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Fundamentals of Physiology A Human Perspective (with CD-ROM and InfoTrac),9780534466978
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Fundamentals of Physiology A Human Perspective (with CD-ROM and InfoTrac)

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780534466978

ISBN10:
0534466974
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/30/2005
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole

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Summary

FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSIOLOGY, Third Edition, is based on Lauralee Sherwood's best selling Fifth Edition of HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY: FROM CELLS TO SYSTEMS. While both texts cover the same key topics in a current, engaging, and clinically relevant manner, FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSIOLOGY is briefer, lower in level, and requires less of a background in chemistry, physics, and math than its sister text. Essential content is organized around the central theme of homeostasis, as demonstrated by the system-specific homeostatic model that opens each chapter, as well as the "Focus on Homeostasis" that completes each chapter. New to this edition are process-oriented figures, created to aid today's visual learners. These figures include step-by-step descriptions summarizing and integrating various aspects of essential concepts. Another noteworthy addition is the comparative and early introduction of "Principles of Neural and Hormonal Communication"-a NEW Chapter 4. This edition also showcases an emphasis on real-life experiences, using analogies as well as new "Clinical Note" icons, which flag clinically relevant material. The text is also supported by PhysioEdge 2-arguably the best student CD-ROM on the market-which ties concepts and art together with narration and animation. This free CD-ROM has been revised to include new media exercises and tutorials, and is integrated with this Third Edition to encourage students make optimal use of the available media. Instructors are likely to find indispensable our Multimedia Manager with Instructor Resources-a CD containing ALL line art from the text, over 40 animations, electronic versions of instructor materials, and Microsoft? PowerPoint? lectures.

Table of Contents

Homeostasis: The Foundation of Physiology
1(17)
Introduction to Physiology
1(1)
Levels of Organization in the Body
1(6)
The chemical level: Various atoms and molecules make up the body
1(1)
The cellular level: Cells are the basic units of life
2(1)
The tissue level: Tissues are groups of cells of similar specialization
3(1)
The organ level: An organ is a unit made up of several tissue types
4(1)
The body system level: A body system is a collection of related organs
5(1)
Beyond the Basics: Stem-Cell Science and Tissue Engineering: The Quest to Make Defective Body Parts Like New Again
6(1)
The organism level: The body systems are packaged together into a functional whole body
6(1)
Concept of Homeostasis
7(5)
Body cells are in contact with a privately maintained internal environment
8(1)
Body systems maintain homeostasis, a dynamic steady state in the internal environment
8(4)
Homeostatic Control Systems
12(6)
Homeostatic control systems may operate locally or bodywide
12(1)
Negative feedback opposes an initial change and is widely used to maintain homeostasis
13(1)
Positive feedback amplifies an initial change
13(1)
Feedforward mechanisms initiate responses in anticipation of a change
14(1)
Disruptions in homeostasis can lead to illness and death
15(1)
Chapter in Perspective: Focus on Homeostasis
15(1)
Chapter Summary
15(1)
Chapter Review Exercises
16(1)
Points to Ponder
17(1)
Clinical Consideration
17(1)
PhysioEdge Resources
17(1)
Cell Physiology
18(24)
Observations of Cells
19(1)
An Overview of Cell Structure
20(1)
The plasma membrane bounds the cell
20(1)
The nucleus contains the DNA
20(1)
The cytoplasm consists of various organelles and the cytosol
20(1)
Endoplasmic Reticulum and Segregated Synthesis
21(1)
The rough endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes proteins for secretion and membrane construction
21(1)
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum packages new proteins in transport vesicles
22(1)
Golgi Complex and Exocytosis
22(2)
Transport vesicles carry their cargo to the Golgi complex for further processing
23(1)
The Golgi complex packages secretory vesicles for release by exocytosis
24(1)
Lysosomes and Endocytosis
24(2)
Lysosomes serve as the intracellular digestive system
24(1)
Extracellular material is brought into the cell by phagocytosis for attack by lysosomal enzymes
25(1)
Lysosomes remove useless but not useful parts of the cell
26(1)
Peroxisomes and Detoxification
26(1)
Peroxisomes house oxidative enzymes that detoxify various wastes
26(1)
Mitochondria and ATP Production
26(6)
Mitochondria, the energy organelles, are enclosed by a double membrane
26(1)
Mitochondria play a major role in generating ATP
27(2)
The cell generates more energy in aerobic than in anaerobic conditions
29(3)
Beyond the Basics: Aerobic Exercise: What For and How Much?
32(1)
The energy stored within ATP is used for synthesis, transport, and mechanical work
32(1)
Vaults as Cellular Trucks
32(1)
Vaults may serve as cellular transport vehicles
32(1)
Cytosol: Cell Gel
33(1)
The cytosol is important in intermediary metabolism, ribosomal protein synthesis, and nutrient storage
33(1)
Cytoskeleton: Cell ``Bone and Muscle''
34(8)
Microtubules help maintain asymmetric cell shapes and play a role in complex cell movements
34(2)
Microfilaments are important to cell contractile systems and as mechanical stiffeners
36(1)
Intermediate filaments are important in cell regions subject to mechanical stress
37(1)
The cytoskeleton functions as an integrated whole and links other parts of the cell together
37(1)
Chapter in Perspective: Focus on Homeostasis
38(1)
Chapter Summary
38(1)
Chapter Review Exercises
39(1)
Points to Ponder
40(1)
Clinical Consideration
40(1)
PhysioEdge Resources
41(1)
The Plasma Membrane and Membrane Potential
42(28)
Membrane Structure and Composition
43(4)
The plasma membrane is a fluid lipid bilayer embedded with proteins
44(2)
The lipid bilayer forms the basic structural barrier that encloses the cell
46(1)
The membrane proteins perform a variety of specific membrane functions
46(1)
The membrane carbohydrates serve as self-identity markers
46(1)
Beyond the Basics: Cystic Fibrosis: A Fatal Defect in Membrane Transport
47(1)
Cell-to-Cell Adhesions
47(3)
The extracellular matrix serves as the biological ``glue.''
48(1)
Some cells are directly linked together by specialized cell junctions
48(2)
Overview of Membrane Transport
50(1)
Unassisted Membrane Transport
50(5)
Particles that can permeate the membrane passively diffuse down their concentration gradient
50(2)
Ions that can permeate the membrane also passively move along their electrical gradient
52(1)
Osmosis is the net diffusion of water down its own concentration gradient
52(3)
Assisted Membrane Transport
55(6)
Carrier-mediated transport is accomplished by a membrane carrier flipping its shape
55(2)
Carrier-mediated transport may be passive or active
57(2)
With vesicular transport, material is moved into or out of the cell wrapped in membrane
59(2)
Membrane Potential
61(9)
Membrane potential is a separation of opposite charges across the plasma membrane
61(1)
Membrane potential is due to differences in the concentration and permeability of key ions
61(5)
Chapter in Perspective: Focus on Homeostasis
66(1)
Chapter Summary
66(1)
Chapter Review Exercises
67(1)
Points to Ponder
68(1)
Clinical Consideration
69(1)
PhysioEdge Resources
69(1)
Principles of Neural and Hormonal Communication
70(38)
Introduction to Neural Communication
71(2)
Nerve and muscle are excitable tissues
71(1)
Membrane potential decreases during depolarization and increases during hyperpolarization
72(1)
Electrical signals are produced by changes in ion movement across the plasma membrane
72(1)
Graded Potentials
73(2)
The stronger a triggering event, the larger the resultant graded potential
73(1)
Graded potentials spread by passive current flow
73(1)
Graded potentials die out over short distances
73(2)
Action Potentials
75(10)
During an action potential, the membrane potential rapidly, transiently reverses
75(1)
Marked changes in membrane permeability and ion movement lead to an action potential
76(2)
The Na+ -K+ pump gradually restores the concentration gradients disrupted by action potentials
78(1)
Action potentials are propagated from the axon hillock to the axon terminals
78(2)
Once initiated, action potentials are conducted throughout a nerve fiber
80(1)
The refractory period ensures one-way propagation of the action potential
80(3)
Action potentials occur in all-or-none fashion
83(1)
The strength of a stimulus is coded by the frequency of action potentials
83(1)
Myelination increases the speed of conduction of action potentials
83(2)
Synapses and Neuronal Integration
85(7)
Synapses are junctions between presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons
85(1)
A neurotransmitter carries the signal across a synapse
85(1)
Some synapses excite whereas others inhibit the postsynaptic neuron
86(2)
Each synapse is either always excitatory or always inhibitory
88(1)
Neurotransmitters are quickly removed from the synaptic cleft
88(1)
The grand postsynaptic potential depends on the sum of the activities of all presynaptic inputs
88(2)
Action potentials are initiated at the axon hillock because it has the lowest threshold
90(1)
Neuropeptides act primarily as neuromodulators
91(1)
Drugs and diseases can modify synaptic transmission
91(1)
Neurons are linked through complex converging and diverging pathways
92(1)
Intercellular Communication and Signal Transduction
92(3)
Communication between cells is largely orchestrated by extracellular chemical messengers
92(2)
Extracellular chemical messengers bring about cell responses primarily by signal transduction
94(1)
Some extracellular chemical messengers open chemically gated channels
94(1)
Many extracellular messengers activate second-messenger pathways
94(1)
Principles of Hormonal Communication
95(7)
Hormones are chemically classified as being hydrophilic or lipophilic
95(1)
The mechanisms of synthesis, storage, and secretion of hormones vary according to their chemical differences
95(2)
Hydrophilic hormones dissolve in the plasma; lipophilic hormones are transported by plasma proteins
97(1)
Hormones generally produce their effect by altering intracellular proteins
97(1)
Hydrophilic hormones alter pre-existing proteins via second-messenger systems
98(2)
Beyond the Basics: Programmed Cell Suicide: A Surprising Example of a Signal Transduction Pathway
100(1)
By stimulating genes lipophilic hormones promote synthesis of new proteins
100(2)
Hormonal responses are slower and longer than neural responses
102(1)
Comparison of the Nervous and Endocrine Systems
102(6)
The nervous system is ``wired'' and the endocrine system is ``wireless.''
103(1)
Neural specificity is due to anatomic proximity and endocrine specificity to receptor specialization
103(1)
The nervous and endocrine systems have their own realms of authority but interact functionally
103(1)
Chapter in Perspective: Focus on Homeostasis
104(1)
Chapter Summary
104(2)
Chapter Review Exercises
106(1)
Points to Ponder
107(1)
Clinical Consideration
107(1)
PhysioEdge Resources
107(1)
The Central Nervous System
108(36)
Organization of the Nervous System
110(1)
The nervous system is organized into the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
110(1)
The three functional classes of neurons are afferent neurons, efferent neurons, and interneurons
110(1)
Protection and Nourishment of the Brain
111(3)
Glial cells support the interneurons physically, metabolically, and functionally
111(2)
The delicate central nervous tissue is well protected
113(1)
Beyond the Basics: Strokes: A Deadly Domino Effect
114(1)
The brain depends on constant delivery of oxygen and glucose by the blood
114(1)
Overview of the Central Nervous System
114(2)
Cerebral Cortex
116(7)
The cerebral cortex is an outer shell of gray matter covering an inner core of white matter
117(1)
The four pairs of lobes in the cerebral cortex are specialized for different activities
117(2)
The parietal lobes accomplish somatosensory processing
119(1)
The primary motor cortex is located in the frontal lobes
120(1)
Other brain regions besides the primary motor cortex are important in motor control
120(1)
Because of its plasticity, the brain can be remodeled in response to varying demands
121(1)
Different regions of the cortex control different aspects of language
121(1)
The association areas of the cortex are involved in many higher functions
122(1)
The cerebral hemispheres have some degree of specialization
122(1)
An electroencephalogram is a record of postsynaptic activity in cortical neurons
123(1)
Basal Nuclei, Thalamus, and Hypothalamus
123(3)
The basal nuclei play an important inhibitory role in motor control
123(2)
The thalamus is a sensory relay station and is important in motor control
125(1)
The hypothalamus regulates many homeostatic functions
125(1)
The Limbic System and Its Functional Relations with the Higher Cortex
126(4)
The limbic system plays a key role in emotion
126(1)
The limbic system and higher cortex participate in controlling basic behavioral patterns
126(1)
Motivated behaviors are goal directed
127(1)
Norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin are neurotransmitters in pathways for emotions and behavior
127(1)
Learning is the acquisition of knowledge as a result of experiences
128(1)
Memory is laid down in stages
128(1)
Memory traces are present in multiple regions of the brain
129(1)
Short-term and long-term memory involve different molecular mechanisms
130(1)
Cerebellum
130(1)
The cerebellum is important in balance and in planning and executing voluntary movement
130(1)
Brain Stem
131(4)
The brain stem is a vital link between the spinal cord and higher brain regions
133(1)
Sleep is an active process consisting of alternating periods of slow-wave and paradoxical sleep
133(2)
The sleep-wake cycle is controlled by interactions among three neural systems
135(1)
The function of sleep is unclear
135(1)
Spinal Cord
135(9)
The spinal cord extends through the vertebral canal and is connected to the spinal nerves
135(1)
The white matter of the spinal cord is organized into tracts
136(1)
Spinal nerves carry both afferent and efferent fibers
136(1)
The spinal cord is responsible for the integration of many basic reflexes
137(1)
Beyond the Basics: Swan Dive or Belly Flop: It's a Matter of CNS Control
138(2)
Chapter in Perspective: Focus on Homeostasis
140(1)
Chapter Summary
140(2)
Chapter Review Exercises
142(1)
Points to Ponder
142(1)
Clinical Consideration
143(1)
PhysioEdge Resources
143(1)
The Peripheral Nervous System: Afferent Division; Special Senses
144(40)
Introduction
145(1)
Visceral afferents carry subconscious input whereas sensory afferents carry conscious input
145(1)
Perception is the conscious awareness of surroundings derived from interpretation of sensory input
145(1)
Receptor Physiology
146(3)
Receptors have differential sensitivities to various stimuli
146(1)
A stimulus alters the receptor's permeability, leading to a graded receptor potential
147(1)
Receptor potentials may initiate action potentials in the afferent neuron
147(1)
Receptors may adapt slowly or rapidly to sustained stimulation
148(1)
Each somatosensory pathway is ``labeled'' according to modality and location
148(1)
Acuity is influenced by receptive field size
148(1)
Pain
149(1)
Stimulation of nociceptors elicits the perception of pain plus motivational and emotional responses
149(1)
The brain has a built-in analgesic system
150(1)
Eye: Vision
150(15)
Protective mechanisms help prevent eye injuries
150(1)
Beyond the Basics: Acupuncture: Is It for Real?
151(1)
The eye is a fluid-filled sphere enclosed by three specialized tissue layers
151(1)
The amount of light entering the eye is controlled by the iris
152(1)
The eye refracts the entering light to focus the image on the retina
153(2)
Accommodation increases the strength of the lens for near vision
155(3)
Light must pass through several retinal layers before reaching the photoreceptors
158(1)
Phototransduction by retinal cells converts light stimuli into neural signals
159(1)
Rods provide indistinct gray vision at night, whereas cones provide sharp color vision during the day
160(1)
The sensitivity of the eyes can vary markedly through dark and light adaptation
161(1)
Color vision depends on the ratios of stimulation of the three cone types
162(1)
Visual information is separated before reaching the visual cortex
162(1)
The thalamus and visual cortexes elaborate the visual message
163(2)
Visual input goes to other areas of the brain not involved in vision perception
165(1)
Ear: Hearing and Equilibrium
165(10)
Sound waves consist of alternate regions of compression and rarefaction of air molecules
166(1)
The external ear plays a role in sound localization
167(1)
The tympanic membrane vibrates in unison with sound waves in the external ear
167(1)
The middle ear bones convert tympanic-membrane vibrations into fluid movements in the inner ear
168(1)
The cochlea contains the organ of Corti, the sense organ for hearing
169(1)
Hair cells in the organ of Corti transduce fluid movements into neural signals
169(1)
Pitch discrimination depends on the region of the basilar membrane that vibrates
169(2)
Loudness discrimination depends on the amplitude of vibration
171(1)
Deafness is caused by defects either in conduction or neural processing of sound waves
172(1)
The vestibular apparatus is important for equilibrium by detecting position and motion of the head
172(3)
Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell
175(9)
Taste receptor cells are located primarily within tongue taste buds
175(2)
Taste discrimination is coded by patterns of activity in various taste bud receptors
177(1)
The olfactory receptors in the nose are specialized endings of renewable afferent neurons
178(1)
Various parts of an odor are detected by different olfactory receptors and sorted into ``smell files.''
178(1)
Odor discrimination is coded by patterns of activity in the olfactory bulb glomeruli
179(1)
The olfactory system adapts quickly
179(1)
The vomeronasal organ detects pheromones
179(1)
Chapter in Perspective: Focus on Homeostasis
180(1)
Chapter Summary
180(2)
Chapter Review Exercises
182(1)
Points to Ponder
183(1)
Clinical Consideration
183(1)
PhysioEdge Resources
183(1)
The Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division
184(18)
Introduction
185(1)
Autonomic Nervous System
185(7)
An autonomic nerve pathway consists of a two-neuron chain
185(1)
Parasympathetic postganglionic fibers release acetylcholine; sympathetic ones release norepinephrine
186(1)
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems dually innervate most visceral organs
186(4)
The adrenal medulla is a modified part of the sympathetic nervous system
190(1)
Several different receptor types are available for each autonomic neurotransmitter
190(1)
Many regions of the central nervous system are involved in the control of autonomic activities
191(1)
Somatic Nervous System
192(10)
Motor neurons supply skeletal muscle
192(1)
Motor neurons are the final common pathway
192(1)
Motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers are chemically linked at neuromuscular junctions
193(1)
Acetylcholine is the neuromuscular junction neurotransmitter
193(2)
Acetylcholinesterase terminates acetylcholine activity at the neuromuscular junction
195(2)
The neuromuscular junction is vulnerable to several chemical agents and diseases
197(1)
Beyond the Basics: Botulinum Toxin's Reputation Gets a Facelift
198(1)
Chapter in Perspective: Focus on Homeostasis
198(1)
Chapter Summary
199(1)
Chapter Review Exercises
199(1)
Points to Ponder
200(1)
Clinical Consideration
200(1)
PhysioEdge Resources
201(1)
Muscle Physiology
202(38)
Introduction
203(1)
Structure of Skeletal Muscle
204(3)
Skeletal muscle fibers are striated by a highly organized internal arrangement
204(1)
Myosin forms the thick filaments
204(2)
Actin is the main structural component of the thin filaments
206(1)
Molecular Basis of Skeletal Muscle Contraction
207(6)
During contraction, cycles of cross-bridge binding and bending pull the thin filaments inward
207(2)
Calcium is the link between excitation and contraction
209(4)
Contractile activity far outlasts the electrical activity that initiated it
213(1)
Skeletal Muscle Mechanics
213(6)
Whole muscles are groups of muscle fibers bundled together and attached to bones
213(1)
Contractions of a whole muscle can be of varying strength
214(1)
The number of fibers contracting within a muscle depends on the extent of motor unit recruitment
214(1)
The frequency of stimulation can influence the tension developed by each muscle fiber
214(1)
Twitch summation results from a sustained elevation in cytosolic calcium
215(1)
There is an optimal muscle length at which maximal tension can be developed
216(1)
Muscle tension is transmitted to bone as the contractile component tightens the series-elastic component
217(1)
The two primary types of contraction are isotonic and isometric
218(1)
The velocity of shortening is related to the load
219(1)
Skeletal Muscle Metabolism and Fiber Types
219(4)
Muscle fibers have alternate pathways for forming ATP
219(1)
Increased oxygen consumption is necessary to recover from exercise
220(1)
There are three types of skeletal muscle fibers, based on differences in ATP hydrolysis and synthesis
220(1)
Muscle fibers adapt considerably in response to the demands placed on them
221(1)
Beyond the Basics: Are Athletes Who Use Steroids to Gain Competitive Advantage Really Winners or Losers?
222(1)
Control of Motor Movement
223(4)
Multiple neural inputs influence motor unit output
223(1)
Beyond the Basics: Loss of Muscle Mass: A Plight of Space Flight
224(1)
Muscle receptors provide afferent information needed to control skeletal muscle activity
225(2)
Smooth and Cardiac Muscle
227(13)
Smooth muscle cells are small and unstriated
227(3)
Smooth muscle cells are turned on by Ca2+ -dependent phosphorylation of myosin
230(1)
Multiunit smooth muscle is neurogenic
231(1)
Single-unit smooth muscle cells form functional syncytia
231(1)
Single-unit smooth muscle is myogenic
231(1)
Gradation of single-unit smooth muscle contraction differs from that of skeletal muscle
232(2)
Smooth muscle can still develop tension when stretched
234(1)
Smooth muscle is slow and economical
234(1)
Cardiac muscle blends features of both skeletal and smooth muscle
235(1)
Chapter in Perspective: Focus on Homeostasis
235(1)
Chapter Summary
236(1)
Chapter Review Exercises
237(1)
Points to Ponder
238(1)
Clinical Consideration
239(1)
PhysioEdge Resources
239(1)
Cardiac Physiology
240(34)
Introduction
241(1)
Anatomy of the Heart
242(4)
The heart is a dual pump
242(2)
Pressure-operated heart valves ensure that blood flows in the right direction through the heart
244(1)
The heart walls consist primarily of spirally arranged cardiac muscle fibers
245(1)
Cardiac muscle fibers are interconnected by intercalated discs and form functional syncytia
245(1)
Electrical Activity of the Heart
246(9)
Cardiac autorhythmic cells display pacemaker activity
246(1)
The sinoatrial node is the normal pacemaker of the heart
247(2)
The spread of cardiac excitation is coordinated to ensure efficient pumping
249(1)
The action potential of cardiac contractile cells shows a characteristic plateau
250(1)
Ca2+ entry from the ECF induces a more abundant Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
251(1)
A long refractory period prevents tetanus of cardiac muscle
252(1)
The ECG is a record of the overall spread of electrical activity through the heart
252(1)
Different parts of the ECG record can be correlated to specific cardiac events
253(1)
The ECG can be used to diagnose abnormal heart rates, arrhythmias, and damage of heart muscle
254(1)
Mechanical Events of the Cardiac Cycle
255(4)
The heart alternately contracts to empty and relaxes to fill
255(3)
The two heart sounds are associated with valve closures
258(1)
Turbulent blood flow produces heart murmurs
258(1)
Cardiac Output and Its Control
259(6)
Cardiac output depends on the heart rate and the stroke volume
259(1)
Heart rate is determined primarily by autonomic influences on the SA node
259(2)
Stroke volume is determined by the extent of venous return and by sympathetic activity
261(1)
Increased end-diastolic volume results in increased stroke volume
261(1)
Sympathetic stimulation increases the contractility of the heart
262(2)
In heart failure the contractility of the heart decreases
264(1)
Nourishing the Heart Muscle
265(9)
The heart receives most of its own blood supply through the coronary circulation during diastole
265(1)
Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease can deprive the heart of essential oxygen
265(3)
Beyond the Basics: Atherosclerosis: Cholesterol and Beyond
268(2)
Chapter in Perspective: Focus on Homeostasis
270(1)
Chapter Summary
270(1)
Chapter Review Exercises
271(1)
Points to Ponder
272(1)
Clinical Consideration
273(1)
PhysioEdge Resources
273(1)
The Blood Vessels and Blood Pressure
274(40)
Introduction
275(5)
To maintain homeostasis, reconditioning organs receive blood flow in excess of their own needs
275(1)
Blood flow through vessels depends on the pressure gradient and vascular resistance
276(2)
The vascular tree consists of arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins
278(1)
Beyond the Basics: From Humors to Harvey: Historical Highlights in Circulation
279(1)
Arteries
280(3)
Arteries serve as rapid-transit passageways to the organs and as a pressure reservoir
280(1)
Arterial pressure fluctuates in relation to ventricular systole and diastole
280(1)
Blood pressure can be measured indirectly by using a sphygmomanometer
281(2)
Mean arterial pressure is the main driving force for blood flow
283(1)
Arterioles
283(6)
Arterioles are the major resistance vessels
283(1)
Local control of arteriolar radius is important in determining the distribution of cardiac output
284(1)
Local metabolic influences on arteriolar radius help match blood flow with the organs' needs
285(2)
Local histamine release pathologically dilates arterioles
287(1)
Local physical influences on arteriolar radius include temperature changes and stretch
287(1)
Extrinsic sympathetic control of arteriolar radius in important in regulating blood pressure
288(1)
The medullary cardiovascular control center and several hormones regulate blood pressure
289(1)
Capillaries
289(9)
Capillaries are ideally suited to serve as sites of exchange
289(2)
Water-filled capillary pores permit passage of small, water-soluble substances
291(2)
Interstitial fluid is a passive intermediary between blood and cells
293(1)
Diffusion across the capillary walls is important in solute exchange
293(1)
Bulk flow across the capillary walls is important in extracellular fluid distribution
293(2)
The lymphatic system is an accessory route by which interstitial fluid can be returned to the blood
295(2)
Edema occurs when too much interstitial fluid accumulates
297(1)
Veins
298(4)
Veins serve as a blood reservoir as well as passageways back to the heart
298(1)
Venous return is enhanced by a number of extrinsic factors
299(3)
Blood Pressure
302(12)
Blood pressure is regulated by controlling cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and blood volume
303(2)
The baroreceptor reflex is an important short-term mechanism for regulating blood pressure
305(1)
Hypertension is a serious national public health problem, but its causes are largely unknown
306(2)
Orthostatic hypotension results from transient inadequate sympathetic activity
308(1)
Circulatory shock can become irreversible
308(2)
Chapter in Perspective: Focus on Homeostasis
310(1)
Chapter Summary
310(2)
Chapter Review Exercises
312(1)
Points to Ponder
313(1)
Clinical Consideration
313(1)
PhysioEdge Resources
313(1)
The Blood and Body Defenses
314(50)
Introduction
315(1)
Plasma
315(2)
Plasma water is a transport medium for many inorganic and organic substances
316(1)
Many of the functions of plasma are carried out by plasma proteins
316(1)
Erythrocytes
317(4)
The structure of erythrocytes is well suited to their main function of O2 transport in the blood
317(1)
The bone marrow continuously replaces worn-out erythrocytes
318(1)
Erythropoiesis is controlled by erythropoietin from the kidneys
318(1)
Anemia can be caused by a variety of disorders
319(1)
Beyond the Basics: Blood Doping: Is More of a Good Thing Better?
320(1)
Polycythemia is an excess of circulating erythrocytes
320(1)
Platelets and Hemostasis
321(5)
Platelets are cell fragments shed from megakaryocytes
321(1)
Hemostasis prevents blood loss from damaged small vessels
321(1)
Vascular spasm reduces blood flow through an injured vessel
322(1)
Platelets aggregate to form a plug at a vessel tear or cut
322(1)
Clot formation results from a triggered chain reaction involving plasma clotting factors
323(2)
Fibrinolytic plasmin dissolves clots
325(1)
Inappropriate clotting produces thromboembolism
325(1)
Hemophilia is the primary condition that produces excessive bleeding
326(1)
Leukocytes
326(4)
Pathogenic bacteria and viruses are the major targets of the immune system
326(1)
There are five types of leukocytes
326(1)
Leukocytes are produced at varying rates depending on the changing defense needs of the body
327(2)
Immune responses may be either innate and nonspecific, or adaptive and specific
329(1)
Innate Immunity
330(5)
Inflammation is a nonspecific response to foreign invasion or tissue damage
330(3)
NSAIDS and glucocorticoid drugs suppress the inflammatory response
333(1)
Interferon transiently inhibits multiplication of viruses in most cells
333(1)
Natural killer cells destroy virus-infected cells and cancer cells on first exposure to them
334(1)
The complement system punches holes in micro-organisms
334(1)
Adaptive Immunity: General Concepts
335(1)
Adaptive immune responses include antibody-mediated immunity and cell-mediated immunity
335(1)
An antigen induces an immune response against itself
336(1)
B Lymphocytes: Antibody-Mediated Immunity
336(9)
Antigens stimulate B cells to convert into plasma cells that produce antibodies
336(1)
Antibodies are Y-shaped and classified according to properties of their tail portion
337(1)
Antibodies largely amplify innate immune responses to promote antigen destruction
338(1)
Clonal selection accounts for the specificity of antibody production
338(2)
Selected clones differentiate into active plasma cells and dormant memory cells
340(1)
Blood types are a form of natural immunity
341(2)
Beyond the Basics: Vaccination: A Victory Over Many Dreaded Diseases
343(1)
Lymphocytes respond only to antigen presented to them by antigen-presenting cells
344(1)
T Lymphocytes: Cell-Mediated Immunity
345(7)
T cells bind directly with their targets
345(1)
The two types of T cells are cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells
346(1)
Cytotoxic T cells secrete chemicals that destroy target cells
347(2)
Helper T cells secrete chemicals that amplify the activity of other immune cells
349(1)
The immune system is normally tolerant of self-antigens
350(1)
The major histocompatibility complex is the code for self-antigens
350(1)
Immune surveillance against cancer cells involves an interplay among immune cells and interferon
351(1)
Immune Diseases
352(3)
Immune deficiency diseases result from insufficient immune responses
352(1)
Allergies are inappropriate immune attacks against harmless environmental substances
353(2)
External Defenses
355(9)
The skin consists of an outer protective epidermis and an inner, connective tissue dermis
355(1)
Specialized cells in the epidermis produce keratin and melanin and participate in immune defense
356(1)
Protective measures within body cavities discourage pathogen invasion into the body
357(1)
Chapter in Perspective: Focus on Homeostasis
358(1)
Chapter Summary
359(2)
Chapter Review Exercises
361(1)
Points to Ponder
362(1)
Clinical Consideration
362(1)
PhysioEdge Resources
363(1)
The Respiratory System
364(40)
Introduction
365(4)
The respiratory system does not participate in all steps in respiration
365(1)
The respiratory airways conduct air between the atmosphere and alveoli
366(1)
The gas-exchanging alveoli are thin-walled, inflatable sacs encircled by pulmonary capillaries
367(1)
The lungs occupy much of the thoracic cavity
368(1)
A pleural sac separates each lung from the thoracic wall
369(1)
Respiratory Mechanics
369(14)
Interrelationships among pressures inside and outside the lungs are important in ventilation
369(1)
The lungs are normally stretched to fill the larger thorax
370(1)
Flow of air into and out of the lungs occurs because of cyclic changes in intra-alveolar pressure
371(2)
Airway resistance influences airflow rates
373(3)
Airway resistance is abnormally increased with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
376(1)
Elastic behavior of the lungs is due to elastic connective tissue and alveolar surface tension
377(1)
Pulmonary surfactant decreases surface tension and contributes to lung stability
377(2)
The lungs normally operate at about ``half full.''
379(1)
Alveolar ventilation is less than pulmonary ventilation because of dead space
380(3)
Gas Exchange
383(4)
Gases move down partial pressure gradients
383(1)
Oxygen enters and CO2 leaves the blood in the lungs passively down partial pressure gradients
384(1)
Factors other than the partial pressure gradient influence the rate of gas transfer
385(1)
Gas exchange across the systemic capillaries also occurs down partial pressure gradients
386(1)
Gas Transport
387(7)
Most O2 in the blood is transported bound to hemoglobin
387(1)
The PO2 is the primary factor determining the percent hemoglobin saturation
387(2)
Hemoglobin promotes the net transfer of O2 at both the alveolar and tissue levels
389(1)
Factors at the tissue level promote the unloading of O2 from hemoglobin
390(1)
Hemoglobin has a much higher affinity for carbon monoxide than for O2
391(1)
Most CO2 is transported in the blood as bicarbonate
391(1)
Various respiratory states are characterized by abnormal blood-gas levels
392(2)
Beyond the Basics: Effects of Heights and Depths on the Body
394(1)
Control of Respiration
394(10)
Respiratory centers in the brain stem establish a rhythmic breathing pattern
394(2)
The magnitude of ventilation is adjusted in response to three chemical factors: PO2, PCO2, and H+
396(1)
Decreased arterial PO2 increases ventilation only as an emergency mechanism
397(1)
Carbon dioxide-generated H+ in the brain is normally the main regulator of ventilation
398(1)
Adjustments in ventilation in response to changes in arterial H+ are important in acid-base balance
399(1)
During apnea, a person ``forgets to breathe''; during dyspnea, a person feels ``short of breath.''
399(1)
Chapter in Perspective: Focus on Homeostasis
400(1)
Chapter Summary
400(2)
Chapter Review Exercises
402(1)
Points to Ponder
403(1)
Clinical Consideration
403(1)
PhysioEdge Resources
403(1)
The Urinary System
404(38)
Introduction
405(6)
The kidneys perform a variety of functions aimed at maintaining homeostasis
405(1)
The kidneys form the urine; the rest of the urinary system carries the urine to the outside
406(1)
The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney
406(2)
The three basic renal processes are glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion
408(3)
Glomerular Filtration
411(3)
Glomerular capillary blood pressure is the major force that induces glomerular filtration
411(1)
Changes in the GFR primarily result from changes in glomerular capillary blood pressure
412(2)
The kidneys normally receive 20 to 25% of the cardiac output
414(1)
Tubular Reabsorption
414(8)
Tubular reabsorption is tremendous, highly selective, and variable
414(1)
Tubular reabsorption involves transepithelial transport
415(1)
An active Na+ -K+ ATPase pump in the basolateral membrane is essential for Na+ reabsorption
415(1)
Aldosterone stimulates Na+ reabsorption in the distal and collecting tubules
416(2)
Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits Na+ reabsorption
418(1)
Giucose and amino acids are reabsorbed by Na+ -dependent secondary active transport
419(1)
In general, actively reabsorbed substances exhibit a tubular maximum
419(1)
Glucose is an example of an actively reabsorbed substance that is not regulated by the kidneys
419(1)
Phosphate is an example of an actively reabsorbed substance that is regulated by the kidneys
420(1)
Active Na+ reabsorption is responsible for the passive reabsorption of Cl-, H2O, and urea
421(1)
In general, unwanted waste products are not reabsorbed
422(1)
Tubular Secretion
422(2)
Hydrogen ion secretion is important in acid--base balance
422(1)
Potassium secretion is controlled by aldosterone
422(1)
Organic anion and cation secretion helps efficiently eliminate foreign compounds from the body
423(1)
Urine Excretion and Plasma Clearance
424(18)
Plasma clearance is the volume of plasma cleared of a particular substance per minute
424(1)
If a substance is filtered but not reabsorbed or secreted, its plasma clearance rate equals the GFR
425(1)
If a substance is filtered and reabsorbed but not secreted, its plasma clearance rate is always less than the GFR
425(1)
If a substance is filtered and secreted but not reabsorbed, its plasma clearance rate is always greater than the GFR
425(2)
The kidneys can excrete urine of varying concentrations depending on the body's state of hydration
427(1)
The medullary vertical osmotic gradient is established by countercurrent multiplication
427(2)
Vasopressin-controlled, variable H2O reabsorption occurs in the final tubular segments
429(6)
Beyond the Basics: Dialysis: Cellophane Tubing or Abdominal Lining as an Artificial Kidney
435(1)
Renal failure has wide-ranging consequences
435(1)
Urine is temporarily stored in the bladder, from which it is emptied by micturition
436(1)
Chapter in Perspective: Focus on Homeostasis
437(1)
Chapter Summary
438(1)
Chapter Review Exercises
439(1)
Points to Ponder
440(1)
Clinical Consideration
440(1)
PhysioEdge Resources
441(1)
Fluid and Acid--Base Balance
442(22)
Balance Concept
443(1)
The internal pool of a substance is the amount of that substance in the ECF
443(1)
To maintain stable balance of an ECF constituent, its input must equal its output
444(1)
Fluid Balance
444(9)
Body water is distributed between the ICF and ECF compartments
444(1)
The plasma and interstitial fluid are similar in composition, but the ECF and ICF differ markedly
445(1)
Fluid balance is maintained by regulating ECF volume and osmolarity
445(1)
Controlling ECF volume is important in the long-term regulation of blood pressure
446(1)
Controlling salt balance is primarily important in regulating ECF volume
447(1)
Controlling ECF osmolarity prevents changes in ICF volume
448(1)
Beyond the Basics: A Potentially Fatal Clash: When Exercising Muscles and Cooling Mechanisms Compete for an Inadequate Plasma Volume
449(1)
During ECF hypertonicity, the cells shrink as H2O leaves them
449(1)
During ECF hypotonicity, the cells swell as H2O enters them
450(1)
Controlling water balance by means of vasopressin is important in regulating ECF osmolarity
450(2)
Vasopressin secretion and thirst are largely triggered simultaneously
452(1)
Acid--Base Balance
453(11)
Acids liberate free hydrogen ions, whereas bases accept them
453(1)
The pH designation is used to express [H+]
454(1)
Fluctuations in [H+] alter nerve, enzyme, and K+ activity
455(1)
Hydrogen ions are continually added to the body fluids as a result of metabolic activities
455(1)
Chemical buffer systems minimize changes in pH by binding with or yielding free H+
456(1)
The H2CO3:HCO3-buffer pair is the primary ECF buffer for noncarbonic acids
457(1)
The protein buffer system is primarily important intracellularly
457(1)
The hemoglobin buffer system buffers H+ generated from carbonic acid
457(1)
The phosphate buffer system is an important urinary buffer
457(1)
Chemical buffer systems act as the first line of defense against changes in [H+]
457(1)
The respiratory system regulates [H+] by controlling the rate of CO2 removal
458(1)
The respiratory system serves as the second line of defense against changes in [H+]
458(1)
The kidneys help maintain acid--base balance by adjusting their rate of H+ excretion, HCO3 - excretion, and NH3 secretion
458(2)
The kidneys are a powerful third line of defense against changes in [H+]
460(1)
Acid--base imbalances can arise from either respiratory dysfunction or metabolic disturbances
460(1)
Chapter in Perspective: Focus on Homeostasis
461(1)
Chapter Summary
461(1)
Chapter Review Exercises
462(1)
Points to Ponder
463(1)
Clinical Consideration
463(1)
PhysioEdge Resources
463(1)
The Digestive System
464(46)
Introduction
465(6)
The digestive system performs four basic digestive processes
465(2)
The digestive tract and accessory digestive organs make up the digestive system
467(1)
The digestive tract wall has four layers
467(2)
Regulation of digestive function is complex and synergistic
469(2)
Receptor activation alters digestive activity through neural reflexes and hormonal pathways
471(1)
Mouth
471(2)
The oral cavity is the entrance to the digestive tract
471(1)
The teeth do the chewing
472(1)
Saliva begins carbohydrate digestion, is important in oral hygiene, and facilitates speech
472(1)
Salivary secretion is continuous and can be reflexly increased
472(1)
Digestion in the mouth is minimal; no absorption of nutrients occurs
473(1)
Pharynx and Esophagus
473(2)
Swallowing is a sequentially programmed all-or-none reflex
473(1)
During the oropharyngeal stage of swallowing, food is prevented from entering the wrong passageways
474(1)
The pharyngoesophageal sphincter prevents air from entering the digestive tract during breathing
474(1)
Peristaltic waves push food through the esophagus
475(1)
The gastroesophageal sphincter prevents reflux of gastric contents
475(1)
Esophageal secretion is entirely protective
475(1)
Stomach
475(11)
The stomach stores food and begins protein digestion
476(1)
Gastric filling involves receptive relaxation
476(1)
Gastric storage takes place in the body of the stomach
476(1)
Gastric mixing takes place in the antrum of the stomach
476(1)
Gastric emptying is largely controlled by factors in the duodenum
477(2)
Emotions can influence gastric motility
479(1)
The stomach does not actively participate in vomiting
479(2)
Gastric digestive juice is secreted by glands located at the base of gastric pits
481(1)
Hydrochloric acid activates pepsinogen
481(1)
Pepsinogen, once activated, begins protein digestion
481(1)
Mucus is protective
481(1)
Intrinsic factor is essential for absorption of vitamin B12
482(1)
Multiple regulatory pathways influence the parietal and chief cells
482(1)
Control of gastric secretion involves three phases
482(1)
Gastric secretion gradually decreases as food empties from the stomach into the intestine
483(1)
The gastric mucosal barrier protects the stomach lining from gastric secretions
484(1)
Beyond the Basics: Ulcers: When Bugs Break the Barrier
485(1)
Carbohydrate digestion continues in the body of the stomach; protein digestion begins in the antrum
486(1)
The stomach absorbs alcohol and aspirin but no food
486(1)
Pancreatic and Biliary Secretions
486(7)
The pancreas is a mixture of exocrine and endocrine tissue
486(1)
The exocrine pancreas secretes digestive enzymes and an aqueous alkaline fluid
486(2)
Pancreatic exocrine secretion is regulated by secretin and CCK
488(1)
The liver performs various important functions including bile production
488(1)
The liver lobules are delineated by vascular and bile channels
489(1)
Bile is continuously secreted by the liver and is diverted to the gallbladder between meals
489(1)
Bile salts are recycled through the enterohepatic circulation
490(1)
Bile salts aid fat digestion and absorption
491(1)
Bilirubin is a waste product excreted in the bile
492(1)
Bile salts are the most potent stimulus for increased bile secretion
492(1)
The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile between meals and empties during meals
493(1)
Small Intestine
493(9)
Segmentation contractions mix and slowly propel the chyme
493(1)
The migrating motility complex sweeps the intestine clean between meals
494(1)
The ileocecal juncture prevents contamination of the small intestine by colonic bacteria
494(1)
Small-intestine secretions do not contain any digestive enzymes
494(1)
The small-intestine enzymes complete digestion intracellularly
495(1)
The small intestine is remarkably well adapted for its primary role in absorption
495(3)
The mucosal lining experiences rapid turnover
498(1)
Special mechanisms facilitate absorption of most nutrients
498(3)
Most absorbed nutrients immediately pass through the liver for processing
501(1)
Extensive absorption by the small intestine keeps pace with secretion
501(1)
Diarrhea results in loss of fluid and electrolytes
501(1)
Large Intestine
502(2)
The large intestine is primarily a drying and storage organ
502(1)
Haustral contractions slowly shuffle the colonic contents back and forth
502(1)
Mass movements propel colonic contents long distances
502(1)
Feces are eliminated by the defecation reflex
503(1)
Constipation occurs when the feces become too dry
503(1)
Large-intestine secretion is entirely protective
503(1)
The colon contains myriads of beneficial bacteria
503(1)
The large intestine absorbs salt and water, converting the luminal contents into feces
503(1)
Intestinal gases are absorbed or expelled
504(1)
Overview of the Gastrointestinal Hormones
504(6)
Chapter in Perspective: Focus on Homeostasis
505(1)
Chapter Summary
505(2)
Chapter Review Exercises
507(1)
Points to Ponder
508(1)
Clinical Consideration
508(1)
PhysioEdge Resources
509(1)
Energy Balance and Temperature Regulation
510(18)
Energy Balance
511(7)
Most food energy is ultimately converted into heat in the body
511(1)
The metabolic rate is the rate of energy use
512(1)
Energy input must equal energy output to maintain a neutral energy balance
513(1)
Food intake is controlled primarily by the hypothalamus
514(2)
Obesity occurs when more kilocalories are consumed than are burned up
516(1)
Beyond the Basics: What the Scales Don't Tell You
517(1)
People suffering from anorexia nervosa have a pathologic fear of gaining weight
517(1)
Temperature Regulation
518(10)
Internal core temperature is homeostatically maintained at 100°F
518(1)
Heat input must balance heat output to maintain a stable core temperature
518(1)
Heat exchange takes place by radiation, conduction, convection, and evaporation
519(1)
The hypothalamus integrates a multitude of thermosensory inputs
520(1)
Shivering is the primary involuntary means of increasing heat production
520(1)
The magnitude of heat loss can be adjusted by varying the flow of blood through the skin
521(1)
Beyond the Basics: The Extremes of Heat and Cold Can Be Fatal
522(1)
The hypothalamus simultaneously coordinates heat production and heat loss mechanisms
522(1)
During a fever, the hypothalamic thermostat is ``reset'' at an elevated temperature
523(1)
Chapter in Perspective: Focus on Homeostasis
524(1)
Chapter Summary
524(1)
Chapter Review Exercises
525(1)
Points to Ponder
526(1)
Clinical Consideration
526(1)
PhysioEdge Resources
527(1)
The Endocrine System
528(54)
General Principles of Endocrinology
529(7)
Hormones exert a variety of regulatory effects throughout the body
530(1)
The plasma concentration of a hormone is normally regulated by changes in its rate of secretion
530(2)
The plasma concentration of a hormone is influenced by its rate of excretion
532(1)
Endocrine disorders result from hormone excess or deficiency or decreased target-cell responsiveness
532(1)
The responsiveness of a target cell can be varied by regulating the number of hormone-specific receptors
532(4)
Pineal Gland and Circadian Rhythms
536(1)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus is the master biological clock
536(1)
Melatonin helps keep the body's circadian rhythms in time with the light-dark cycle
536(1)
Hypothalamus and Pituitary
537(5)
The pituitary gland consists of anterior and posterior lobes
537(1)
The hypothalamus and posterior pituitary act as a unit to secrete vasopressin and oxytocin
537(1)
Most anterior pituitary hormones are tropic
538(2)
Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones help regulate anterior pituitary hormone secretion
540(2)
Target gland hormones inhibit hypothalamic and anterior pituitary hormone secretion via negative feedback
542(1)
Endocrine Control of Growth
542(5)
Growth depends on growth hormone but is influenced by other factors as well
542(1)
Growth hormone is essential for growth, but it also exerts metabolic effects not related to growth
543(1)
Bone grows in thickness and in length by different mechanisms, both stimulated by growth hormone
543(1)
Growth hormone exerts its growth-promoting effects indirectly by stimulating somatomedins
544(1)
Growth hormone secretion is regulated by two hypophysiotropic hormones
544(1)
Abnormal growth-hormone secretion results in aberrant growth patterns
545(2)
Beyond the Basics: Growth and Youth in a Bottle?
547(1)
Thyroid Gland
547(5)
The major cells that secrete thyroid hormone are organized into colloid-filled follicles
547(1)
Thyroid hormone is synthesized and stored on the thyroglobulin molecule
548(1)
To secrete thyroid hormone, the follicular cells phagocytize thyroglobulin-laden colloid
549(1)
Most of the secreted T4 is converted into T3 outside the thyroid
550(1)
Thyroid hormone is the main determinant of the basal metabolic rate and exerts other effects as well
550(1)
Thyroid hormone is regulated by the hypothalamus-pituitarythyroid axis
550(1)
Abnormalities of thyroid function include both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism
551(1)
A goiter develops when the thyroid gland is overstimulated
552(1)
Adrenal Glands
552(8)
Each adrenal gland consists of a steroid-secreting cortex and a catecholamine-secreting medulla
552(1)
The adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and sex hormones
553(1)
Mineralocorticoids' major effects are on Na+ and K+ balance and blood pressure homeostasis
553(1)
Glucocorticoids exert metabolic effects and play a key role in adaptation to stress
554(1)
Cortisol secretion is regulated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal cortex axis
555(1)
The adrenal cortex secretes both male and female sex hormones in both sexes
556(1)
The adrenal cortex may secrete too much or too little of any of its hormones
557(1)
The adrenal medulla is a modified sympathetic postganglionic neuron
558(1)
Epinephrine reinforces the sympathetic nervous system and exerts additional metabolic effects
558(1)
The stress response is a generalized pattern of reactions to any situation that threatens homeostasis
558(2)
The multifaceted stress response is coordinated by the hypothalamus
560(1)
Endocrine Control of Fuel Metabolism
560(13)
Fuel metabolism includes anabolism, catabolism, and interconversions among energy-rich organic molecules
561(1)
Because food intake is intermittent, nutrients must be stored for use between meals
562(1)
The brain must be continuously supplied with glucose
563(1)
Metabolic fuels are stored during the absorptive state and mobilized during the postabsorptive state
563(1)
The pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon, are most important in regulating fuel metabolism
564(1)
Insulin lowers blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and promotes their storage
565(1)
The primary stimulus for increased insulin secretion is an increase in blood glucose concentration
566(1)
The symptoms of diabetes mellitus are characteristic of an exaggerated postabsorptive state
567(1)
Beyond the Basics: Diabetics and Insulin: Some Have It and Some Don't
568(2)
Insulin excess causes brain-starving hypoglycemia
570(1)
Glucagon in general opposes the actions of insulin
571(1)
Glucagon secretion is increased during the postabsorptive state
571(1)
Insulin and glucagon work as a team to maintain blood glucose and fatty acid levels
571(1)
Epinephrine, cortisol, and growth hormone also exert direct metabolic effects
572(1)
Endocrine Control of Calcium Metabolism
573(9)
Plasma Ca2+ must be closely regulated to prevent changes in neuromuscular excitability
573(1)
Parathyroid hormone raises free plasma Ca2+ levels by its effects on bone, kidneys, and intestine
573(1)
Bone continuously undergoes remodeling
574(1)
Mechanical stress favors bone deposition
574(1)
PTH promotes the transfer of Ca2+ from bone to plasma
574(1)
PTH acts on the kidneys to conserve Ca2+ and eliminate PO3-/4
575(1)
PTH indirectly promotes absorption of Ca2+ and PO3-/4 by the intestine
575(1)
The primary regulator of PTH secretion is the plasma concentration of free Ca2+
575(1)
Calcitonin lowers the plasma Ca2+ concentration but is not important in the normal control of Ca2+ metabolism
575(1)
Vitamin D is actually a hormone that increases calcium absorption in the intestine
576(1)
Disorders in Ca2+ metabolism may arise from abnormal levels of PTH or vitamin D
576(1)
Chapter in Perspective: Focus on Homeostasis
577(1)
Chapter Summary
577(3)
Chapter Review Exercises
580(1)
Points to Ponder
581(1)
Clinical Consideration
581(1)
PhysioEdge Resources
581(1)
The Reproductive System
582
Introduction
583(5)
The reproductive system includes the gonads, reproductive tract, and accessory sex glands
583(1)
Reproductive cells each contain a half set of chromosomes
584(1)
Gametogenesis is accomplished by meiosis
585(2)
The sex of an individual is determined by the combination of sex chromosomes
587(1)
Sexual differentiation along male or female lines depends on the presence or absence of masculinizing determinants
587(1)
Male Reproductive Physiology
588(8)
The scrotal location of the testes provides a cooler environment essential for spermatogenesis
588(1)
The testicular Leydig cells secrete masculinizing testosterone
589(2)
Spermatogenesis yields an abundance of highly specialized, mobile sperm
591(1)
Throughout their development, sperm remain intimately associated with Sertoli cells
592(1)
LH and FSH from the anterior pituitary control testosterone secretion and spermatogenesis
593(1)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone activity increases at puberty
594(1)
The reproductive tract stores and concentrates sperm and increases their fertility
594(1)
The accessory sex glands contribute the bulk of the semen
594(1)
Prostaglandins are ubiquitous, locally acting chemical messengers
595(1)
Sexual Intercourse Between Males and Females
596(5)
The male sex act is characterized by erection and ejaculation
596(1)
Erection is accomplished by penis vasocongestion
597(2)
Ejaculation includes emission and expulsion
599(1)
The female sexual cycle is very similar to the male cycle
599(1)
Beyond the Basics: Environmental ``Estrogens'': Bad News for the Reproductive System
600(1)
Female Reproductive Physiology
601
Complex cycling characterizes female reproductive physiology
601(1)
The steps of gametogenesis are the same in both sexes but the timing and outcome differ sharply
601(1)
The ovarian cycle consists of alternating follicular and luteal phases
602(1)
The follicular phase is characterized by the development of maturing follicles
603(2)
The luteal phase is characterized by the presence of a corpus luteum
605(1)
The ovarian cycle is regulated by complex hormonal interactions
606(3)
Cyclic uterine changes are caused by hormonal changes during the ovarian cycle
609(1)
Pubertal changes in females are similar to those in males
610(1)
Menopause is unique to females
610(1)
The oviduct is the site of fertilization
611(2)
The blastocyst implants in the endometrium through the action of its trophoblastic enzymes
613(2)
The placenta is the organ of exchange between maternal and fetal blood
615(1)
Beyond the Basics: The Ways and Means of Contraception
616(1)
Hormones secreted by the placenta play a critical role in the maintenance of pregnancy
616(3)
Maternal body systems respond to the increased demands of gestation
619(1)
Changes during late gestation prepare for parturition
619(1)
Scientists are closing in on the factors that trigger the onset of parturition
620(2)
Parturition is accomplished by a positive-feedback cycle
622(1)
Lactation requires multiple hormonal inputs
623(2)
Breast-feeding is advantageous to both the infant and the mother
625(1)
The end is a new beginning
626(1)
Chapter in Perspective: Focus on Homeostasis
626(1)
Chapter Summary
626(2)
Chapter Review Exercises
628(1)
Points to Ponder
629(1)
Clinical Consideration
629(1)
PhysioEdge Resources
629
Appendix A The Metric System 1(2)
Appendix B A Review of Chemical Principles 3(16)
Appendix C Storage, Replication, and Expression of Genetic Information 19(12)
Appendix D The Chemistry of Acid--Base Balance 31(8)
Appendix E Text References to Exercise Physiology 39(1)
Appendix F Answers to End-of-Chapter Objective Questions, Points to Ponder, and Clinical Considerations 40
Glossary 1(1)
Credits 1(1)
Index 1


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