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# Fundamentals of Physics, Volume 1 (Chapters 1 - 20), 8th Edition

**by**David Halliday (Univ. of Pittsburgh); Robert Resnick (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute); Jearl Walker (Cleveland State Univ.)

8th

### 9780470044735

047004473X

Hardcover

1/1/2007

Wiley

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## Related Products

## Summary

This 8th edition of Fundamentals of Physics includes hundreds of items about curious effects in the everyday world, written in the spirit of Jearl Walker's The Flying Circus of Physics. The original edition of The Flying Circus of Physics-in print for over 30 years in 10 languages-is a cult classic among physics students, physics instructors, and the general public.

## Table of Contents

Measurement | p. 1 |

What Is Physics? | p. 2 |

Measuring Things | p. 2 |

The International System of Units | p. 2 |

Changing Units | p. 3 |

Length | p. 4 |

Time | p. 5 |

Mass | p. 7 |

Review & Summary | p. 8 |

Problems | p. 8 |

Motion Along a Straight Line | p. 13 |

What Is Physics? | p. 14 |

Motion | p. 14 |

Position and Displacement | p. 14 |

Average Velocity and Average Speed | p. 15 |

Instantaneous Velocity and Speed | p. 17 |

Acceleration | p. 19 |

Constant Acceleration: A Special Case | p. 21 |

Another Look at Constant Acceleration | p. 24 |

Free-Fall Acceleration | p. 24 |

Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis | p. 27 |

Review & Summary | p. 28 |

Questions | p. 29 |

Problems | p. 30 |

Vector | p. 38 |

What Is Physics? | p. 39 |

Vectors and Scalars | p. 39 |

Adding Vectors Geometrically | p. 39 |

Components of Vectors | p. 40 |

Unit Vectors | p. 44 |

Adding Vectors by Components | p. 45 |

Vectors and the Laws of Physics | p. 48 |

Multiplying Vectors | p. 48 |

Review & Summary | p. 52 |

Questions | p. 52 |

Problems | p. 53 |

Motion in Two and Three Dimensions | p. 58 |

What Is Physics? | p. 59 |

Position and Displacement | p. 59 |

Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity | p. 61 |

Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration | p. 63 |

Projectile Motion | p. 65 |

Projectile Motion Analyzed | p. 66 |

Uniform Circular Motion | p. 70 |

Relative Motion in One Dimension | p. 72 |

Relative Motion in Two Dimensions | p. 73 |

Review & Summary | p. 75 |

Questions | p. 76 |

Problems | p. 77 |

Force and Motion - I | p. 87 |

What Is Physics? | p. 88 |

Newtonian Mechanics | p. 88 |

Newton's First Law | p. 88 |

Force | p. 89 |

Mass | p. 90 |

Newton's Second Law | p. 91 |

Some Particular Forces | p. 94 |

Newton's Third Law | p. 99 |

Applying Newton's Laws | p. 99 |

Review & Summary | p. 105 |

Questions | p. 106 |

Problems | p. 108 |

Force and Motion - II | p. 116 |

What Is Physics? | p. 117 |

Friction | p. 117 |

Properties of Friction | p. 118 |

The Drag Force and Terminal Speed | p. 122 |

Uniform Circular Motion | p. 124 |

Review & Summary | p. 129 |

Questions | p. 130 |

Problems | p. 131 |

Kinetic Energy and Work | p. 140 |

What Is Physics? | p. 141 |

What Is Energy? | p. 141 |

Kinetic Energy | p. 141 |

Work | p. 142 |

Work and Kinetic Energy | p. 143 |

Work Done by the Gravitational Force | p. 146 |

Work Done by a Spring Force | p. 149 |

Work Done by a General Variable Force | p. 152 |

Power | p. 155 |

Review & Summary | p. 157 |

Questions | p. 158 |

Problems | p. 159 |

Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy | p. 166 |

What Is Physics? | p. 167 |

Work and Potential Energy | p. 167 |

Path Independence of Conservative Forces | p. 168 |

Determining Potential Energy Values | p. 170 |

Conservation of Mechanical Energy | p. 173 |

Reading a Potential Energy Curve | p. 175 |

Work Done on a System by an External Force | p. 179 |

Conservation of Energy | p. 182 |

Review & Summary | p. 186 |

Questions | p. 187 |

Problems | p. 189 |

Center of Mass and Linear Momentum | p. 201 |

What Is Physics? | p. 202 |

The Center of Mass | p. 202 |

Newton's Second Law for a System of Particles | p. 206 |

Linear Momentum | p. 209 |

The Linear Momentum of a System of Particles | p. 210 |

Collision and Impulse | p. 210 |

Conservation of Linear Momentum | p. 214 |

Momentum and Kinetic Energy in Collisions | p. 217 |

Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension | p. 218 |

Elastic Collisions in One Dimension | p. 221 |

Collisions in Two Dimensions | p. 224 |

Systems with Varying Mass: A Rocket | p. 224 |

Review & Summary | p. 226 |

Questions | p. 228 |

Problems | p. 229 |

Rotation | p. 241 |

What Is Physics? | p. 242 |

The Rotational Variables | p. 242 |

Are Angular Quantities Vectors? | p. 246 |

Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration | p. 247 |

Relating the Linear and Angular Variables | p. 249 |

Kinetic Energy of Rotation | p. 252 |

Calculating the Rotational Inertia | p. 253 |

Torque | p. 256 |

Newton's Second Law for Rotation | p. 257 |

Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy | p. 260 |

Review & Summary | p. 263 |

Questions | p. 265 |

Problems | p. 266 |

Rolling, Torque, and Angular Momentum | p. 275 |

What Is Physics? | p. 276 |

Rolling as Translation and Rotation Combined | p. 276 |

The Kinetic Energy of Rolling | p. 277 |

The Forces of Rolling | p. 278 |

The Yo-Yo | p. 281 |

Torque Revisited | p. 281 |

Angular Momentum | p. 283 |

Newton's Second Law in Angular Form | p. 285 |

The Angular Momentum of a System of Particles | p. 287 |

The Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body Rotating About a Fixed Axis | p. 287 |

Conservation of Angular Momentum | p. 290 |

Precession of a Gyroscope | p. 293 |

Review & Summary | p. 295 |

Questions | p. 296 |

Problems | p. 297 |

Equilibrium and Elasticity | p. 305 |

What Is Physics? | p. 306 |

Equilibrium | p. 306 |

The Requirements of Equilibrium | p. 307 |

The Center of Gravity | p. 308 |

Some Examples of Static Equilibrium | p. 310 |

Indeterminate Structures | p. 314 |

Elasticity | p. 315 |

Review & Summary | p. 319 |

Questions | p. 319 |

Problems | p. 321 |

Gravitation | p. 330 |

What Is Physics? | p. 331 |

Newton's Law of Gravitation | p. 331 |

Gravitation and the Principle of Superposition | p. 333 |

Gravitation Near Earth's Surface | p. 335 |

Gravitation Inside Earth | p. 337 |

Gravitation Potential Energy | p. 338 |

Planets and Satellites: Kepler's Laws | p. 342 |

Satellites: Orbits and Energy | p. 345 |

Einstein and Gravitation | p. 347 |

Review & Summary | p. 349 |

Questions | p. 350 |

Problems | p. 351 |

Fluids | p. 359 |

What Is Physics? | p. 360 |

What Is a Fluid? | p. 360 |

Density and Pressure | p. 360 |

Fluids at Rest | p. 362 |

Measuring Pressure | p. 365 |

Pascal's Principle | p. 366 |

Archimedes' Principle | p. 367 |

Ideal Fluids in Motion | p. 370 |

The Equation of Continuity | p. 371 |

Bernoulli's Equation | p. 373 |

Review & Summary | p. 377 |

Questions | p. 378 |

Problems | p. 379 |

Oscillations | p. 386 |

What Is Physics? | p. 387 |

Simple Harmonic Motion | p. 387 |

The Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion | p. 390 |

Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion | p. 392 |

An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator | p. 394 |

Pendulums | p. 395 |

Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion | p. 399 |

Damped Simple Harmonic Motion | p. 400 |

Forced Oscillations and Resonance | p. 402 |

Review & Summary | p. 403 |

Questions | p. 403 |

Problems | p. 405 |

Waves-I | p. 413 |

What Is Physics? | p. 414 |

Types of Waves | p. 414 |

Transverse and Longitudinal Waves | p. 414 |

Wavelength and Frequency | p. 416 |

The Speed of a Traveling Wave | p. 418 |

Wave Speed on a Stretched String | p. 412 |

Energy and Power of a Wave Traveling Along a String | p. 423 |

The Wave Equation | p. 425 |

The Principle of Superposition for Waves | p. 426 |

Interference of Waves | p. 427 |

Phasors | p. 429 |

Standing Waves | p. 431 |

Standing Waves and Resonance | p. 433 |

Review & Summary | p. 436 |

Questions | p. 436 |

Problems | p. 438 |

Waves-II | p. 445 |

What Is Physics? | p. 446 |

Sound Waves | p. 446 |

The Speed of Sound | p. 446 |

Traveling Sound Waves | p. 449 |

Interference | p. 451 |

Intensity and Sound Level | p. 453 |

Sources of Musical Sound | p. 457 |

Beats | p. 459 |

The Doppler Effect | p. 460 |

Supersonic Speeds, Shock Waves | p. 464 |

Review & Summary | p. 465 |

Questions | p. 466 |

Problems | p. 467 |

Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics | p. 476 |

What Is Physics? | p. 477 |

Temperature | p. 477 |

The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics | p. 477 |

Measuring Temperature | p. 478 |

The Celsius and Fahrenheit Scales | p. 478 |

Thermal Expansion | p. 482 |

Temperature and Heat | p. 484 |

The Absorption of Heat by Solids and Liquids | p. 485 |

A Closer Look at Heat and Work | p. 488 |

The First Law of Thermodynamics | p. 490 |

Some Special Cases of the First Law of Thermodynamics | p. 491 |

Heat Transfer Mechanisms | p. 493 |

Review & Summary | p. 497 |

Questions | p. 498 |

Problems | p. 500 |

The Kinetic Theory of Gases | p. 507 |

What Is Physics? | p. 508 |

Avogadro's Number | p. 508 |

Ideal Gases | p. 509 |

Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed | p. 512 |

Translational Kinetic Energy | p. 514 |

Mean Free Path | p. 515 |

The Distribution of Molecular Speeds | p. 517 |

The Molar Specific Heats of an Ideal Gas | p. 520 |

Degrees of Freedom and Molar Specific Heats | p. 523 |

A Hint of Quantum Theory | p. 525 |

The Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas | p. 526 |

Review & Summary | p. 529 |

Questions | p. 530 |

Problems | p. 531 |

Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics | p. 536 |

What Is Physics? | p. 537 |

Irreversible Processes and Entropy | p. 537 |

Change in Entropy | p. 538 |

The Second Law of Thermodynamics | p. 542 |

Entropy in the Real World: Engines | p. 543 |

Entropy in the Real World: Refrigerators | p. 548 |

The Efficiencies of Real Engines | p. 549 |

A Statistical View of Entropy | p. 550 |

Review & Summary | p. 554 |

Questions | p. 555 |

Problems | p. 555 |

Appendices | p. A-1 |

The International System of Units (SI) | p. A-1 |

Some Fundamental Constants of Physics | p. A-3 |

Some Astronomical Data | p. A-4 |

Conversion Factors | p. A-5 |

Mathematical Formulas | p. A-9 |

Properties of the Elements | p. A-12 |

Periodic Table of the Elements | p. A-15 |

Answers to Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems | p. AN-1 |

Index | p. I-1 |

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