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Fundamentals of Web Development

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780133407150

ISBN10:
0133407152
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/25/2014
Publisher(s):
Addison-Wesley
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Summary

Fundamentals of Web Development covers the broad range of topics required for modern web development (both client- and server-side) and is appropriate for students who have taken a CS1 course sequence.


The book guides students through the creation of enterprise-quality websites using current development frameworks, its comprehensive coverage of a modern internet development platform┐includes HTML5, CSS3, Javascript, and the LAMP stack (that is, Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP). Other important technologies covered include jQuery, XML, WordPress, Bootstrap, and a variety of third-party APIs that include Facebook, Twitter, and Google and Bing Maps. Coverage also includes the required ACM web development topics in a modern manner closely aligned with best practices in the real world┐of web development.

Teaching and Learning Experience

  • Help students master the fundamentals of web development:┐A true grasp of web development requires an understanding of both the foundations of the web and current web development practices.
  • Support learning outcomes in various teaching scenarios:┐This book allows instructors to chart their own unique way through the topics that make up contemporary web development.

Table of Contents

Preface xxxiii
Acknowledgments xl
Chapter 1 How the Web Works 1
1.1 Definitions and History 2
A Short History of the Internet 2
The Birth of the Web 4
Web Applications in Comparison to Desktop Applications 6
Static Websites versus Dynamic Websites 8
Web 2.0 and Beyond 9
1.2 Internet Protocols 11
A Layered Architecture 12
Link Layer 12
Internet Layer 13
Transport Layer 15
Application Layer 16
1.3 The Client-Server Model 16
The Client 17
The Server 17
The Request-Response Loop 17
The Peer-to-Peer Alternative 18
Server Types 18
Real-World Server Installations 20
1.4 Where Is the Internet? 23
From the Computer to the Local Provider 24
From the Local Provider to the Ocean’s Edge 26
Across the Oceans 29
1.5 Domain Name System 30
Name Levels 32
Name Registration 34
Address Resolution 34
1.6 Uniform Resource Locators 38
Protocol 38
Domain 39
Port 39
Path 39
Query String 39
Fragment 39
1.7 Hypertext Transfer Protocol 40
Headers 42
Request Methods 44
Response Codes 45
1.8 Web Servers 46
Operating Systems 47
Web Server Software 47
Database Software 48
Scripting Software 48
1.9 Chapter Summary 48
Key Terms 49
Review Questions 49
References 50

Chapter 2 Introduction to HTML 52
2.1 What Is HTML and Where Did It Come from? 53
XHTML 55
HTML5 57
2.2 HTML Syntax 59
Elements and Attributes 59
Nesting HTML Elements 60
2.3 Semantic Markup 62
2.4 Structure of HTML Documents 64
DOCTYPE 65
Head and Body 66
2.5 Quick Tour of HTML Elements 68
Headings 68
Paragraphs and Divisions 72
Links 72
URL Relative Referencing 74
Inline Text Elements 78
Images 78
Character Entities 79
Lists 80
2.6 HTML5 Semantic Structure Elements 81
Header and Footer 81
Heading Groups 84
Navigation 84
Articles and Sections 85
Figure and Figure Captions 87
Aside 89
2.7 Chapter Summary 89
Key Terms 89
Review Questions 90
Hands-On Practice 90

Chapter 3 Introduction to CSS 95
3.1 What Is CSS? 96
Benefits of CSS 96
CSS Versions 96
Browser Adoption 97
3.2 CSS Syntax 98
Selectors 99
Properties 99
Values 100
3.3 Location of Styles 103
Inline Styles 103
Embedded Style Sheet 104
External Style Sheet 104
3.4 Selectors 105
Element Selectors 106
Class Selectors 106
Id Selectors 107
Attribute Selectors 110
Pseudo-Element and Pseudo-Class Selectors 112
Contextual Selectors 114
3.5 The Cascade: How Styles Interact 116
Inheritance 116
Specificity 116
Location 119
3.6 The Box Model 122
Background 123
Borders 124
Margins and Padding 125
Box Dimensions 128
3.7 CSS Text Styling 134
Font Family 134
Font Sizes 136
Paragraph Properties 138
3.8 Chapter Summary 140
Key Terms 141
Review Questions 141
Hands-On Practice 142
References 147

Chapter 4 HTML Tables and Forms 148
4.1 Introducing Tables 149
Basic Table Structure 149
Spanning Rows and Columns 150
Additional Table Elements 151
Using Tables for Layout 152
4.2 Styling Tables 155
Table Borders 155
Boxes and Zebras 156
4.3 Introducing Forms 158
Form Structure 159
How Forms Work 160
Query Strings 161
The <form> Element 162
4.4 Form Control Elements 163
Text Input Controls 165
Choice Controls 167
Button Controls 169
Specialized Controls 171
Date and Time Controls 172
4.5 Table and Form Accessibility 174
Accessible Tables 175
Accessible Forms 176
4.6 Microformats 177
4.7 Chapter Summary 178
Key Terms 179
Review Questions 179
Hands-On Practice 180

Chapter 5 Advanced CSS: Layout 184
5.1 Normal Flow 185
5.2 Positioning Elements 188
Relative Positioning 188
Absolute Positioning 189
Z-Index 190
Fixed Position 191
5.3 Floating Elements 193
Floating within a Container 193
Floating Multiple Items Side by Side 195
Containing Floats 198
Overlaying and Hiding Elements 199
5.4 Constructing Multicolumn Layouts 203
Using Floats to Create Columns 204
Using Positioning to Create Columns 207
5.5 Approaches to CSS Layout 209
Fixed Layout 210
Liquid Layout 211
Other Layout Approaches 213
5.6 Responsive Design 214
Setting Viewports 215
Media Queries 218
5.7 CSS Frameworks 220
Grid Systems 220
CSS Preprocessors 222
5.8 Chapter Summary 225
Key Terms 225
Review Questions 225
Hands-On Practice 226

Chapter 6 JavaScript: Client-Side Scripting 230
6.1 What Is JavaScript and What Can It Do? 231
Client-Side Scripting 232
JavaScript’s History and Uses 235
6.2 JavaScript Design Principles 240
Layers 241
Users without JavaScript 243
Graceful Degradation and Progressive Enhancement 247
6.3 Where Does JavaScript Go? 247
Inline JavaScript 249
Embedded JavaScript 249
External JavaScript 250
Advanced Inclusion of JavaScript 250
6.4 Syntax 251
Variables 252
Comparison Operators 252
Logical Operators 253
Conditionals 253
Loops 254
Functions 255
Errors Using Try and Catch 256
6.5 JavaScript Objects 257
Constructors 257
Properties 258
Objects Included in JavaScript 258
Window Object 261
6.6 The Document Object Model (DOM) 261
Nodes 262
Document Object 263
Element Node Object 265
Modifying a DOM Element 265
Additional Properties 268
6.7 JavaScript Events 268
Inline Event Handler Approach 268
Listener Approach 270
Event Object 271
Event Types 272
6.8 Forms 276
Validating Forms 276
Submitting Forms 278
6.9 Chapter Summary 278
Key Terms 278
Review Questions 279
Hands-On Practice 279
References 282

Chapter 7 Web Media 283
7.1 Digital Representations of Images 284
7.2 Color Models 288
RGB 288
CMYK 289
HSL 291
Opacity 292
Color Relationships 292
7.3 Image Concepts 296
Color Depth 296
Image Size 297
Display Resolution 301
7.4 File Formats 302
JPEG 302
GIF 303
PNG 308
SVG 308
Other Formats 310
7.5 Audio and Video 310
Media Concepts 310
Browser Video Support 312
Browser Audio Support 313
7.6 HTML5 Canvas 315
7.7 Chapter Summary 317
Key Terms 317
Review Questions 317
Hands-On Practice 318

Chapter 8 Introduction to Server-Side Development with PHP 322
8.1 What Is Server-Side Development? 323
Comparing Client and Server Scripts 323
Server-Side Script Resources 323
Comparing Server-Side Technologies 325
8.2 A Web Server’s Responsibilities 328
Apache and Linux 329
Apache and PHP 330
PHP Internals 332
Installing Apache, PHP, and MySQL for Local Development 334
8.3 Quick Tour of PHP 336
PHP Tags 336
PHP Comments 337
Variables, Data Types, and Constants 339
Writing to Output 342
8.4 Program Control 346
if . . . else 346
switch . . . case 347
while and do . . . while 348
for 349
Alternate Syntax for Control Structures 349
Include Files 350
8.5 Functions 351
Function Syntax 352
Calling a Function 353
Parameters 353
Variable Scope within Functions 356
8.6 Chapter Summary 358
Key Terms 358
Review Questions 358
Hands-On Practice 359
References 363

Chapter 9 PHP Arrays and Superglobals 364
9.1 Arrays 365
Defining and Accessing an Array 365
Multidimensional Arrays 367
Iterating through an Array 367
Adding and Deleting Elements 369
Array Sorting 371
More Array Operations 372
Superglobal Arrays 373
9.2 $_GET and $_POST Superglobal Arrays 374
Determining If Any Data Sent 375
Accessing Form Array Data 378
Using Query Strings in Hyperlinks 379
Sanitizing Query Strings 380
9.3 $_SERVER Array 382
Server Information Keys 383
Request Header Information Keys 383
9.4 $_FILES Array 385
HTML Required for File Uploads 385
Handling the File Upload in PHP 386
Checking for Errors 388
File Size Restrictions 388
Limiting the Type of File Upload 390
Moving the File 391
9.5 Reading/Writing Files 392
Stream Access 392
In-Memory File Access 393
9.6 Chapter Summary 395
Key Terms 395
Review Questions 395
Hands-On Practice 396
References 401

Chapter 10 PHP Classes and Objects 402
10.1 Object-Oriented Overview 403
Terminology 403
The Unified Modeling Language 403
Differences between Server and Desktop Objects 404
10.2 Classes and Objects in PHP 407
Defining Classes 407
Instantiating Objects 408
Properties 408
Constructors 409
Methods 410
Visibility 412
Static Members 412
Class Constants 414
10.3 Object-Oriented Design 415
Data Encapsulation 415
Inheritance 420
Polymorphism 427
Object Interfaces 429
10.4 Chapter Summary 432
Key Terms 432
Review Questions 433
Hands-On Practice 433
References 435

Chapter 11 Working with Databases 436
11.1 Databases and Web Development 437
The Role of Databases in Web Development 437
Database Design 437
Database Options 443
11.2 SQL 445
SELECT Statement 445
INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE Statements 447
Transactions 448
Data Definition Statements 453
Database Indexes and Efficiency 453
11.3 Database APIs 454
PHP MySQL APIs 455
Deciding on a Database API 455
11.4 Managing a MySQL Database 456
Command-Line Interface 456
phpMyAdmin 457
MySQL Workbench 459
11.5 Accessing MySQL in PHP 460
Connecting to a Database 460
Handling Connection Errors 462
Executing the Query 464
Processing the Query Results 470
Freeing Resources and Closing Connection 474
Using Transactions 475
11.6 Case Study Schemas 476
Art Database 477
Book CRM Database 477
Travel Photo Sharing Database 478
11.7 Sample Database Techniques 479
Display a List of Links 479
Search and Results Page 480
Editing a Record 484
Saving and Displaying Raw Files in the Database 492
11.8 Chapter Summary 495
Key Terms 496
Review Questions 496
Hands-On Practice 496
References 502

Chapter 12 Error Handling and Validation 503
12.1 What Are Errors and Exceptions? 504
Types of Errors 504
Exceptions 506
12.2 PHP Error Reporting 506
The error_reporting Setting 507
The display_errors Setting 507
The log_error Setting 508
12.3 PHP Error and Exception Handling 509
Procedural Error Handling 509
Object-Oriented Exception Handling 509
Custom Error and Exception Handlers 512
12.4 Regular Expressions 513
Regular Expression Syntax 513
Extended Example 516
12.5 Validating User Input 519
Types of Input Validation 519
Notifying the User 520
How to Reduce Validation Errors 521
12.6 Where to Perform Validation 524
Validation at the JavaScript Level 528
Validation at the PHP Level 531
12.7 Chapter Summary 536
Key Terms 536
Review Questions 537
Hands-On Practice 537
References 540

Chapter 13 Managing State 541
13.1 The Problem of State in Web Applications 542
13.2 Passing Information via Query Strings 544
13.3 Passing Information via the URL Path 546
URL Rewriting in Apache and Linux 546
13.4 Cookies 547
How Do Cookies Work? 548
Using Cookies 550
Persistent Cookie Best Practices 550
13.5 Serialization 552
Application of Serialization 554
13.6 Session State 554
How Does Session State Work? 557
Session Storage and Configuration 558
13.7 HTML5 Web Storage 561
Using Web Storage 561
Why Would We Use Web Storage? 563
13.8 Caching 563
Page Output Caching 565
Application Data Caching 565
13.9 Chapter Summary 567
Key Terms 567
Review Questions 568
Hands-On Practice 568
References 572

Chapter 14 Web Application Design 573
14.1 Real-World Web Software Design 574
Challenges in Designing Web Applications 574
14.2 Principle of Layering 575
What Is a Layer? 575
Consequences of Layering 577
Common Layering Schemes 579
14.3 Software Design Patterns in the Web Context 585
Adapter Pattern 585
Simple Factory Pattern 589
Template Method Pattern 591
Dependency Injection 594
14.4 Data and Domain Patterns 595
Table Data Gateway Pattern 596
Domain Model Pattern 597
Active Record Pattern 601
14.5 Presentation Patterns 604
Model-View-Controller (MVC) Pattern 604
Front Controller Pattern 607
14.6 Chapter Summary 608
Key Terms 608
Review Questions 608
Hands-On Practice 609
References 610

Chapter 15 Advanced JavaScript & jQuery 613
15.1 JavaScript Pseudo-Classes 614
Using Object Literals 614
Emulate Classes through Functions 615
Using Prototypes 617
15.2 jQuery Foundations 619
Including jQuery in Your Page 620
jQuery Selectors 621
jQuery Attributes 624
jQuery Listeners 628
Modifying the DOM 629
15.3 AJAX 633
Making Asynchronous Requests 636
Complete Control over AJAX 642
Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) 643
15.4 Asynchronous File Transmission 644
Old iframe Workarounds 645
The FormData Interface 646
Appending Files to a POST 648
15.5 Animation 649
Animation Shortcuts 649
Raw Animation 651
15.6 Backbone MVC Frameworks 654
Getting Started with Backbone.js 655
Backbone Models 655
Collections 657
Views 657
15.7 Chapter Summary 660
Key Terms 660
Review Questions 660
Hands-On Practice 661
References 664

Chapter 16 Security 665
16.1 Security Principles 666
Information Security 666
Risk Assessment and Management 667
Security Policy 670
Business Continuity 670
Secure by Design 673
Social Engineering 675
16.2 Authentication 676
Authentication Factors 676
Single-Factor Authentication 677
Multifactor Authentication 677
Third-Party Authentication 678
Authorization 681
16.3 Cryptography 681
Substitution Ciphers 683
Public Key Cryptography 686
Digital Signatures 689
16.4 Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) 690
Secure Handshakes 690
Certificates and Authorities 691
16.5 Security Best Practices 694
Data Storage 694
Monitor Your Systems 698
Audit and Attack Thyself 700
16.6 Common Threat Vectors 701
SQL Injection 701
Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) 703
Insecure Direct Object Reference 707
Denial of Service 708
Security Misconfiguration 709
16.7 Chapter Summary 712
Key Terms 713
Review Questions 713
Hands-On Practice 714
References 716

Chapter 17 XML Processing and Web Services 718
17.1 XML Overview 719
Well-Formed XML 719
Valid XML 720
XSLT 723
XPath 725
17.2 XML Processing 727
XML Processing in JavaScript 727
XML Processing in PHP 729
17.3 JSON 734
Using JSON in JavaScript 734
Using JSON in PHP 736
17.4 Overview of Web Services 737
SOAP Services 738
REST Services 740
An Example Web Service 740
Identifying and Authenticating Service Requests 744
17.5 Consuming Web Services in PHP 745
Consuming an XML Web Service 746
Consuming a JSON Web Service 750
17.6 Creating Web Services 756
Creating an XML Web Service 757
Creating a JSON Web Service 764
17.7 Interacting Asynchronously with Web Services 767
Consuming Your Own Service 768
Using Google Maps 769
17.8 Chapter Summary 774
Key Terms 775
Review Questions 775
Hands-On Practice 775
References 780

Chapter 18 Content Management Systems 781
18.1 Managing Websites 782
Components of a Managed Website 782
18.2 Content Management Systems 784
Types of CMS 785
18.3 CMS Components 787
Post and Page Management 787
WYSIWYG Editors 789
Template Management 790
Menu Control 791
User Management and Roles 791
User Roles 792
Workflow and Version Control 794
Asset Management 796
Search 797
Upgrades and Updates 799
18.4 WordPress Technical Overview 800
Installation 800
File Structure 801
WordPress Nomenclature 803
Taxonomies 806
WordPress Template Hierarchy 807
18.5 Modifying Themes 809
Changing Themes in Dashboard 809
Creating a Child Theme (CSS Only) 810
Changing Theme Files 811
18.6 Customizing WordPress Templates 812
WordPress Loop 812
Core WordPress Classes 813
Template Tags 815
Creating a Page Template 817
Post Tags 819
18.7 Creating a Custom Post Type 820
Organization 821
Registering Your Post Type 822
Adding Post-Specific Fields 823
Saving Your Changes 823
Under the Hood 824
Displaying Our Post Type 826
18.8 Writing a Plugin 828
Getting Started 828
Hooks, Actions, and Filters 829
Activate Your Plugin 830
Output of the Plugin 830
Make It a Widget 831
18.9 Chapter Summary 832
Key Terms 833
Review Questions 833
Hands-On Practice 833
References 837

Chapter 19 Web Server Administration 838
19.1 Web Server—Hosting Options 839
Shared Hosting 839
Dedicated Hosting 842
Collocated Hosting 843
Cloud Hosting 844
19.2 Domain and Name Server Administration 845
Registering a Domain Name 846
Updating the Name Servers 848
DNS Record Types 849
Reverse DNS 851
19.3 Linux and Apache Configuration 851
Configuration 853
Daemons 853
Connection Management 855
Data Compression 857
Encryption and SSL 858
Managing File Ownership and Permissions 860
19.4 Apache Request and Response Management 861
Managing Multiple Domains on One Web Server 861
Handling Directory Requests 863
Responding to File Requests 864
URL Redirection 864
Managing Access with .htaccess 868
Server Caching 870
19.5 Web Monitoring and Analytics 872
Internal Monitoring 872
External Monitoring 874
Internal Analytics 874
Third-Party Analytics 875
Third-Party Support Tools 875
19.6 Chapter Summary 877
Key Terms 877
Review Questions 877
Hands-On Practice 878
References 880

Chapter 20 Search Engines 881
20.1 The History and Anatomy of Search Engines 882
Before Google 882
Search Engine Overview 883
20.2 Web Crawlers and Scrapers 885
Robots Exclusion Standard 887
Scrapers 888
20.3 Indexing and Reverse Indexing 889
20.4 PageRank and Result Order 890
20.5 White-Hat Search Engine Optimization 894
Title 894
Meta Tags 895
URLs 896
Site Design 898
Sitemaps 899
Anchor Text 900
Images 901
Content 901
20.6 Black-Hat SEO 902
Content Spamming 902
Link Spam 904
Other Spam Techniques 906
20.7 Chapter Summary 908
Key Terms 908
Review Questions 909
Hands-On Practice 909
References 913

Chapter 21 Social Network Integration 914
21.1 Social Networks 915
How Did We Get Here? 915
Common Characteristics 918
21.2 Social Network Integration 919
Basic Social Media Presence 920
Facebook’s Social Plugins 921
Open Graph 926
Google’s Plugins 928
Twitter’s Widgets 930
Advanced Social Network Integration 933
21.3 Monetizing Your Site with Ads 934
Web Advertising 101 934
Web Advertising Economy 937
21.4 Marketing Campaigns 938
Email Marketing 939
Physical World Marketing 943
21.5 Working in Web Development 945
Types of Web Development Companies 945
Roles and Skills 946
21.6 Chapter Summary 948
Key Terms 948
Review Questions 948
Hands-On Practice 949
References 953
Index 954



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