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Fundamentals of Organizational Communication: Knowledge, Sensitivity, Skills, Values

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780205453504

ISBN10:
0205453503
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

This text presents the concepts of organizational communication within a unique competency- based approach that incorporates personal knowledge, interpersonal sensitivity, communication skills, and ethical values. Blending theory, analysis, and practice more extensively than any other text on the market, Fundamentals of Organizational Communication provides an introduction to major organizational communication issues and theories, as well as an immediate application of the concepts presented. New and Enduring Features A chapter on organizational change and communication has been added, giving the topic the individual attention and focus it needs and allowing for better understanding and discussion among students (Chapter 11). A new section focusing on crisis communication has been added. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks many organizations are looking at their crisis communication plans to be sure that they can handle a crisis requiring major strategic communication efforts. New cases and essays have been added to increase the understanding of theory. The competency-based approach integrates theory with opportunities for critical thinking and skill development. Original cases in each chapter and in the ";Putting It All Together"; sections give students opportunities to apply theory and concepts to real situations. Additional cases in the Instructor's Manual also can be used for class discussion and testing. A global focus throughout the text assists students in preparing for the changing nature of the workplace. Comprehensive coverage of major issues-including organizational conflict, leadership, values, diversity, technology, and ethical behavior-offers students a thorough introduction to the current field of organizational communication. Praise for Fundamentals of Organizational Communication ";This text is current and uses relevant real-world examples, and as a former business manager and consultant for over twenty years, I found the currency to be lacking in many other books."; Sue Easton, Rollins College ";Personally, I am a great fan of the author and find her articles and scholarly work to be stimulating and leading edge-I found [her text] to be the same way."; Sue Easton, Rollins College

Table of Contents

Preface xxv
Organizational Communication: A Competency-Based Approach
1(26)
The Changing Nature of Organizations and Work
2(1)
The Communications Era
2(2)
Communication: The Key to Organizational Excellence
4(1)
Excellence in Communication: Communication Competency
5(2)
Organizational Communication: A Competency-Based Approach
7(1)
The ``What Business Is This of Ours?'' Case
8(1)
Basics of Human Communication
9(1)
Defining Communication
10(1)
The Human Communication Process
10(4)
Source/Receiver
11(1)
Encoding/Decoding
11(1)
Message
11(1)
Channel
12(1)
Noise
12(1)
Competence
12(1)
Field of Experience
13(1)
Communication Context
13(1)
Effect
14(1)
The Construction of Shared Realities
14(1)
Concepts of Organizations
15(1)
Definitions of Organizational Communication
16(3)
Organizational Communication as Process
16(1)
Organizational Communication as People
17(1)
Organizational Communication as Messages
17(1)
Organizational Communication as Meaning
17(1)
Organizational Communication as Purpose
18(1)
Self-Assessment of Personal Development Needs
19(1)
Chapter Highlights
19(4)
Workshop
23(2)
The Case against Hiring Karen Groves
25(1)
The ``What Do You Mean I'm Not Getting a Raise?'' Case
25(1)
References and Suggested Readings
26(1)
Theoretical Perspectives for Organizational Communication
27(38)
The Coronado Company's Quality Defects Case
28(1)
Introduction
28(2)
The Functional Approach
30(11)
Organizational Communication Systems: Component Parts
30(1)
Communication Inputs
31(1)
Communication Throughput
31(1)
Communication Output
32(1)
Open versus Closed Systems
32(1)
Message Functions
33(1)
Organizing Functions
34(1)
Relationship Functions
34(1)
Change Functions
35(1)
Message Structure
36(1)
Communication Networks
36(1)
Communication Channels
37(1)
Message Direction
38(1)
Communication Load
39(1)
Message Distortion
40(1)
The Functional Approach: Summary of Essential Characteristics
41(1)
The Meaning-Centered Approach
41(11)
Communication as Organizing and Decision Making
42(3)
Communication as Influence
45(1)
Identification
45(1)
Socialization
46(1)
Communication Rules
47(1)
Power
48(1)
Communication as Culture
49(2)
Communication Climate
51(1)
The Meaning-Centered Approach: Summary of Essential Characteristics
51(1)
Emerging Perspectives
52(5)
Communication as Constitutive Process
52(1)
Postmodernism and Organizational Communication
53(1)
Critical Theory and Organizational Communication
54(1)
Feminist Perspectives and Organizational Communication
55(2)
Emerging Perspectives: Summary of Essential Issues
57(1)
Chapter Highlights
57(1)
Workshop
58(1)
The United Concepts Advertising Agency Dilemma Case
59(1)
The ``Newcomers Aren't Welcome Here'' Case
60(1)
References and Suggested Readings
61(4)
Communication Implications of Major Organizational Theories
65(38)
The Davis Instrument Company's Manufacturing Crisis
66(1)
Introduction
67(1)
The Scientific Management School
68(4)
Major Scientific Management Theories
68(4)
Frederick Taylor
Henri Favol
Max Weber
Communication Implications of Scientific Management Theories
72(1)
Scientific Management Theories in Contemporary Organizations
73(1)
The Human Behavior School
74(4)
Major Human Behavior Theories
74(4)
Mary Parker Follett
Elton Mayo
Douglas McGregor
Rensis Likert
Communication Implications of Human Behavior Theories
78(1)
Human Behavior Theories in Contemporary Organizations
79(1)
Integrated Perspectives Viewpoints
80(12)
Integrated Perspective Theories: Process and Environmental Approaches
80(6)
Herbert Simon
Eric L. Trist
Kenneth W. Bamforth
Joan Woodward
Paul Lawrence
Jay Lorsch
Daniel Katz
Robert Kahn
Gareth Morgan
Margaret Wheatley
Peter Senge
Integrated Perspectives Theories: Cultural Approaches
86(6)
Terrence Deal
Allen Kennedy
William Ouchi
Thomas Peters
Robert Waterman
Edgar Schein
Karl Weick
Communication Implications of Integrated Perspectives Viewpoints
92(1)
Integrated Perspectives Viewpoints in Contemporary Organizations
92(1)
Postmodern, Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
93(3)
Stewart Clegg
Jurgen Habermas
Marta Calas
Linda Smircich
Communication Implications of Postmodern, Critical, and Feminist Perspectives
96(1)
Postmodern, Critical, and Feminist Perspectives in Contemporary Organizations
96(1)
Chapter Highlights
97(1)
Workshop
98(2)
The ``What Do You Mean I'm Not Going to Graduate?'' Case
100(1)
The ``We Never Had to Advertise Before'' Case
100(1)
References and Suggested Readings
101(2)
Organizational Communication: Values and Ethical Communication Behaviors
103(41)
The Presidential Fact-Finding (Witch-Hunt?) Case
104(1)
Introduction
105(1)
Values in Organizational Communication
106(7)
Organizational Value Systems
107(1)
Organizational Values and Diversity
108(2)
Individual Values
110(3)
Appraising Your Individual Value System
113(1)
Ethics in Organizational Communication
114(9)
The Abuse of Ethics
114(2)
Making Ethical Decisions
116(2)
Defining Ethics
118(1)
Defining Ethical Communication
119(1)
Influences for Ethical Organizational Communication
120(1)
Evaluating Ethical Behavior
121(2)
The Organizational Conundrum
123(3)
Ethical Dilemmas in Organizational Communication
126(5)
Representing Skills and Abilities
126(1)
Communication Behaviors Related to Money
127(1)
Communication Behaviors Related to Information Collection and Dissemination
128(1)
Personal Communication Behaviors
128(1)
Communication Behaviors and Technology
129(1)
Planned Organizational Communication
130(1)
Developing Ethical Standards in Organizational Communication
131(5)
Ethical Dilemmas in Organizational Communication
131(5)
Chapter Highlights
136(1)
Workshop
136(6)
People, Planet, and Profit: Sustainability and the Triple Bottom Line
138(3)
Laura Quinn
GreenBean Coffee, Inc.---Is It Our Responsibility?
141(1)
Laura Quinn
References and Suggested Readings
142(2)
Individuals in Organizations
144(47)
Dave Green's First Real Job
145(1)
Introduction
145(1)
Individuals in Organizations
146(2)
The Intrapersonal Experience
148(1)
Dave Green: The Intrapersonal Experience
148(9)
Motivation
149(5)
Abraham Maslow
Frederick Herzberg
B. F. Skinner
Gerald Salancik
Jeffrey Pfeffer
Predispositions for Organizational Communication Behaviors
154(2)
Leadership and Conflict Preferences
156(1)
Communication Competency
156(1)
Interpersonal Experiences
157(1)
Dave Green: Interpersonal Experiences
157(7)
Communication Networks
158(4)
A Diverse Workforce
162(2)
Forming Interpersonal Relationships
164(6)
Supervisors and Subordinates
165(3)
Peers
168(2)
Customers and Vendors
170(1)
Trust and Interpersonal Relationships
170(1)
Technology and Interpersonal Relationships
171(1)
Increasing Interpersonal Effectiveness
172(9)
Valuing Diversity
173(3)
Active Listening
176(2)
Guidelines for Good Listening
178(1)
Descriptive Messages
179(2)
Chapter Highlights
181(1)
Workshop
182(5)
The Marketing Department Has a Diversity Issue
184(1)
Amy Martz
Anita Foeman
Are We So Different We Can't Work Together?
185(2)
Adelina M. Gomez
References and Suggested Readings
187(4)
Groups in Organizations
191(30)
Dave Green's Small-Group Experiences
192(1)
Introduction
192(1)
Small-Group Experiences
193(1)
Types of Groups
194(7)
Primary Work Teams
194(3)
Directional Groups
197(1)
Quality Teams
198(1)
Task Force Groups
199(1)
Steering Committees
199(1)
Focus Groups
200(1)
Geographically Diverse Teams
200(1)
Social Support Groups
201(1)
The Team-Based Organization
201(3)
Workplace Democracy
204(1)
Group Development
204(3)
Group Stages
204(2)
Group Communication Roles
206(1)
Working in Groups
207(4)
Diverse Work Groups
208(1)
Creativity and Collaboration
209(1)
Virtual Groups
210(1)
Increasing Group Participation Effectiveness
211(2)
Negative Participation Behaviors
211(1)
Positive Participation Behaviors
212(1)
Chapter Highlights
213(1)
Workshop
214(5)
References and Suggested Readings
219(2)
Leadership and Management Communication
221(46)
The Case of the Invisible Manager
222(1)
Introduction
222(1)
The Importance of Leadership and Management Communication
223(2)
Theories of Leadership and Management
225(14)
Trait Approaches
225(2)
Style Approaches
227(5)
Situational Approaches
232(3)
Transformational Approaches
235(4)
Distinctions between Leadership and Management
239(1)
Leadership and Management Challenges
240(4)
Changing Organizational Forms
240(1)
Global and Multicultural Changes
241(1)
High-Speed Management
242(1)
High-Participation Processes
243(1)
Determinants of Leadership Effectiveness
244(10)
Communication Competencies as Determinants of Leadership Effectiveness
244(1)
Predispositions for Leadership Communication
244(1)
Strategic Communication Objectives for Leadership
245(3)
Communication Tactics for Leadership
248(3)
Power Bases for Leaders
251(2)
Situational Analysis for Leadership
253(1)
Increasing Leadership Effectiveness
254(3)
Principled Leadership
254(2)
Identifying Constructive Communication Behaviors for Leadership
256(1)
Chapter Highlights
257(1)
Workshop
258(6)
Leadership That Transforms
260(4)
Michael Z. Hackman
Craig Johnson
References and Suggested Readings
264(3)
Participating in Organizations: Developing Critical Organizational Communication Competencies
267(39)
The Decisions, Problems, More Decisions Case
268(1)
Introduction
269(1)
Defining Decision Making and Problem Solving
270(1)
Influences for Decision Making and Problem Solving
271(2)
Culture
271(1)
The Decision/Problem Issue
272(1)
Communication Competency
273(1)
Technical Competency
273(1)
Methods for Decision Making and Problem Solving
273(2)
Individual Approaches
274(1)
Leader Mandate
274(1)
Majority Rule
274(1)
Powerful Minority
274(1)
Consensus
275(1)
Barriers to Effective Decision Making and Problem Solving
275(2)
Organizational Barriers
276(1)
Task Barriers
276(1)
Procedural Barriers
276(1)
Interpersonal Barriers
277(1)
Problem-Solving Processes
277(4)
The Standard Agenda: A Rational Model
277(1)
Brainstorming
278(1)
The Delphi Technique
279(1)
Nominal Group Process
280(1)
Experientially Based Processes
280(1)
Increasing Decision-Making and Problem-Solving Effectiveness
281(3)
Interaction Process Skills
281(1)
Fact-Finding and Evaluation Skills
282(1)
Information Criteria
283(1)
The Spending More to Save More Presentation Case
284(1)
Interviews in Organizations
285(4)
Informational Interview
285(2)
The Employment Interview
287(1)
The Performance Appraisal Interview
287(1)
The Complaint Interview
288(1)
The Counseling Interview
288(1)
The Media Interview
289(1)
Increasing Interview Effectiveness
289(2)
Presentations in Organizations
291(2)
Types of Organizational Presentations
293(2)
Training/Educational Presentations
293(1)
Informational Presentations
294(1)
Persuasive Presentations
295(1)
Increasing Presentation Effectiveness
295(3)
Increasing Credibility
296(1)
Audience and Context Analysis
296(1)
Preparation of Material
297(1)
Preparation for Presenting
297(1)
Handling Participation
298(1)
Communications Technology in Organizations
298(2)
Preparation for Communications Technology
300(1)
Chapter Highlights
300(1)
Workshop
301(3)
References and Suggested Readings
304(2)
Organizational Conflict: Communicating for Effectiveness
306(44)
The Middlesex Insurance Company Case
307(1)
Introduction
307(1)
Defining and Describing Conflict Processes
308(8)
Defining Conflict
308(1)
Conflict Contexts
308(2)
Conflict Causes
310(2)
Conflict Episodes
312(4)
The Individual in Organizational Conflict
316(12)
Orientations/Predispositions/Styles
316(6)
Strategic Objectives
322(1)
Communication Tactics in Conflict
323(4)
Emotion during Conflict
327(1)
Groups in Organizational Conflict
328(5)
Group Members in Conflict
329(1)
Procedural Conflict
330(1)
Interpersonal Issues
330(1)
Substantive Issues
330(1)
Groupthink
330(1)
Group Conflict Management Processes
331(1)
Power and Organizational Conflict
332(1)
Special Types of Organizational Conflict: Sexual Harassment, Discrimination, Ethical Abuses
333(3)
Productively Engaging in Conflict
336(4)
Supportive Climates, Ethical Behaviors, and Principled Negotiation
336(4)
Guidelines for Productive Conflict
340(3)
A Process for Productive Conflict
341(1)
The Process
341(2)
Chapter Highlights
343(1)
Workshop
344(4)
The New Career Development Program That Ruins Careers Case
346(2)
References and Suggested Readings
348(2)
Strategic Organizational Communication: Professional Applications of Organizational Communication
350(28)
The Press and the Stockholders Want to Know Case
351(1)
Introduction
352(1)
Describing Strategic Organizational Communication
352(3)
Perspectives on Strategic Organizational Communication
353(2)
The Organization and Its Environment
355(2)
Multiple Publics
355(1)
Environmental Scanning
356(1)
Strategic Management
357(2)
Strategic Organizational Communication
359(14)
Public Relations
360(1)
Managing an Organization's Image or Reputation
361(1)
Internal Communications
362(1)
Public Affairs and Issues Management
363(2)
Media Relations
365(1)
Crisis Communication
366(3)
Marketing
369(1)
Marketing Today: The Customer Is Central
370(1)
The Marketing Mix
371(1)
The Emergence of Integrated Marketing Communications
372(1)
Relationship Marketing and the Use of Marketing Databases
372(1)
Ethical Issues in Strategic Organizational Communication
373(1)
Chapter Highlights
374(1)
Workshop
375(1)
References and Suggested Readings
375(3)
Organizational Change and Communication
378(23)
The Techtron Computers ``Want to Survive, Go Public, and Then What?'' Case
379(1)
Introduction
379(2)
The Pace of Change
381(1)
Developing and Sustaining Organizational Excellence
382(1)
Barriers to Change
383(3)
Organizational Silence
383(1)
Knowledge or Information Deficits
383(1)
Risk Perception
384(1)
Uncertainty
384(1)
Active and Passive Resistance
385(1)
Organizational Trust
385(1)
The Leadership of Development and Change
386(2)
The Purchase Model
387(1)
The Doctor-Patient Model
388(1)
The Process Model
388(1)
Planned Development and Change
388(7)
Data Collection
388(2)
Data Evaluation
390(1)
Planning and Implementing Solutions
391(2)
Evaluating Results
393(2)
Communicating about Change
395(1)
Chapter Highlights
396(1)
Workshop
397(1)
Jane Edwards's Problem Employee
397(1)
The Case of the Poorly Written Manual
397(1)
The Transition of Stanley Manufacturing
398(1)
The Crisis at Homes for the Homeless
398(1)
Mason Financial Is Working at Capacity
399(1)
Changes for Hewlett Designers
399(1)
References and Suggested Readings
400(1)
Applications of Organizational Communication
401(56)
The ``Where Do We Go from Here?'' Case
402(1)
Introduction
402(1)
Choosing a Communication Career
403(4)
Knowledge for Employment Matching
404(1)
Sensitivity for Employment Matching
404(1)
Skills for Employment Matching
405(1)
Values for Employment Matching
406(1)
Career Choices in Organizational Communication
407(6)
Internal Communication
407(2)
External Communications
409(1)
Sales
410(1)
Human Services
410(1)
Education
411(1)
Research: Information Management
411(1)
Management
412(1)
Consulting
412(1)
Additional Options for Organizational Communication
413(1)
Educational Preparation for Organizational Communication Careers
413(1)
Careers in the Twenty-First Century
414(6)
Old versus New Career Paradigms
415(1)
Protean Careers
416(1)
The Boundaryless Career
416(1)
Twenty-First-Century Organizational Forms and Career Skills
417(1)
Networked Organization
418(1)
Cellular Organization
418(1)
Team-Based Careers
419(1)
Chapter Highlights
420(1)
Workshop
420(11)
So What Are You Doing after Graduation? Some Reflections of a Former Xerox Salesperson
428(3)
Donald D. Morley
References and Suggested Readings
431(2)
APPENDIX
Putting It All Together
433(1)
Cases
433(24)
A Conflict of Interest
437(1)
Summer Kircher
Can Newspeople Challenge My Company?
438(1)
Kim Walker
What Gets Cut?
439(1)
Sherwyn P. Morreale
Karen Mason's Management Briefing Disaster
440(1)
I Thought I Gave Them Everything
441(1)
Ann Cartwright, Vice President of Drummond Industries
442(1)
The Rule Here Is to Do What Management Wants
442(1)
The Barquette Cleaning Company Case
443(3)
David Gehring
R. Jeffrey Ringer
Two Men---Two Issues---Two Japanese Workers
446(1)
Rieko McAdams
The Grayson-Gerald Consulting Case
447(1)
Maryanne Wanca-Thibault
I Thought We Were a Team
448(1)
The Case of the Internal Communications Dilemma
449(1)
The Case of the Reluctant Team Member
450(1)
What Happened to the Value of Networking?
450(1)
The Case of the ``Walking the Talk'' Manager
451(1)
Working Together at a Distance
452(1)
Career and Personal Needs Just Don't Mix
452(1)
The Power of Symbols: Creating Corporate Identity at Agilent Technologies
453(2)
Michael Z. Hackman
Ross Campbell
The Competitive Leak Is More Than a Crisis! Case
455(1)
The CEO Puts Her Foot in Her Mouth Case
455(2)
Author Index 457(8)
Subject Index 465


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