(1)
Deficient Fluid Volume
979(1)
Risk for Deficient Fluid Volume
980(1)
Other Nursing Diagnoses
980(1)
Planning and Outcomes
981(1)
Collaboration
981(1)
Implementation
982(17)
Monitor Daily Weight
982(1)
Measure Vital Signs
982(1)
Measure Intake and Output
982(1)
Provide Oral Hygiene
982(1)
Initiate Oral Fluid Therapy
983(1)
Maintain Tube Feeding
984(1)
Monitor Intravenous Therapy
984(14)
Complementary Therapy
998(1)
Evaluation
999(36)
Nutrition
Physiology of Nutrition
1035(3)
Digestion
1036(1)
Absorption
1036(1)
Metabolism
1037(1)
Energy
1038(1)
Excretion
1038(1)
Nutrients
1038(7)
Water
1038(1)
Vitamins
1039(1)
Minerals
1039(2)
Carbohydrates
1041(2)
Proteins
1043(1)
Lipids
1044(1)
Promoting Proper Nutrition
1045(4)
Dietary Reference Intakes and Recommended Daily Allowances
1045(1)
The Food Guide Pyramid
1046(1)
Societal Concerns
1047(1)
Weight Management
1048(1)
Factors Affecting Nutrition
1049(3)
Age
1049(1)
Lifestyle
1050(1)
Ethnicity, Culture, and Religious Practices
1051(1)
Other Factors
1051(1)
Assessment
1052(5)
Nutritional History
1052(2)
Physical Examination
1054(3)
Diagnostic and Laboratory Data
1057(1)
Nursing Diagnosis
1057(2)
Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements
1058(1)
Imbalanced Nutrition: More Than Body Requirements or Risk for Imbalanced Nutrition: More Than Body Requirements
1058(1)
Other Nursing Diagnoses
1059(1)
Planning and Outcome Identification
1059(1)
Collaboration
1059(1)
Implementation
1059(15)
Monitoring Weight and Intake
1060(1)
Initiating Diet Therapy
1060(1)
Assistance with Feeding
1061(1)
Providing Nutrition Support
1061(1)
Enteral Tube Feeding
1062(3)
Parenteral Nutrition
1065(2)
Administering Medication through a Feeding Tube
1067(7)
Evaluation
1074(12)
Comfort and Sleep
Pain
1086(29)
Nature of Pain
1087(2)
Physiology of Pain
1089(4)
Factors Affecting the Pain Experience
1093(1)
Assessment
1093(5)
Nursing Diagnosis
1098(1)
Planning and Outcomes
1098(1)
Collaboration
1099(1)
Implementation
1099(15)
Evaluation
1114(1)
Rest and Sleep
1115(20)
Physiology of Rest and Sleep
1115(3)
Biological Clock
1118(1)
Factors Affecting Rest and Sleep
1119(1)
Illness or Hospitalization
1120(1)
Alteration in Sleep Patterns
1121(1)
Hypersomnia or Narcolepsy
1121(1)
Assessment
1122(1)
Nursing Diagnosis
1122(1)
Planning and Outcomes
1122(1)
Implementation
1123(3)
Evaluation
1126(9)
Mobility
Overview of Mobility
1135(2)
Body Alignment
1135(2)
Body Mechanics
1137(1)
Physiology of Mobility
1137(2)
Musculoskeletal System
1137(1)
Neurological System
1138(1)
Exercise
1139(1)
Types of Exercise
1139(1)
Physical Fitness
1140(1)
Factors Affecting Mobility
1140(7)
Health Status
1140(5)
Developmental Stage
1145(2)
Environment
1147(1)
Attitudes and Beliefs
1147(1)
Lifestyle
1147(1)
Physiological Effects of Mobility and Immobility
1147(2)
Neurological Effects and Mental Status
1147(1)
Cardiovascular Effects
1147(1)
Respiratory Effects
1148(1)
Musculoskeletal Effects
1148(1)
Digestive Effects
1149(1)
Elimination Effects
1149(1)
Integumentary Effects
1149(1)
Assessment
1149(5)
Health History
1149(1)
Physical Examination
1150(4)
Neurological Assessment
1154(1)
Nursing Diagnosis
1154(1)
Planning and Outcome Identification
1155(3)
Collaboration
1155(1)
Bed Rest
1156(1)
Restorative Nursing Care
1157(1)
Health Promotion and Fitness
1157(1)
Implementation
1158(12)
Meeting Psychosocial Needs
1158(1)
Applying Principles of Body Mechanics
1158(1)
Maintaining Body Alignment: Positioning
1159(4)
Performing Range-of-Motion Exercises
1163(1)
Transfer Techniques
1163(3)
Assisting with Ambulation
1166(4)
Wellness Promotion
1170(1)
Complementary and Alternative Treatment Modalities
1170(1)
Evaluation
1170(39)
Skin Integrity and Wound Healing
Wounds
1209(19)
Physiology of Wound Healing
1209(2)
Factors Affecting Wound Healing
1211(1)
Wound Classification
1212(2)
Assessment
1214(4)
Nursing Diagnoses
1218(1)
Planning and Outcomes
1218(1)
Implementation
1219(8)
Evaluation
1227(1)
Pressure Ulcers
1228(28)
Physiology of Pressure Ulcers
1228(1)
Risk Factors for Pressure Ulcers
1228(2)
Assessment
1230(1)
Nursing Diagnoses
1231(1)
Planning and Outcomes
1231(1)
Implementation
1231(8)
Evaluation
1239(17)
Sensation, Perception, and Cognition
Physiology of Sensation, Perception, and Cognition
1256(5)
Components of Sensation and Perception
1257(1)
Components of Cognition
1257(4)
Factors Affecting Sensation, Perception, and Cognition
1261(1)
Age
1261(1)
Environment
1261(1)
Lifestyle
1262(1)
Sensory, Perceptual, and Cognitive Alterations
1262(2)
Sensory Deficits
1262(1)
Sensory Deprivation
1263(1)
Sensory Overload
1263(1)
Assessment
1264(4)
Health History
1264(1)
Physical Examination
1264(1)
Mental Status Assessment
1265(2)
Functional Abilities
1267(1)
Environment
1267(1)
Diagnosis
1268(1)
Planning and Outcome Identification
1268(2)
Implementation
1270(5)
Managing Sensory Deficits
1270(2)
Managing Sensory Deprivation
1272(1)
Managing Sensory Overload
1272(1)
Caring for the Unconscious Client
1273(1)
Use of Restraints
1274(1)
Complementary and Alternative Therapies
1274(1)
Evaluation
1275(5)
Elimination
Physiology of Elimination
1280(4)
Urinary Elimination
1280(2)
Bowel Elimination
1282(2)
Factors Affecting Elimination
1284(1)
Age
1284(1)
Diet
1284(1)
Exercise
1284(1)
Medications
1284(1)
Common Alterations in Elimination
1285(4)
Urinary Elimination
1285(1)
Chronic Urinary Incontinence
1285(2)
Bowel Elimination
1287(2)
Assessment
1289(4)
Health History
1289(2)
Physical Examination
1291(1)
Diagnostic and Laboratory Data
1292(1)
Nursing Diagnosis
1293(2)
Impaired Urinary Elimination
1293(1)
Stress Urinary Incontinence
1293(1)
Reflex Urinary Incontinence
1293(1)
Urge Urinary Incontinence
1293(1)
Functional Urinary Incontinence
1294(1)
Total Urinary Incontinence
1294(1)
Urinary Retention
1294(1)
Constipation
1294(1)
Perceived Constipation
1294(1)
Diarrhea
1294(1)
Bowel Incontinence
1294(1)
Other Diagnoses
1294(1)
Planning and Outcomes
1295(1)
Implementation
1295(14)
Maintain Elimination Health
1295(2)
Initiate Exercise Regimen
1297(1)
Suggest Environmental Modifications
1298(1)
Initiate Behavioral Interventions
1298(1)
Monitor Skin Integrity
1299(1)
Apply a Containment Device
1299(1)
Initiate Diet and Fluid Therapy
1300(1)
Administer Medications
1301(1)
Perform Catheterization
1302(1)
Administer Enemas
1303(1)
Initiate Rectal Stimulation
1304(1)
Monitor Elimination Diversions
1305(1)
Monitor Surgical Management
1306(1)
Complementary Therapies
1306(3)
Evaluation
1309(40)
Nursing Care of the Perioperative Client
Surgical Interventions
1349(1)
Setting
1350(1)
Client Safety
1350(1)
Anesthesia
1351(2)
General Anesthesia
1351(1)
Regional Anesthesia
1352(1)
Local Anesthesia
1352(1)
Preoperative Phase
1353(7)
Assessment
1353(3)
Diagnosis
1356(2)
Planning and Outcomes
1358(2)
Implementation
1360(10)
Evaluation
1370(1)
Documentation
1370(1)
Intraoperative Phase
1370(6)
Surgical Environment
1370(1)
Assessment
1371(1)
Nursing Diagnoses
1372(1)
Planning and Outcomes
1372(1)
Interventions
1373(2)
Evaluation
1375(1)
Transfer to Postanesthesia Care Unit
1376(1)
Postoperative Phase
1376(16)
Assessment
1376(2)
Nursing Diagnosis
1378(1)
Planning and Outcomes
1378(1)
Interventions
1379(2)
Evaluation and Discharge from the PACU
1381(1)
Ongoing Postoperative Care
1382(2)
Evaluation
1384(8)
Glossary 1392(19)
References 1411(19)
Index 1430


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