Fundamentals of Phonetics A Practical Guide for Students

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 3/9/2015
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Here is a clear, systematic introduction to the fundamentals of linguistic phonetics with a total learning package designed to help students become proficient in phonetics and phonetic transcription. Fundamentals of Phonetics by Larry Small provides speech and hearing students with a good understanding of phonetics principles through practice. The text uses in-text exercises and supplemental audio recordings to teach the practical skills necessary to successfully perform phonetic transcription of individuals using the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Students learn about the transcription of consonants and vowels, connected speech, and individuals with speech sound disorders. A chapter on speech acoustics introduces spectrograms and the acoustic characteristics of speech sounds. Students also learn how to transcribe individuals who display regional and ethnic dialectal variation of speech, including those who have learned to speak English as a second language. Throughout the text are included chapter objectives, learning exercises, in-class and take-home assignments, online resources, and study questions that will help students learn, process, and practice the material presented in the text.

Author Biography

Larry H. Small received both a B.S. in Speech Pathology and Audiology (1977), and an M.A. in Audiology (1977) from Kent State University. He received his Ph.D. in Speech and Hearing Science from Ohio University in 1984. He worked as a clinical audiologist at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha from 1978 – 1980. Dr. Small joined the faculty of Bowling Green State University (BGSU) in 1984, and remained on the faculty for twenty-four years, prior to his retirement in 2008 when he was named Associate Professor Emeritus. While at BGSU, he served as the Director of the University Honors Program (1991 – 1996). He was also Chair of the Department of Communication Disorders from 2003-2007. Dr. Small was on the Executive Board of the Council of Academic Programs in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CAPCSD) from 2007-2011, serving as President from 2009-2010. He began teaching undergraduate and AuD courses at Ohio State University (OSU) in 2008. For the past thirty years, he has taught courses at the undergraduate and graduate levels in phonetics, hearing science, diagnostic audiology and aural rehabilitation, both at BGSU and OSU. He has authored or co-authored numerous presentations and publications. Dr. Small was named an ASHA Fellow in 2014.

Table of Contents

Preface    xi

1 Phonetics: A “Sound” Science    1

Learning Objectives    1

Variation in Phonetic Practice    4

The IPA and Unicode Fonts    4

A Note on Pronunciation and Dialect    6

Study Questions    7

Online Resources    7

2 Phonetic Transcription of English    9

Learning Objectives    9

The Difference Between Spelling and Sound    10

Morphemes    12

Phonemes    13

Allophones: Members of a Phoneme Family    18

Syllables    20

Word Stress    24

Broad Versus Narrow Transcription    29

Review Exercises    30

Study Questions    33

Online Resources    34

Assignments    35

3 Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech

Mechanism    39

Learning Objectives    39

The Respiratory System and Respiration    39

The Laryngeal System and Phonation    41

The Supralaryngeal System and Articulation    44

The Vocal Tract and Resonance    48

Review Exercises    49

Study Questions    51

Online Resources    51

4 Vowels    53

Learning Objectives    53

What Is a Vowel?    53

Transcription of the English Vowels    58

Review Exercises    97

Study Questions    102

Online Resources    102

Assignments    103

5 Consonants    111

Learning Objectives    111

What Is a Consonant?    111

Consonants Versus Vowels    111

Manner, Place, and Voicing    113

Transcription of the English Consonants    115

Review Exercises    153

Study Questions    157

Online Resources    158

Assignments    159

6 Acoustic Characteristics of Vowels

and Consonants    173

Learning Objectives    173

Time, Frequency, and Intensity    173

Vowels    177

Consonants    184

Review Exercises    197

Study Questions    201

Online Resources    201

7 Connected Speech    203

Learning Objectives    203

Assimilation    204

Suprasegmental Aspects of Speech    213

Review Exercises    226

Study Questions    232

Online Resources    233

Assignments    235

8 Clinical Phonetics: Transcription of Speech

Sound Disorders    243

Learning Objectives    243

Phonological Processes    244

Children with Phonological Disorders    255

Transcription of Speech Sound Disorders: Diacritics    257

The extIPA and the VoQS    268

Transcription of Speech Sound Disorders:

Non-English Phonemes    269

Suggestions for Transcription    274

Review Exercises    276

Study Questions    279

Online Resource    280

Assignments    281

9 Dialectal Variation    291

Learning Objectives    291

Regional Dialects    294

Southern American English    301

Eastern American English    303

Social and Ethnic Dialects    305

African American English    306

Learning English as a Second Language    309

Spanish-Influenced English    312

Asian-Influenced English I: East Asian Languages    315

Asian-Influenced English II: Asian Indian English    319

Russian- and Arabic-Influenced English    327

Review Exercises    331

Study Questions    340

Online Resources    340

Assignments    343

References    347

Answers to Questions    352

Appendix    407

Glossary    409

Index    417

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