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Fundamentals of Pharmacology for Veterinary Technicians,9781401842932
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Fundamentals of Pharmacology for Veterinary Technicians

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9781401842932

ISBN10:
1401842933
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/6/2004
Publisher(s):
CENGAGE Delmar Learning

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 1st edition with a publication date of 7/6/2004.
What is included with this book?
  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

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Summary

This book presents a thorough discussion of the medications dispensed by veterinary and laboratory animal technicians, including how they may help or harm animals. After reviewing the basic anatomy and physiology of the body systems, drugs used to treat diseases of those body systems are presented in a clear, categorical manner. The extensive use of tables, illustrations and photos help readers review material and serve as a quick reference in the classroom and clinical settings, as well as for certification examinations preparation. Additionally, two interactive CD-ROMs describe the mechanics of calculations of drug doses and solutions and the theory and mechanics of fluid therapy.

Table of Contents

A Brief History of Veterinary Pharmacology
1(8)
Introduction
1(1)
A History of Veterinary Pharmacology
1(1)
What Did You Say? Understanding Pharmacological Terms
2(1)
Who's in Charge? The Food and Drug Administration
3(1)
How Do You Get Drugs?
4(3)
Summary
7(1)
Chapter References
7(1)
Chapter Review
7(2)
Veterinary Drug Development and Control
9(9)
Introduction
9(1)
How Do Veterinary Drugs Get Here? The Stages of Veterinary Drug Development
9(6)
Overview of Drug Development
10(1)
Safety and Effectiveness Evaluation
11(1)
Toxicity Evaluation
12(1)
Effective and Lethal Dose Evaluation
13(1)
Therapeutic Index
13(1)
Systems-Oriented Screen
14(1)
Evaluation of Long-Term (Chronic) Effects
14(1)
Evaluating Reproductive Effects, Carcinogenicity, and Teratogenicity
14(1)
How Do Drugs Get to You? Drug Marketing Systems
15(1)
Summary
15(1)
Chapter References
16(1)
Chapter Review
16(2)
Therapeutic Range and Routes of Administration
18(18)
Introduction
18(1)
Keeping Safe: The Therapeutic Range
19(1)
Staying in the Safe Zone
19(1)
Route of Administration
20(10)
Injectable Administration and Dose Forms
21(3)
Inhalation Administration
24(3)
Topical Application and Dose Forms
27(1)
Oral Administration and Dose Forms
27(3)
Drug Dose
30(1)
Dosage Interval
31(1)
Out of the Safe Zone
32(1)
Summary
33(1)
Chapter References
33(1)
Chapter Review
34(2)
Pharmacokinetics
36(20)
Introduction
36(1)
Drug Movement
36(4)
Passive Diffusion
37(2)
Facilitated Diffusion
39(1)
Active Transport
39(1)
Pinocytosis and Phagocytosis
40(1)
Pharmacokinetics Part I: Getting In
40(4)
Amount of Drug in the Body
41(1)
pH and Ionization
41(1)
Ion Trapping
42(1)
Oral versus Parenteral Drug Forms
42(2)
Patient Factors
44(1)
Pharmacokinetics Part II: Moving Around
44(2)
Membrane Permeability
45(1)
Tissue Perfusion
45(1)
Protein Binding
45(1)
Volume of Distribution
46(1)
Pharmacokinetics Part III: Changing
46(1)
Pharmacokinetics Part IV: Getting Out
47(4)
How Do Drugs Work?
51(1)
Summary
52(2)
Chapter References
54(1)
Chapter Review
54(2)
Veterinary Drug Use and Prescribing
56(17)
Introduction
56(1)
Brand Name(®) or Not?
56(2)
Getting Information
58(4)
Drug Standards
58(1)
Package Inserts
58(4)
Drug Reference Books
62(1)
Dispensing versus Prescribing
62(8)
Summary
70(1)
Chapter References
71(1)
Chapter Review
71(2)
Systems of Measurement in Veterinary Pharmacology
73(24)
Introduction
73(1)
The Basics
73(1)
How Do We Measure?
74(12)
The Household System
74(1)
The Metric System
74(2)
Converting Grams to Milligrams
76(2)
Converting Milligrams to Grams
78(1)
Converting Kilograms to Grams
78(2)
Converting Grams to Kilograms
80(1)
Converting Liters to Milliliters
81(1)
Converting Milliliters to Liters
82(1)
The Apothecary System
82(2)
Conversions Between Metric and Apothecary Systems of Measure
84(1)
Temperature Conversions
84(2)
Dose Calculations
86(3)
Determining the Dose and the Amount of Drug Dispensed
86(1)
Dose in mg
86(1)
Dose in Tablets
87(1)
Dose in ml
87(1)
Dose in Units
87(1)
Calculating Total Dose
88(1)
Calculating Number of Doses
88(1)
Determining the Amount in Each Dose
88(1)
Solutions
89(3)
Percent Concentration Calculations
89(2)
Reconstitution Problems
91(1)
Summary
92(1)
Chapter References
93(1)
Chapter Review
93(4)
Drugs Affecting the Nervous System
97(26)
Introduction
97(1)
Basic Nervous System Anatomy and Physiology
97(4)
Central Nervous System Drugs
101(14)
Seizure Stopping
101(2)
Calming
103(2)
Pain Relieving
105(2)
Opioid Blocking
107(1)
Pain Relieving and Anxiety Calming
107(1)
No Pain
107(1)
Local Anesthetics
108(1)
General Anesthetics
108(1)
Injectable Anesthetics
108(1)
Barbiturates
108(2)
Dissociatives
110(1)
Miscellaneous
111(1)
Inhalant Agents
111(2)
Inhalant Analgesics
113(1)
Inhalant Anesthetics
113(1)
CNS Stimulants (CNS)
114(1)
Euthanasia Solutions
115(1)
Autonomic Nervous System Drugs
115(3)
Parasympathetic Nervous System Drugs
115(1)
Cholinergic Drugs Parasympathomimetics
115(1)
Anticholinergic Drugs/Parasympatholytics
116(1)
Sympathetic Nervous System Drugs
117(1)
Adrenergic Drugs/Sympathomimetics
117(1)
Adrenergic Blocking Agents/Sympatholytics
118(1)
Summary
118(2)
Chapter References
120(1)
Chapter Review
121(2)
Cardiovascular Drugs
123(17)
Introduction
123(1)
Basic Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology
124(4)
Cardiovascular Drugs
128(6)
Increasing Force
128(2)
Fixing the Rhythm
130(1)
Correcting Constriction
131(2)
Losing Fluid
133(1)
Drugs Affecting Blood
134(2)
Clot Stopping
134(1)
Bleeding Stopping
135(1)
Blood Enhancing
136(1)
Summary
136(1)
Chapter References
137(1)
Chapter Review
137(3)
Respiratory System Drugs
140(9)
Introduction
140(1)
Basic Respiratory Anatomy and Physiology
141(1)
Respiratory Drugs
142(4)
Cough-Causing
142(1)
Mucus-Breaking
142(1)
Cough-Controlling
142(1)
Congestion-Reducing
143(1)
Bronchi-Widening
143(1)
Histamine-Blocking
144(1)
Respiratory Stimulants
144(1)
Other Drugs Used in the Respiratory System
145(1)
Summary
146(1)
Chapter References
146(1)
Chapter Review
147(2)
Hormonal and Reproductive Drugs
149(25)
Introduction
149(1)
Basic Endocrine System Anatomy and Physiology
150(1)
Regulation of the Endocrine System
151(1)
Hormonal Drugs
152(8)
Master Gland Control
152(2)
Blood Glucose Regulation
154(3)
Regulation of Metabolic Rate
157(2)
Regulation of the Adrenal Cortex
159(1)
Basic Reproductive System Anatomy and Physiology
160(2)
Drugs Affecting Reproduction
162(5)
Male Hormone-like Drugs
162(2)
Female Hormone-like Drugs
164(1)
The ``Gest''s (Progesterone Drugs)
164(1)
The ``Prost''s (Prostaglandin Drugs)
165(1)
Gonad Stimulators
166(1)
Promoting Growth
167(1)
Hormonal Implants
168(1)
Tissue Building
168(1)
Summary
168(1)
Chapter References
169(2)
Chapter Review
171(3)
Gastrointestinal Drugs
174(17)
Introduction
174(1)
Basic Digestive System Anatomy and Physiology
174(2)
Gastrointestinal Drugs
176(9)
Saliva Stopping
176(1)
Diarrhea Stopping
177(1)
Stool Loosening
178(1)
Vomit Stopping
179(2)
Vomit Producing
181(1)
Ulcer Stopping
182(2)
Foam Stopping
184(1)
Motility Enhancing
184(1)
Enzyme Supplementing
185(1)
Dental Prophylaxis and Treatment
185(1)
Summary
185(3)
Chapter References
188(1)
Chapter Review
188(3)
Urinary System Drugs
191(13)
Introduction
191(1)
Basic Urinary System Anatomy and Physiology
191(2)
Urinary System Drugs
193(7)
Urine Producing
193(1)
Blood Pressure Lowering
194(1)
Urolith Treatment
195(1)
Urinary Incontinence
196(1)
Neurologically Caused Incontinence
197(2)
Nonneurologically Caused Incontinence
199(1)
Miscellaneous Drugs
200(1)
Summary
200(1)
Chapter References
201(1)
Chapter Review
201(3)
Drugs Affecting Muscle Function
204(7)
Introduction
204(1)
Basic Muscle Anatomy and Physiology
204(1)
Drugs Affecting Muscle Function
205(3)
Inflammation Reducing
205(1)
Muscle Paralyzing
206(1)
Spasm Stopping
207(1)
Tissue Building
207(1)
Summary
208(1)
Chapter References
208(1)
Chapter Review
209(2)
Antimicrobials
211(25)
Introduction
211(1)
Antimicrobial Terminology
212(1)
Antimicrobials for Bacteria
212(4)
How Antibiotics Work
214(1)
Additional Considerations in Antibiotic Use
214(2)
Classes of Antibiotics
216(5)
Cell Wall Agents
216(1)
Penicillins
216(1)
Broad-Spectrum Penicillins
217(1)
Beta-Lactamase-Resistant Penicillins
217(1)
Potentiated Penicillins
217(1)
Cephalosporins
217(1)
Bacitracin
218(1)
Vancomycin
218(1)
Cell Membrane Agents
218(1)
Protein Synthesis Agents
218(1)
Aminoglycosides
218(1)
Tetracyclines
219(1)
Chloramphenicol
219(1)
Florfenicol
219(1)
Macrolides
219(1)
Lincosamides
220(1)
Antimetabolites
220(1)
Nucleic Acid Agents
220(1)
Miscellaneous Antibiotics
221(1)
Nitrofurans
221(1)
Nitroimidazoles
221(1)
Rifampin
221(1)
Antimicrobials for Fungi
221(4)
Polyene Antifungal Agents
224(1)
Imidazole Antifungal Agents
224(1)
Antimetabolic Antifungal Agents
225(1)
Superficial Antifungal Agents
225(1)
Antimicrobials for Viruses
225(1)
Inanimate versus Animate Use: Disinfectants and Antiseptics
226(6)
Types of Disinfecting Agents
227(1)
Phenols
227(1)
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
227(1)
Aldehydes
227(3)
Ethylene Oxide
230(1)
Alcohols
230(1)
Halogens
230(1)
Biguanides
230(1)
Other Agents
231(1)
Summary
232(1)
Chapter References
232(1)
Chapter Review
233(3)
Antiparasitics
236(19)
Introduction
236(1)
Types of Parasites
236(1)
Inside: Endoparasites
237(7)
Antinematodal Drugs
237(5)
Anticestodal Drugs
242(1)
Antitrematodal Drugs
243(1)
Anticoccidials and Other Antiprotozoals
243(1)
In the Heart: Heartworm Medications
244(2)
Outside: Ectoparasites
246(6)
Summary
252(1)
Chapter References
252(1)
Chapter Review
253(2)
Anti-Inflammatory and Pain-Reducing Drugs
255(16)
Introduction
255(1)
Inflammation
256(1)
Inflammation Reducers
257(8)
Steroidal Inflammation Reducers
258(4)
NSAIDs
262(1)
Miscellaneous Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
263(1)
Other Osteoarthritis Treatments
264(1)
Antihistamines
265(1)
Immunomodulators
265(1)
Pain Relievers
266(2)
Summary
268(1)
Chapter References
268(1)
Chapter Review
269(2)
Drugs for Skin Conditions
271(10)
Introduction
271(1)
Basic Skin Anatomy and Physiology
271(1)
Drugs Used in the Treatment of Skin Disorders
272(5)
On Top of Bacteria and Fungi
273(1)
On Top of Itching
273(1)
On Top of Seborrhea
274(1)
Miscellaneous Topical Drugs
275(2)
Summary
277(1)
Chapter References
277(1)
Chapter Review
278(3)
Ophthalmic and Otic Medications
281(17)
Introduction
281(1)
Basic Eye Anatomy and Physiology
281(2)
Ophthalmic Drugs
283(6)
Diagnostic
284(1)
Pupil Closing
284(1)
Pupil Opening
285(1)
Pressure Reducing
286(1)
Dry Eye Repairers
287(2)
All the Rest
289(1)
Introduction
289(1)
Basic Ear Anatomy and Physiology
289(2)
Otic Medications
291(2)
Summary
293(2)
Chapter References
295(1)
Chapter Review
295(3)
Fluid Therapy and Emergency Drugs
298(20)
Introduction
298(1)
Basics of Body Fluid
299(1)
Fluid Therapy
300(1)
How Do We Get It There?
301(1)
What Can We Give?
302(3)
What Can We Add?
305(2)
How Much Do We Give?
307(1)
Rehydration Volumes
307(1)
Maintenance Fluid Volumes
307(1)
Ongoing Fluid Loss Volumes
308(1)
Examples of Fluid Calculations
308(1)
How Fast Do We Give It?
309(2)
What Do We Use to Give It?
311(1)
Keeping Watch
311(1)
Emergency Drugs
311(3)
A = Airway
313(1)
B = Breathing
313(1)
C = Circulation
313(1)
Summary
314(1)
Chapter References
315(1)
Chapter Review
316(2)
Antineoplastic and Immunosuppressive Drugs
318(9)
Introduction
318(1)
Cancer-Fighting Drugs
318(6)
Nonspecific versus Specific
319(2)
Administering Antineoplastics
321(1)
Immune Enhancers
321(1)
Immune Dehancers
322(1)
Enzymes
323(1)
Adverse Reactions
323(1)
Summary
324(1)
Chapter References
325(1)
Chapter Review
325(2)
Vaccines
327(13)
Introduction
327(1)
Protection against Disease
327(2)
Why Vaccinate?
329(1)
What Is a Vaccine?
329(4)
Types of Vaccines
329(3)
Maternally Derived Antibiotics
332(1)
Vaccine Allergies
333(1)
Issues of Vaccine Use
333(2)
Care and Handling
333(1)
Route of Administration
333(1)
Using Vaccines
333(1)
Patient Considerations
334(1)
Vaccine Reactions
335(1)
Vaccine Protocols
335(1)
Core versus Noncore
336(1)
Vaccine Examples
336(1)
Summary
337(1)
Chapter References
338(1)
Chapter Review
338(2)
Behavior--Modifying Drugs
340(10)
Introduction
340(1)
Behavior Problems in Animals
340(1)
Classes of Behavior-Modifying Drugs
341(6)
Anti-anxiety Drugs
341(1)
Antihistamines
341(1)
Benzodiazepines
342(1)
Phenothiazines
342(1)
Azapirones
342(1)
Barbiturates
342(1)
Antidepressants
343(1)
Tricyclic Antidepressants
343(1)
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
344(1)
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
344(1)
Hormones
344(3)
Summary
347(1)
Chapter References
347(1)
Chapter Review
347(3)
Herbal Therapeutics
350(13)
Introduction
350(1)
Alternatives
350(1)
What's in a Name?
351(1)
West versus East
352(7)
Why Herbs?
352(1)
Quality Control
353(1)
Herb Forms and Administration
354(1)
Herbal Countdown
354(1)
Ginkgo
355(1)
St John's Wort
355(1)
Ginseng
355(1)
Garlic
356(1)
Echinacea
356(1)
Saw Palmetto
357(1)
Evening Primrose
357(1)
Goldenseal
357(1)
Cranberry
357(1)
Valerian
357(1)
Advice to Clients
358(1)
Summary
359(1)
Chapter References
359(2)
Chapter Review
361(2)
Appendix A Unit Conversions and Math References 363(2)
Appendix B Conversion of Body Weight in Kilograms to Body Surface Area in Meters (for Dogs and Cats) 365(1)
Appendix C Metric Conversion Guide 366(1)
Appendix D Vitamin Supplements 367(2)
Appendix E Inventory Management 369(2)
Appendix F Managing Animal Toxicities 371(2)
Appendix G Web Sites of Veterinary Pharmaceutical Companies 373(3)
Appendix H Proper Use of Needles and Syringes 376(1)
Appendix I Withdrawing (Aspirating) Medication from a Vial 377(3)
Appendix J Withdrawing (Aspirating) Medication from an Ampule 380(3)
Appendix K Reconstituting a Powder Medication for Administration 383(4)
Appendix L Drugs Listed Alphabetically and Classified by Category 387(8)
Glossary 395(10)
Index 405(6)
Answer Key to Text Review Exercises 411(1)
Software System Requirements and Installation Instructions 412


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