9780333962787

Gender Negotiations Among Indians in Trinidad 1917-1947

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780333962787

  • ISBN10:

    0333962788

  • Format: Trade Book
  • Copyright: 2002-03-20
  • Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

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Summary

This book is about the struggles of female and male descendants of Indian indentured migrants in Trinidad in the first half of the twentieth century, each desiring to preserve some aspects of the gender system brought from India between 1845 and 1917, which were important to their continued definition of ethnic identity and community in Trinidad. At the same time the situation of migration allowed for challenges to the caste system of Hinduism and, for women and some men, new opportunities to confront the more restricting aspect of Indian patriarchy which followed them across the seas from India.

Author Biography

Patricia Mohammed is Head and Senior Lecturer, Mona Unit, Centre for Gender Development Studies, University of West Indies, Jamaica

Table of Contents

List of Tables and Figures
xi
Glossary xiii
Acknowledgements xx
Introduction
1(16)
Introduction
1(3)
Indian Migration to Trinidad
4(2)
The Idea of an Indian Community in Trinidad
6(3)
The Centrality of Gender in Identity Formation
9(3)
The Concept of Gender Negotiation
12(5)
Crossing the Black Water: From India to Trinidad, 1845--1917
17(37)
Introduction
17(2)
Ideological Hegemonies of Gender in India
19(4)
`Contestation of Ideological Hegemonies in India
23(2)
Anti-colonial and Anti-patriarchal Struggles in India
25(4)
The Context of Migration from India
29(8)
The `Indian Woman Question'
37(3)
The First Negotiations
40(7)
Caste and gender pollution
40(2)
Female reproduction and production
42(2)
Freedom and constraints within estate life
44(1)
Interracial liaisons and violent retaliations
44(2)
Female responses
46(1)
The Twice Outcaste Sex
47(7)
Gender in the Definition of Indian Identity in Trinidad
54(38)
Introduction
54(1)
The Colonial Order
55(4)
Statutory Definitions of Difference within the Colonial Order
59(3)
The Anti-colonial Discourse in Trinidad
62(1)
The Indo-Trinidadian Nationalist Struggle
63(6)
The Markers of Indian Ethnic Difference in Trinidad
69(10)
Entrances and exits
69(4)
Indian attitudes to the new society
73(2)
Visual markers
75(2)
Language and identity
77(2)
Cultural Stereotypes
79(1)
The Home versus the World: The Centrality of Gender
80(3)
Preservation of the Race
83(9)
Gender Dynamics in the Making of Community
92(42)
A Steady Labour Force
92(12)
From Estate Labour to Land Acquisition: Relocating Community
104(11)
Family Strategies
115(10)
Conclusion
125(2)
Appendices
Map of lots sold to villages of Lengua Village and surrounding areas
127(1)
Map of sugar and cocoa estates in Trinidad in the 19th and early 20th centuries
128(1)
Map of main towns and villages in the 19th and early 20th centuries in Trinidad
129(2)
Report of the Wages Committee of 1920
131(3)
The Reconfiguration of Masculinity and Femininity: Negotiating with Myth and Symbols
134(41)
Introduction
134(3)
Continuities and Correspondence
137(5)
Transmitters of Myth and Symbol
142(23)
Ritual religious occasions
142(7)
Orality and transmission of gender ideology
149(5)
Transmission through literary sources: Newspapers, lectures and debating societies
154(5)
Heroes and heroines of the silver screen
159(6)
Negotiating with Symbols of Patriarchy
165(3)
Patriarchal Symbols
168(6)
Conclusion
174(1)
Renegotiating Sexuality
175(40)
Introduction
175(2)
Colonial Attitudes to the Sexuality of Indians
177(5)
Christian Missionary Attitudes to Indian Morality and Sexuality
182(3)
Colonial and Christian Morality
185(1)
The Attitude to Indian Sexuality in Creole Trinidad
186(2)
Negotiation of Sexuality among Indians
188(14)
Violent confrontations
188(2)
Village sanctions and control
190(4)
Female Responses
194(8)
Male Responses to a Subverted Patriarchy
202(6)
Male Control of Female Sexuality
208(5)
Conclusion
213(2)
Family, Marriage and Love
215(47)
Introduction
215(2)
Nata Ke Bhai to Pariwaar: The Recreation of Family and Kinship Systems
217(9)
Internal Affairs: Marriage Negotiations in the Indian Community
226(21)
The arrangement of marriages
227(4)
Negotiating intimacy and gender relations in child marriages
231(2)
Breakdown in arranged marriages
233(1)
Successful arrangements
234(4)
Education and the deferral of arranged marriages
238(9)
From Respect to Romantic Love
247(11)
Compromises Between Parents and Children
258(2)
Conclusion
260(2)
The Troubled Legacy of History and Love
262(8)
Notes 270(29)
Bibliography 299(13)
Index 312

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