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Gangs: An Introduction provides a wide-ranging overview ideal for courses on gangs. Opening with a discussion of early research and perspectives from the late 1920s until the early 1970s, the book then moves on to cover sociological and legal definitions of gangs; daily life and risk and protective factors; race and immigration; female gang members; drug use and selling; violence and victimization; the cultural criminology of gangs; theories on gangs and gang behaviors; desistance; suppression, intervention, and prevention; and more.
* A focus on theories of gangs, rather than on criminological theories
* Original contributions to the gang literature
* An emphasis on evidence-based practices
* Examples of real-life court cases
* Interview excerpts from gang members, drawn from the author's research
*Media Check! sections in each chapter featuring examples from movies, documentaries, TV shows, and music
Bill Sanders is Professor in the School of Criminal Justice and Criminalistics at California State University, Los Angeles. He is the author of thirty publications on gangs, youth crime, substance use, and qualitative research methods, including Youth Crime and Youth Culture in the Inner City (2004).
Table of Contents
Preface Acknowledgments About the Author Introduction A History of Respectable Fears Estimating the Number of Gangs, Gang Members, and Gang Crimes Chapter 1. Early Research and Perspectives 18th- and 19th-Century Gangs Thrasher: The First Gang Researcher Gangs as Delinquent Subcultures Differential Opportunity Theory Lower-Class Culture and Adolescence Gangs as Near-Group Group Process and Gang Delinquency Roles within Gangs: Keiser and the Vice Lords Street Gangs and Street Workers Chapter 2. Definitions, Daily Life, Dynamics, and Risk Factors Sociological Definitions Legal Definitions What Gangs Are Not A Structured Typology Daily Life Positive and Negative Aspects Interrelated Dynamics Membership Organization Subgroups Intensity The Causes and Correlates Studies Protective Factors Chapter 3. Race, Migration, and Immigration A Brief Note on Race Relations in American History Black Gangs The Crips and Bloods Latino Gangs The People Nation and the Folks Nation A Typology of Mexican American Gangs Asian and Asian Pacific Islander Gangs Chinese Gangs Southeast Asian Gangs Filipino Gangs Native American Gangs White Gangs Skinheads Skinheads as Gangs Nazi Low Riders Chapter 4. Females Early Studies and Stereotypes Increases in Female Arrests and Incarceration Further Developments in Female Gang Research Differences and Similarities between Gang Females and Males The Number of Female Gangs and Gang Members Different Types of Female Gangs Female Gang Violence Sexual Victimization Identity, Femininity, Sexuality, and Respect Pregnancy and Motherhood Prosocial Functions and Post-Gang Lives Chapter 5. Drug Use and Sales Substance Use Patterns Alcohol Marijuana Other Illicit Drugs Attitudes about Hard Drug Use Drug Addiction Drug Selling Myths about Drug Selling Drug Sales and Violence Chapter 6. Violence and Victimization The Definition of Gang-Related Violence The Prevalence of Gang Violence Witness Intimidation Fighting Firearms Homicide Victimization Chapter 7. Style and Media Cultural Criminology The Importance of Style Interpreting Graffiti Gangsta Rap Homology, Diffusion, and Criminalization The Mass Media Moral Panics, Policy, and Other Outcomes The Internet Chapter 8. Theories on Gangs and Gang Behaviors Multiple Marginalization Enhancement, Selection, and Facilitation Hypotheses Gangs as Resistance Women's Liberation and Social Injury Hypotheses Marijuana Normalization Theoretical Miscellanea Control Theory Labeling Biosocial Perspectives on Gang Violence Threat Locura Subculture of Violence Masculinity Violence as Transcendence Grounded Culture Toward a Theory on Gang Fighting Chapter 9. Prison Gangs The Emergence of Prison Gangs The Number of Prison Gangs Prison Gangs Based on Race Aryan Brotherhood The Mexican Mafia Black Guerilla Family Differences and Similarities between Street and Prison Gangs The Relationship between Prison Gangs and Street Gangs Radicalization and Prison Gangs Prison Gang Misconduct Prison Guard Misconduct and Gangs Leaving Prison Gangs Recidivism Responding to Prison Gangs Chapter 10. Desistance and Leaving the Gang Desistance from Crime and Delinquency The Life-Course Perspective Identity and Agency Hooks for Change Displacement and Drug Use Desistance Miscellanea Leaving the Gang Violent Rituals Positions within the Gang and Gang Organization A Shift in Peer Network Affiliations A Reduction in Risk Behaviors and Victimization Family and Employment Routine Activities and Disposition Have They Really Left? Resisting Gangs Chapter 11. Public Health Aspects Gang Youth and Public Health Unsafe Sexual Behaviors and STIs Incarceration as Health Risk Symptoms of Mental Health Illness and Psychiatric Diagnoses Homelessness Injuries Health Miscellanea Nursing Intervention Toward a Public Health Agenda for Gang Youth Chapter 12. Gangs outside of the United States England Early Research South London, 1996-2002 Modern Investigations Eurogang Research Holland Germany France Spain Italy Northern Countries Russia Canada Israel Latin America Mexico The Caribbean Central America Brazil Australia China Chapter 13. Suppression, Intervention, and Prevention Suppression Gang Legislation Civil Gang Injunctions Police Gang Units Gang Cop Misconduct Boston Gun Project Diversion Intervention The Chicago Area Project Interventionists The Spergel Model The Comprehensive Strategy Problems with Citywide Approaches Homeboy Industries Cure Violence Truces Prevention Gang Resistance Education and Training (GREAT) Other Gang Educational Curricula Appendix References Credits Subject Index Author Index