# Fundamentals of Statistics

**by**Sullivan, Michael, III

### 9780321641878

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## Summary

## Author Biography

With training in mathematics, statistics, and economics, **Mike Sullivan, III** has a varied teaching background that includes 15 years of instruction in both high school and college-level mathematics. He is currently a full-time professor of mathematics and statistics at Joliet Junior College. Mike has numerous textbooks in publication in addition to his Introductory Statistics Series, which include a Developmental Math series, and a Precalculus series, which he writes with his father, Michael Sullivan. Mike has built this book in the classroom using feedback from his students. He is well aware of the challenges of students taking an introductory statistics course. His goal is for students to be more informed interpreters of data, so that they will be better decision makers and have stronger critical-thinking skills. When not in the classroom or writing, Mike enjoys spending time with his three children, Michael, Kevin, and Marissa, and playing golf.

## Table of Contents

Preface to the Instructor

Supplements

Technology Resources

An Introduction to the Applets

Applications Index

**PART I. GETTING THE INFORMATION YOU NEED**

**1. Data Collection**

1.1 Introduction to the Practice of Statistics

1.2 Observational Studies and Experiments

1.3 Simple Random Sampling

1.4 Other Effective Sampling Methods

1.5 Bias in Sampling

1.6 The Design of Experiments

Chapter Review

Chapter Test

Making an Informed Decision: What Movie Should I Go To?

Case Study: Chrysalises for Cash (On CD)

**PART II: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS**

**2. Creating Tables and Drawing Pictures of Data**

2.1 Organizing Qualitative Data

2.2 Organizing Quantitative Data

2.3 Graphical Misrepresentations of Data

Chapter Review

Chapter Test

Making an Informed Decision: Tables or Graphs?

Case Study: The Day the Sky Roared (On CD)

**3. Numerically Summarizing Data**

3.1 Measures of Central Tendency

3.2 Measures of Dispersion

3.3 Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion from Grouped Data

3.4 Measures of Position and Outliers

3.5 The Five-Number Summary and Boxplots

Chapter Review

Chapter Test

Making an Informed Decision: What Car Should I Buy?

Case Study: Who Was "A Mourner"? (On CD)

**4. Describing the Relation Between Two Variables**

4.1 Scatter Diagrams and Correlation

4.2 Least-Squares Regression

4.3 The Coefficient of Determination

Chapter Review

Chapter Test

Making an Informed Decision: What Car Should I Buy? Part II

Case Study: Thomas Malthus, Population, and Subsistence (On CD)

**PART III: PROBABILITY AND PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS**

**5. Probability**

5.1 Probability Rules

5.2 The Addition Rule and Complements

5.3 Independence and the Multiplication Rule

5.4 Conditional Probability and the General Multiplication Rule

5.5 Counting Techniques

5.6 Putting It Together: Probability

Chapter Review

Chapter Test

Making an Informed Decision: Sports Probabilities

Case Study: The Case of the Body in the Bag (On CD)

**6. Discrete Probability Distributions**

6.1 Discrete Random Variables

6.2 The Binomial Probability Distribution

Chapter Review

Chapter Test

Making an Informed Decision: Should We Convict?

Case Study: The Voyage of the St. Andrew (On CD)

**7. The Normal Probability Distribution**

7.1 Properties of the Normal Distribution

7.2 The Standard Normal Distribution

7.3 Applications of the Normal Distribution

7.4 Assessing Normality

7.5 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Probability Distribution

Chapter Review

Chapter Test

Making an Informed Decision: Join the Club

Case Study: A Tale of Blood, Chemistry, and Health (on CD)

**PART IV: INFERENCE–FROM SAMPLES TO POPULATION**

**8. Sampling Distributions**

8.1 Distribution of the Sample Mean

8.2 Distribution of the Sample Proportion

Chapter Review

Chapter Test

Making an Informed Decision: How Much Time Do You Spend in a Day&?

Case Study: Sampling Distribution of the Median (On CD)

**9. Estimating the Value of a Parameter Using Confidence Intervals**

9.1 The Logic in Constructing Confidence Intervals about a Population Mean Where the Population Standard Deviation is Known

9.2 Confidence Intervals about a Population Mean Where the Population Standard Deviation is Unknown

9.3 Confidence Intervals about a Population Proportion

9.4 Putting It Together: Which Method Do I Use?

Chapter Review

Chapter Test

Making an Informed Decision: What's Your Major?

Case Study: When Model Requirements Fail (On CD)

**10. Hypothesis Tests Regarding a Parameter**

10.1 The Language of Hypothesis Testing

10.2 Hypothesis Tests for a Population Mean–Population Standard Deviation is Known

10.3 Hypothesis Tests for a Population Mean–Population Standard Deviation is Unknown

10.4 Hypothesis Tests for a Population Proportion

10.5 Putting It Together: Which Method Do I Use?

Chapter Review

Chapter Test

Making an Informed Decision: What Does It Really Weigh?

Case Study: How Old Is Stonehenge? (On CD)

**11. Inference on Two Samples**

11.1 Inference about Two Means: Dependent Samples

11.2 Inference about Two Means: Independent Samples

11.3 Inference about Two Proportions

11.4 Putting It Together: Which Method Do I Use?

Chapter Review

Chapter Test

Making an Informed Decision: Where Should I Invest?

Case Study: Control in the Design of Experiment (On CD)

**12. Additional Inferential Procedures**

12.1 Goodness of Fit Test

12.2 Tests for Independence and the Homogeneity of Proportions

12.3 Testing the Significance of the Least-Squares Regression Model

12.4 Confidence and Prediction Intervals

Chapter Review

Chapter Test

Making an Informed Decision: Benefits of College

Case Study: Feeling Lucky? Well, Are You? (on CD)

Additional Topics on CD-ROM

**C.1 Lines**

**C.2 Confidence Intervals about a Population Standard Deviation**

**C.3 Hypothesis Tests for a Population Standard Deviation**

**C.4 Comparing Three or More Means (One-Way Analysis of Variance)**

Appendix A. Tables

Answers

Index