9780792372707

Fundamentals of Power Electronics

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780792372707

  • ISBN10:

    0792372700

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2/1/2001
  • Publisher: Kluwer Academic Pub
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Summary

Fundamentals of Power Electronics, Second Edition , is an up-to-date and authoritative text and reference book on power electronics. This new edition retains the original objective and philosophy of focusing on the fundamental principles, models, and technical requirements needed for designing practical power electronic systems while adding a wealth of new material. Improved features of this new edition include: A new chapter on input filters, showing how to design single and multiple section filters; Major revisions of material on averaged switch modeling, low-harmonic rectifiers, and the chapter on AC modeling of the discontinuous conduction mode; New material on soft switching, active-clamp snubbers, zero-voltage transition full-bridge converter, and auxiliary resonant commutated pole. Also, new sections on design of multiple-winding magnetic and resonant inverter design; Additional appendices on Computer Simulation of Converters using averaged switch modeling, and Middlebrook's Extra Element Theorem, including four tutorial examples; and Expanded treatment of current programmed control with complete results for basic converters, and much more. This edition includes many new examples, illustrations, and exercises to guide students and professionals through the intricacies of power electronics design. Fundamentals of Power Electronics, Second Edition , is intended for use in introductory power electronics courses and related fields for both senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students interested in converter circuits and electronics, control systems, and magnetic and power systems. It will also be an invaluable reference for professionals working in power electronics, power conversion, and analog and digital electronics.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Introduction
1(10)
Introduction to Power Processing
1(6)
Several Applications of Power Electronics
7(2)
Elements of Power Electronics
9(2)
References
I Converters in Equilibrium 11(174)
Principles of Steady State Converter Analysis
13(26)
Introduction
13(2)
Inductor Volt-Second Balance, Capacitor Charge Balance, and the Small-Ripple Approximation
15(7)
Boost Converter Example
22(5)
Cuk Converter Example
27(4)
Estimating the Output Voltage Ripple in Converters Containing Two-Pole Low-Pass Filters
31(3)
Summary of Key Points
34(5)
References
34(1)
Problems
35(4)
Steady-State Equivalent Circuit Modeling, Losses, and Efficiency
39(24)
The DC Transformer Model
39(3)
Inclusion of Inductor Copper Loss
42(3)
Construction of Equivalent Circuit Model
45(5)
Inductor Voltage Equation
46(1)
Capacitor Current Equation
46(1)
Complete Circuit Model
47(1)
Efficiency
48(2)
How to Obtain the Input Port of the Model
50(2)
Example: Inclusion of Semiconductor Conduction Losses in the Boost Converter Model
52(4)
Summary of Key Points
56(7)
References
56(1)
Problems
57(6)
Switch Realization
63(44)
Switch Applications
65(9)
Single-Quadrant Switches
65(2)
Current-Bidirectional Two-Quadrant Switches
67(4)
Voltage-Bidirectional Two-Quadrant Switches
71(1)
Four-Quadrant Switches
72(1)
Synchronous Rectifiers
73(1)
A Brief Survey of Power Semiconductor Devices
74(18)
Power Diodes
75(3)
Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET)
78(3)
Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)
81(5)
Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)
86(2)
Thyristors (SCR, GTO, MCT)
88(4)
Switching Loss
92(9)
Transistor Switching with Clamped Inductive Load
93(3)
Diode Recovered Charge
96(2)
Device Capacitances, and Leakage, Package, and Stray Inductances
98(2)
Efficiency vs. Switching Frequency
100(1)
Summary of Key Points
101(6)
References
102(1)
Problems
103(4)
The Discontinuous Conduction Mode
107(24)
Origin of the Discontinuous Conduction Mode, and Mode Boundary
108(4)
Analysis of the Conversion Ratio M(D.K)
112(5)
Boost Converter Example
117(7)
Summary of Results and Key Points
124(7)
Problems
126(5)
Converter Circuits
131(54)
Circuit Manipulations
132(11)
Inversion of Source and Load
132(2)
Cascade Connection of Converters
134(3)
Rotation of Three-Terminal Cell
137(1)
Differential Connection of the Load
138(5)
A Short List of Converters
143(3)
Transformer Isolation
146(25)
Full-Bridge and Half-Bridge Isolated Buck Converters
149(5)
Forward Converter
154(5)
Push-Pull Isolated Buck Converter
159(2)
Flyback Converter
161(4)
Boost-Derived Isolated Converters
165(3)
Isolated Versions of the SEPIC and the Cuk Converter
168(3)
Converter Evaluation and Design
171(6)
Switch Stress and Utilization
171(3)
Design Using Computer Spreadsheet
174(3)
Summary of Key Points
177(8)
References
177(2)
Problems
179(6)
II Converter Dynamics and Control 185(304)
AC Equivalent Circuit Modeling
187(78)
Introduction
187(5)
The Basic AC Modeling Approach
192(21)
Averaging the Inductor Waveforms
193(1)
Discussion of the Averaging Approximation
194(2)
Averaging the Capacitor Waveforms
196(1)
The Average Input Current
197(1)
Perturbation and Linearization
197(4)
Construction of the Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit Model
201(1)
Discussion of the Perturbation and Linearization Step
202(2)
Results for Several Basic Converters
204(1)
Example: A Nonideal Flyback Converter
204(9)
State-Space Averaging
213(13)
The State Equations of a Network
213(3)
The Basic State-Space Averaged Model
216(1)
Discussion of the State-Space Averaging Result
217(4)
Example: State-Space Averaging of a Nonideal Buck-Boost Converter
221(5)
Circuit Averaging and Averaged Switch Modeling
226(21)
Obtaining a Time-Invariant Circuit
228(1)
Circuit Averaging
229(3)
Perturbation and Linearization
232(3)
Switch Networks
235(7)
Example: Averaged Switch Modeling of Conduction Losses
242(2)
Example: Averaged Switch Modeling of Switching Losses
244(3)
The Canonical Circuit Model
247(6)
Development of the Canonical Circuit Model
248(2)
Example: Manipulation of the Buck-Boost Converter Model into Canonical Form
250(2)
Canonical Circuit Parameter Values for Some Common Converters
252(1)
Modeling the Pulse-Width Modulator
253(3)
Summary of Key Points
256(9)
References
257(1)
Problems
258(7)
Converter Transfer Functions
265(66)
Review of Bode Plots
267(26)
Single Pole Response
269(6)
Single Zero Response
275(1)
Right Half-Plane Zero
276(1)
Frequency Inversion
277(1)
Combinations
278(4)
Quadratic Pole Response: Resonance
282(5)
The Low-Q Approximation
287(2)
Approximate Roots of an Arbitrary-Degree Polynomial
289(4)
Analysis of Converter Transfer Functions
293(9)
Example: Transfer Functions of the Buck-Boost Converter
294(6)
Transfer Functions of Some Basic CCM Converters
300(1)
Physical Origins of the RHP Zero in Converters
300(2)
Graphical Construction of Impedances and Transfer Functions
302(11)
Series Impedances: Addition of Asymptotes
303(2)
Series Resonant Circuit Example
305(3)
Parallel Impedances: Inverse Addition of Asymptotes
308(1)
Parallel Resonant Circuit Example
309(2)
Voltage Divider Transfer Functions: Division of Asymptotes
311(2)
Graphical Construction of Converter Transfer Functions
313(4)
Measurement of AC Transfer Functions and Impedances
317(4)
Summary of Key Points
321(10)
References
322(1)
Problems
322(9)
Controller Design
331(46)
Introduction
331(3)
Effect of Negative Feedback on the Network Transfer Functions
334(3)
Feedback Reduces the Transfer Functions from Disturbances to the Output
335(2)
Feedback Causes the Transfer Function from the Reference Input to the Output to be Insensitive to Variations in the Gains in the Forward Path of the Loop
337(1)
Construction of the Important Quantities 1/(1 + T) and T/(1 + T) and the Closed-Loop Transfer Functions
337(3)
Stability
340(7)
The Phase Margin Test
341(1)
The Relationship Between Phase Margin and Closed-Loop Damping Factor
342(4)
Transient Response vs. Damping Factor
346(1)
Regulator Design
347(15)
Lead (PD) Compensator
348(3)
Lag (PI) Compensator
351(2)
Combined (PID) Compensator
353(1)
Design Example
354(8)
Measurement of Loop Gains
362(7)
Voltage Injection
364(3)
Current Injection
367(1)
Measurement of Unstable Systems
368(1)
Summary of Key Points
369(8)
References
369(1)
Problems
369(8)
Input Filter Design
377(32)
Introduction
377(4)
Conducted EMI
377(2)
The Input Filter Design Problem
379(2)
Effect of an Input Filter on Converter Transfer Functions
381(4)
Discussion
382(2)
Impedance Inequalities
384(1)
Buck Converter Example
385(7)
Effect of Undamped Input Filter
385(6)
Damping the Input Filter
391(1)
Design of a Damped Input Filter
392(11)
Rf-Cb Parallel Damping
395(1)
Rf-Lb Parallel Damping
396(2)
Rf-Lb Series Damping
398(1)
Cascading Filter Sections
398(2)
Example: Two Stage Input Filter
400(3)
Summary of Key Points
403(6)
References
405(1)
Problems
406(3)
AC and DC Equivalent Circuit Modeling of the Discontinuous Conduction Mode
409(30)
DCM Averaged Switch Model
410(10)
Small-Signal AC Modeling of the DCM Switch Network
420(11)
Example: Control-to-Output Frequency Response of a DCM Boost Converter
428(1)
Example: Control-to-Output Frequency Responses of a CCM/DCM SEPIC
429(2)
High-Frequecy Dynamics of Converters in DCM
431(3)
Summary of Key Points
434(5)
References
434(1)
Problems
435(4)
Current Programmed Control
439(50)
Oscillation for D > 0.5
441(8)
A Simple First-Order Model
449(10)
Simple Model via Algebraic Approach: Buck-Boost Example
450(4)
Averaged Switch Modeling
454(5)
A More Accurate Model
459(14)
Current-Programmed Controller Model
459(3)
Solution of the CPM Transfer Functions
462(3)
Discussion
465(1)
Current-Programmed Transfer Functions of the CCM Buck Converter
466(3)
Results for Basic Converters
469(2)
Quantitative Effects of Current-Programmed Control on the Converter Transfer Functions
471(2)
Discontinuous Conduction Mode
473(7)
Summary of Key Points
480(9)
References
481(1)
Problems
482(7)
III Magnetics 489(98)
Basic Magnetics Theory
491(48)
Review of Basic Magnetics
491(10)
Basic Relationships
491(7)
Magnetic Circuits
498(3)
Transformer Modeling
501(5)
The Ideal Transformer
502(1)
The Magnetizing Inductance
502(2)
Leakage Inductances
504(2)
Loss Mechanisms in Magnetic Devices
506(2)
Core Loss
506(2)
Low-Frequency Copper Loss
508(1)
Eddy Currents in Winding Conductors
508(17)
Introduction to the Skin and Proximity Effects
508(4)
Leakage Flux in Windings
512(2)
Foil Windings and Layers
514(1)
Power Loss in a Layer
515(3)
Example: Power Loss in a Transformer Winding
518(2)
Interleaving the Windings
520(2)
PWM Waveform Harmonics
522(3)
Several Types of Magnetic Devices, Their B-H Loops, and Core vs. Copper Loss
525(6)
Filter Inductor
525(2)
AC Inductor
527(1)
Transformer
528(1)
Coupled Inductor
529(1)
Flyback Transformer
530(1)
Summary of Key Points
531(8)
References
532(1)
Problems
533(6)
Inductor Design
539(26)
Filter Inductor Design Constraints
539(5)
Maximum Flux Density
541(1)
Inductance
542(1)
Winding Area
542(1)
Winding Resistance
543(1)
The Core Geometrical Constant Kg
543(1)
A Step-by-Step Procedure
544(1)
Multiple-Winding Magnetics Design via the Kg Method
545(9)
Window Area Allocation
545(5)
Coupled Inductor Design Constraints
550(2)
Design Procedure
552(2)
Examples
554(8)
Coupled Inductor for a Two-Output Forward Converter
554(3)
CCM Flyback Transformer
557(5)
Summary of Key Points
562(3)
References
562(1)
Problems
563(2)
Transformer Design
565(22)
Transformer Design: Basic Constraints
565(5)
Core Loss
566(1)
Flux Density
566(1)
Copper Loss
567(1)
Total Power Loss vs. δB
568(1)
Optimum Flux Density
569(1)
A Step-by-Step Transformer Design Procedure
570(3)
Examples
573(7)
Example 1: Single-Output Isolated Cuk Converter
573(3)
Example 2: Multiple-Output Full-Bridge Buck Converter
576(4)
AC Inductor Design
580(3)
Outline of Derivation
580(2)
Step-by-Step AC Inductor Design Procedure
582(1)
Summary
583(4)
References
583(1)
Problems
584(3)
IV Modern Rectifiers and Power System Harmonics 587(116)
Power and Harmonics in Nonsinusoidal Systems
589(20)
Average Power
590(3)
Root-Mean-Square (RMS) Value of a Waveform
593(1)
Power Factor
594(4)
Linear Resistive Load, Nonsinusoidal Voltage
594(1)
Nonlinear Dynamic Load, Sinusoidal Voltage
595(3)
Power Phasors in Sinusoidal Systems
598(1)
Harmonic Currents in Three-Phase Systems
599(4)
Harmonic Currents in Three-Phase Four-Wire Networks
599(2)
Harmonic Currents in Three-Phase Three-Wire Networks
601(1)
Harmonic Current Flow in Power Factor Correction Capacitors
602(1)
AC Line Current Harmonic Standards
603(6)
International Electrotechnical Commission Standard 1000
603(1)
IEEE/ANSI Standard 519
604(1)
Bibliography
605(1)
Problems
605(4)
Line-Commutated Rectifiers
609(28)
The Single-Phase Full-Wave Rectifier
609(6)
Continuous Conduction Mode
610(1)
Discontinuous Conduction Mode
611(1)
Behavior when C is Large
612(1)
Minimizing THD when C is Small
613(2)
The Three-Phase Bridge Rectifier
615(2)
Continuous Conduction Mode
615(1)
Discontinuous Conduction Mode
616(1)
Phase Control
617(5)
Inverter Mode
619(1)
Harmonics and Power Factor
619(1)
Commutation
620(2)
Harmonic Trap Filters
622(6)
Transformer Connections
628(2)
Summary
630(7)
References
631(1)
Problems
632(5)
Pulse-Width Modulated Rectifiers
637(66)
Properties of the Ideal Rectifier
638(2)
Realization of a Near-Ideal Rectifier
640(8)
CCM Boost Converter
642(4)
DCM Flyback Converter
646(2)
Control of the Current Waveform
648(15)
Average Current Control
648(6)
Current Programmed Control
654(3)
Critical Conduction Mode and Hysteretic Control
657(2)
Nonlinear Carrier Control
659(4)
Single-Phase Converter Systems Incorporating Ideal Rectifiers
663(10)
Energy Storage
663(5)
Modeling the Outer Low-Bandwidth Control System
668(5)
RMS Values of Rectifier Waveforms
673(5)
Boost Rectifier Example
674(2)
Comparison of Single-Phase Rectifier Topologies
676(2)
Modeling Losses and Efficiency in CCM High-Quality Rectifiers
678(7)
Expression for Controller Duty Cycle d(t)
679(2)
Expression for the DC Load Current
681(2)
Solution for Converter Efficiency η
683(1)
Design Example
684(1)
Ideal Three-Phase Rectifiers
685(6)
Summary of Key Points
691(12)
References
692(4)
Problems
696(7)
V Resonant Converters 703(100)
Resonant Conversion
705(56)
Sinusoidal Analysis of Resonant Converters
709(6)
Controlled Switch Network Model
710(1)
Modeling the Rectifier and Capacitive Filter Networks
711(2)
Resonant Tank Network
713(1)
Solution of Converter Voltage Conversion Ratio M = V/Vg
714(1)
Examples
715(6)
Series Resonant DC-DC Converter Example
715(2)
Subharmonic Modes of the Series Resonant Converter
717(1)
Parallel Resonant DC-DC Converter Example
718(3)
Soft Switching
721(5)
Operation of the Full Bridge Below Resonance: Zero-Current Switching
722(1)
Operation of the Full Bridge Above Resonance: Zero-Voltage Switching
723(3)
Load-Dependent Properties of Resonant Converters
726(14)
Inverter Output Characteristics
727(2)
Dependence of Transistor Current on Load
729(5)
Dependence of the ZVS/ZCS Boundary on Load Resistance
734(3)
Another Example
737(3)
Exact Characteristics of the Series and Parallel Resonant Converters
740(12)
Series Resonant Converter
740(8)
Parallel Resonant Converter
748(4)
Summary of Key Points
752(9)
References
752(3)
Problems
755(6)
Soft Switching
761(42)
Soft-Switching Mechanisms of Semiconductor Devices
762(6)
Diode Switching
763(2)
MOSFET Switching
765(3)
IGBT Switching
768(1)
The Zero-Current-Switching Quasi-Resonant Switch Cell
768(13)
Waveforms of the Half-Wave ZCS Quasi-Resonant Switch Cell
770(4)
The Average Terminal Waveforms
774(5)
The Full-Wave ZCS Quasi-Resonant Switch Cell
779(2)
Resonant Switch Topologies
781(9)
The Zero-Voltage-Switching Quasi-Resonant Switch
783(1)
The Zero-Voltage-Switching Multi-Resonant Switch
784(3)
Quasi-Square-Wave Resonant Switches
787(3)
Soft Switching in PWM Converters
790(7)
The Zero-Voltage Transition Full-Bridge Converter
791(3)
The Auxiliary Switch Approach
794(2)
Auxiliary Resonant Commutated Pole
796(1)
Summary of Key Points
797(6)
References
798(2)
Problems
800(3)
Appendices 803(68)
Appendix A RMS Values of Commonly-Observed Converter Waveforms
805(8)
A.1 Some Common Waveforms
805(4)
A.2 General Piecewise Waveform
809(4)
Appendix B Simulation of Converters
813(30)
B.1 Averaged Switch Models for Continuous Conduction Mode
815(1)
B.1.1 Basic CCM Averaged Switch Model
815(1)
B.1.2 CCM Subcircuit Model that Includes Switch Conduction Losses
816(2)
B.1.3 Example: SEPIC DC Conversion Ratio and Efficiency
818(1)
B.1.4 Example: Transient Response of a Buck-Boost Converter
819(3)
B.2 Combined CCM/DCM Averaged Switch Model
822(3)
B.2.1 Example: SEPIC Frequency Responses
825(2)
B.2.2 Example: Loop Gain and Closed-Loop Responses of a Buck Voltage Regulator
827(5)
B.2.3 Example: DCM Boost Rectifier
832(2)
B.3 Current Programmed Control
834(1)
B.3.1 Current Programmed Mode Model for Simulation
834(3)
B.3.2 Example: Frequency Responses of a Buck Converter with Current Programmed Control
837(3)
References
840(3)
Appendix C Middlebrook's Extra Element Theorem
843(20)
C.1 Basic Result
843(3)
C.2 Derivation
846(3)
C.3 Discussion
849(1)
C.4 Examples
850(1)
C.4.1 A Simple Transfer Function
850(5)
C.4.2 An Unmodeled Element
855(2)
C.4.3 Addition of an Input Filter to a Converter
857(2)
C.4.4 Dependence of Transistor Current on Load in a Resonant Inverter
859(2)
References
861(2)
Appendix D Magnetics Design Tables
863(8)
D.1 Pot Core Data
864(1)
D.2 EE Core Data
865(1)
D.3 EC Core Data
866(1)
D.4 ETD Core Data
866(1)
D.5 PQ Core Data
867(1)
D.6 American Wire Gauge Data
868(1)
References
869(2)
Index 871

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